Read by QxMD icon Read

Betaine AND Homocysteine

Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jose M Colomina, Pere Cavallé-Busquets, Sílvia Fernàndez-Roig, Pol Solé-Navais, Joan D Fernandez-Ballart, Mónica Ballesteros, Per M Ueland, Klaus Meyer, Michelle M Murphy
: The effect of the betaine: homocysteine methyltransferase BHMT c.716G>A (G: guanosine; A: adenosine) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BHMT pathway is unknown during pregnancy. We hypothesised that it impairs betaine to dimethylglycine conversion and that folate status modifies its effect. We studied 612 women from the Reus Tarragona Birth Cohort from ≤12 gestational weeks (GW) throughout pregnancy. The frequency of the variant BHMT c.716A allele was 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
Mengmeng Zhang, Hong Zhang, Huixian Li, Furao Lai, Xiaofeng Li, Yuqian Tang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
Betaine (BET) is a native compound widely studied as an antioxidant in agriculture and human health. However, the antioxidant mechanism of BET remains unclear. In this research, radical scavenging assays showed that BET had little free radical scavenging activity. However, the antioxidant activity of BET was confirmed by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and erythrocyte hemolysis assays. The results of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme activity determination kits showed that the antioxidant activity of BET was not due to the gene expression and activity of antioxidases...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yue Xu, Cunye Yan, Zongyao Hao, Jun Zhou, Song Fan, Sheng Tai, Cheng Yang, Li Zhang, Chaozhao Liang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The gene betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) has drawn much attention during the past decades. An increasing number of clinical and genetic investigations have supposed that BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism might be associated with risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. As no consistent conclusion has been achieved, we conducted an up-to-date summary of BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk through a meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The articles were collected from PubMed, Google Scholar, and CNKI (Chinese) databases up to December 2015...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Wu-Ping Sun, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Da Li, Yiming Zhou, Na-Na Chen, Ming Guo, Shi-Sheng Zhou
AIM: The present study was to compare the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the plasma methyl donors, choline and betaine. METHODS: Thirty adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups of equal size, and orally received purified water (C group), nicotinic acid (300 mg, NA group) or nicotinamide (300 mg, NM group). Plasma nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide, homocysteine, betaine and choline levels before and 1.5-h and 3-h post-dosing, plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine concentrations at 3-h post-dosing, and the urinary excretion of N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide during the test period were examined...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yu-Feng Du, Wei-Ping Luo, Fang-Yu Lin, Zhen-Qiang Lian, Xiong-Fei Mo, Bo Yan, Ming Xu, Wu-Qing Huang, Jing Huang, Cai-Xia Zhang
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Qian Zhang, Sandra J Bertics, N Daniel Luchini, Heather M White
Metabolizable methionine (Met) concentrations can be increased by feeding rumen-protected dl-Met or the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMBi). Hepatic responses to increasing concentrations of metabolizable Met as a result of supplementation of different Met sources have not been comparatively examined. The objective of this experiment was to examine the regulation of key genes for Met metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation in response to increasing concentrations of dl-Met or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) in bovine primary hepatocytes...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Jason L Robinson, Laura E McBreairty, Edward W Randell, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine is required for protein synthesis and provides a methyl group for >50 critical transmethylation reactions including creatine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis as well as DNA and protein methylation. However, the availability of methionine depends on dietary sources as well as remethylation of demethylated methionine (i.e., homocysteine) by the dietary methyl donors folate and choline (via betaine). By restricting dietary methyl supply, we aimed to determine the extent that dietary methyl donors contribute to methionine availability for protein synthesis and transmethylation reactions in neonatal piglets...
September 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Fang Xie, Yun Zhao, Jing Ma, Jing-Bo Gong, Shi-Da Wang, Liang Zhang, Xiu-Jie Gao, Ling-Jia Qian
Chronic stress is a risk factor in the development of cognitive decline and even Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous data demonstrated that the level of homocysteine (Hcy) was significantly elevated in the plasma of stressed animals, which suggests the possibility that Hcy is a link between stress and cognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cognitive function, plasma concentrations of Hcy, and the brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) level between rats with or without chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS)...
September 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Chul Won Ahn, Doo Sung Jun, Jong Deok Na, Yeo Jin Choi, Young Chul Kim
We investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of betaine in rats fed methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Intake of MCD for 3 wk resulted in a significant accumulation of hepatic lipids, which was prevented by betaine supplementation in drinking water (1%). Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) was inhibited by MCD intake, and these changes were all inhibited by betaine feeding...
August 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xin-Jiang Lu, Hao Zhang, Guan-Jun Yang, Ming-Yun Li, Jiong Chen
Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) fish, which are an amphidromous species distributed in East Asia, live in brackish water (BW) during their larval stage and in fresh water (FW) during their adult stage. In this study, we found that FW-acclimated ayu larvae exhibited a slower growth ratio compared with that of BW-acclimated larvae. However, the mechanism underlying FW acclimation on growth suppression is poorly known. We employed transcriptome analysis to investigate the differential gene expression of FW acclimation by RNA sequencing...
May 18, 2016: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
Laura E McBreairty
Methionine is an essential amino acid which when not incorporated into protein, can be converted to S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor in over 200 transmethylation reactions, which include creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is formed, which can be converted to cysteine via transsulfuration or remethylated to methionine by receiving a methyl group from folate or betaine. Changes to methyl group availability in utero can lead to permanent changