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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331934/characterization-and-release-profile-of-mn-al-bearing-deposits-in-drinking-water-distribution-systems
#1
Guiwei Li, Yuanxun Ding, Hongfu Xu, Junwei Jin, Baoyou Shi
Inorganic contaminants accumulation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is a great threat to water quality and safety. This work assessed the main risk factors for different water pipes and discovered the release profile of accumulated materials in a full scale distribution system frequently suffered from water discoloration problem. Physicochemical characterization of pipe deposits were performed using X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331918/dna-damage-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-exposed-to-environmentally-available-pahs-and-heavy-metals-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#2
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331716/bioremediation-of-cadmium-and-zinc-contaminated-soil-using-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#3
Weihua Peng, Xiaomin Li, Jingxiang Song, Wei Jiang, Yingying Liu, Wenhong Fan
Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising technique to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, Rhodobacter sphaeroides was used to bioremediate soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). The study found that the treatment reduced the overall bioavailable fractions (e.g., exchangeable and carbonate bound phases) of Cd and Zn. More stable fractions (e.g., Fe-Mn oxide, organic bound, and residual phases (only for Zn)) increased after bioremediation. A wheat seedling experiment revealed that the phytoavailability of Cd was reduced after bioremediation using R...
January 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331158/dietary-sources-of-energy-and-nutrients-in-the-contemporary-diet-of-inuit-adults-results-from-the-2007-08-inuit-health-survey
#4
Tiff-Annie Kenny, Xue Feng Hu, Harriet V Kuhnlein, Sonia D Wesche, Hing Man Chan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the major components of the contemporary Inuit diet and identify the primary sources of energy and essential nutrients. DESIGN: Dietary data were derived from the 24 h recall collected by the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) from 2007 to 2008. The population proportion method was used to determine the percentage contribution of each group. Unique food items/preparations (ninety-three country foods and 1591 market foods) were classified into eight country food groups and forty-one market food groups...
January 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331081/quantitative-fe-mri-determination-of-the-dynamics-of-psma-targeted-spions-discriminates-among-prostate-tumor-xenografts-based-on-their-psma-expression
#5
Laurel O Sillerud
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a quantitative MRI method for iron concentration magnetic resonance imaging suitable for measuring the delivery of targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to tumors. PURPOSE: To apply our newly developed [Fe]MRI method to the quantitative imaging in both space and time of the iron dynamics of anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) conjugated SPIONs within human prostate tumor xenografts in nude mice. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330823/metal-concentrations-in-tissues-of-gadwall-and-common-teal-from-miankaleh-and-gomishan-international-wetlands-iran
#6
Mohammad-Hosein Sinkakarimi, Lukasz J Binkowski, Mehdi Hassanpour, Ghasem Rajaei, Mohsen Ahmadpour, Jeffrey M Levengood
Miankaleh and Gomishan International Wetlands are important wintering areas for waterbirds in the Caspian Sea region. Previous studies revealed increased exposure to metals in some species of waterbirds using these wetlands. In this study, we examined concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in kidneys, liver, and pectoral muscle of wintering Gadwall (Anas strepera) and Common Teal (Anas crecca) collected in 2012. In addition, we measured concentrations of these elements in water and sediments from the collection sites...
January 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330818/trace-elements-in-four-freshwater-fish-from-a-mine-impacted-river-spatial-distribution-species-specific-accumulation-and-risk-assessment
#7
Yuyu Jia, Lin Wang, Junfei Cao, Shan Li, Zhaoguang Yang
The concentrations of 16 elements (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were determined in four fish species (Carassius auratus, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and Silurus asotus) collected in the Xiang River, a mine-impacted river in Southern China. The mean values of the elements analyzed in fish muscles were in the decreasing order of Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Sr > Al > Cu > Mn > Ba > As > Cr > Pb > Ni > V > Co > Cd...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330345/a-computational-simulation-study-to-determine-the-biomechanical-influence-of-posterior-condylar-offset-and-tibial-slope-in-cruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty
#8
K-T Kang, Y-G Koh, J Son, O-R Kwon, J-S Lee, S K Kwon
OBJECTIVES: Posterior condylar offset (PCO) and posterior tibial slope (PTS) are critical factors in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A computational simulation was performed to evaluate the biomechanical effect of PCO and PTS on cruciate retaining TKA. METHODS: We generated a subject-specific computational model followed by the development of ± 1 mm, ± 2 mm and ± 3 mm PCO models in the posterior direction, and -3°, 0°, 3° and 6° PTS models with each of the PCO models...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330341/biomechanics-of-coupled-motion-in-the-cervical-spine-during-simulated-whiplash-in-patients-with-pre-existing-cervical-or-lumbar-spinal-fusion-a-finite-element-study
#9
H Huang, R W Nightingale, A B C Dang
OBJECTIVES: Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. METHODS: A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329868/a-procedure-for-the-measurement-of-oxygen-consumption-rates-ocrs-in-red-wines-and-some-observations-about-the-influence-of-wine-initial-chemical-composition
#10
Almudena Marrufo-Curtido, Vanesa Carrascón, Mónica Bueno, Vicente Ferreira, Ana Escudero
The rates at which wine consumes oxygen are important technological parameters for whose measurement there are not accepted procedures. In this work, volumes of 8 wines are contacted with controlled volumes of air in air-tight tubes containing oxygen-sensors and are further agitated at 25 °C until O2 consumption is complete. Three exposure levels of O2 were used: low (10 mg/L) and medium or high (18 or 32 mg/L plus the required amount to oxidize all wine SO2). In each oxygen level, 2-4 independent segments following pseudo-first order kinetics were identified, plus an initial segment at which wine consumed O2 very fast...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329865/in-vitro-evaluation-of-dietary-compounds-to-reduce-mercury-bioavailability
#11
Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa
Mercury in foods, in inorganic form [Hg(II)] or as methylmercury (CH3Hg), can have adverse effects. Its elimination from foods is not technologically viable. To reduce human exposure, possible alternatives might be based on reducing its intestinal absorption. This study evaluates the ability of 23 dietary components to reduce the amount of mercury that is absorbed and reaches the bloodstream (bioavailability). We determined their effect on uptake of mercury in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium, exposed to Hg(II) and CH3Hg standards and to swordfish bioaccessible fractions...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329309/time-series-sightability-modeling-of-animal-populations
#12
Althea A ArchMiller, Robert M Dorazio, Katherine St Clair, John R Fieberg
Logistic regression models-or "sightability models"-fit to detection/non-detection data from marked individuals are often used to adjust for visibility bias in later detection-only surveys, with population abundance estimated using a modified Horvitz-Thompson (mHT) estimator. More recently, a model-based alternative for analyzing combined detection/non-detection and detection-only data was developed. This approach seemed promising, since it resulted in similar estimates as the mHT when applied to data from moose (Alces alces) surveys in Minnesota...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329270/toxicity-evaluation-of-individual-and-mixtures-of-nanoparticles-based-on-algal-chlorophyll-content-and-cell-count
#13
Kyung-Seok Ko, Dong-Chan Koh, In Chul Kong
The toxic effects of individual and binary mixtures of five metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated based on changes in two endpoints of algal growth: the cell count and chlorophyll content. Various effects were observed according to the concentration tested and type of NPs, and there were no significant differences in findings for the two endpoints. In general, ZnO NPs caused the greatest inhibition of algal growth, and Fe₂O₃ NPs the least. The EC50 for ZnO was 2.0 mg/L for the cell count and 2...
January 12, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329151/gadolinium-retention-brain-t1-hyperintensity-and-endogenous-metals-a-comparative-study-of-macrocyclic-versus-linear-gadolinium-chelates-in-renally-sensitized-rats
#14
Marlène Rasschaert, Andréa Emerit, Nathalie Fretellier, Cécile Factor, Philippe Robert, Jean-Marc Idée, Claire Corot
OBJECTIVES: This preclinical study was designed to compare gadolinium (Gd) brain uptake after repeated injections of a macrocyclic Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) (gadoterate meglumine) or 2 linear GBCAs (L-GBCAs) (gadobenate dimeglumine or gadodiamide) on a translational model of moderate renal impairment in rats. METHODS: The study was carried out in subtotally nephrectomized rats. Animals received 4 intravenous injections per week of GBCA (gadoterate meglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, or gadodiamide) for 5 weeks, resulting in a cumulative dose of 12 mmol/kg, followed by a 1-month injection-free period...
January 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329099/accumulation-patterns-and-risk-assessment-of-metals-and-metalloid-in-muscle-and-offal-of-free-range-chickens-cattle-and-goat-in-benin-city-nigeria
#15
Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Balazs Oroszlany, Isioma Tongo, Alex Ajeh Enuneku, Ogbeide Ozekeke, Martins Oshioriamhe Ainerua, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329088/metal-sorption-to-spodosol-bs-horizons-organic-matter-complexes-predominate
#16
Charlotta Tiberg, Carin Sjöstedt, Jon Petter Gustafsson
While metal sorption mechanisms have been studied extensively for soil surface horizons, little information exists for subsoils, for example Spodosol Bs horizons. Here the sorption of cadmium(II), copper(II) and lead(II) to seven Bs horizons from five sites was studied. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that cadmium(II) and lead(II) were bound as inner-sphere complexes to organic matter. Addition of o-phosphate (to 1 μmol l-1) did not result in any significant enhancement of metal sorption, nor did it influence EXAFS speciation...
January 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329081/presence-of-fe-al-binary-oxide-adsorbent-cake-layer-in-ceramic-membrane-filtration-and-their-impact-for-removal-of-ha-and-bsa
#17
Kyung-Jo Kim, Am Jang
To enhance the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in ceramic (Ce) membrane filtration, an iron-aluminum binary oxide (FAO) was applied to the ceramic membrane surface as the adsorbent cake layer, and it was compared with heated aluminum oxide (HAO) for the evaluation of the control of NOM. Both the HAO and FAO adsorbent cake layers efficiently removed the NOM regardless of NOM's hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in NOM for FAO was 1-1.12 times greater than that for HAO, which means FAO was more efficient in the removal of DOC in NOM...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329008/selective-formation-of-copper-nanoparticles-from-acid-mine-drainage-using-nanoscale-zerovalent-iron-particles
#18
R A Crane, D J Sapsford
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has been investigated for the selective formation of Cu nanoparticles from acid mine drainage (AMD) taken from a legacy mine site in the UK. Batch experiments were conducted containing unbuffered (pH 2.67 at t = 0) and pH buffered (pH < 3.1) AMD which were exposed to nZVI at 0.1-2.0 g/L. Results demonstrate that nZVI is selective for Cu, Cd and Al removal (>99.9% removal of all metals within 1 h when nZVI ≥ 1.0 g/L) from unbuffered AMD despite the coexistent of numerous other metals in the AMD, namely: Na, Ca, Mg, K, Mn and Zn...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328678/colossal-anisotropy-of-the-dynamic-magnetic-susceptibility-in-low-dimensional-nanocube-assemblies
#19
Erik Wetterskog, Christian Jonasson, Detlef-M Smilgies, Vincent Schaller, Christer Johansson, Peter Svedlindh
One of the ultimate goals of nanocrystal self-assembly is to transform nanoscale building blocks into a material that displays enhanced properties relative to the sum of its parts. Herein, we demonstrate that 1D needle shaped assemblies composed of Fe$_{3-\delta}$O$_4$ nanocubes display a significant augmentation of the magnetic susceptibility and dissipation as compared to 0D and 2D systems. The performance of the nanocube needles is highlighted by a colossal anisotropy factor defined as the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular magnetization components...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328635/adsorption-and-molecular-fractionation-of-dissolved-organic-matter-on-iron-bearing-mineral-matrices-of-varying-crystallinity
#20
Elizabeth K Coward, Tsutomu Ohno, Alain F Plante
Iron (Fe)-bearing mineral phases contribute disproportionately to adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM), due to their elevated chemical reactivity and specific surface area (SSA). However, the spectrum of Fe solid-phase speciation present in oxidation-reduction-active soils challenges analysis of SOM-mineral interactions and may induce differential molecular fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). This work used paired selective dissolution experiments and batch sorption of post-extraction residues to 1) quantify the contributions of Fe-bearing minerals of varying crystallinity to DOM sorption, and 2) characterize molecular fractionation using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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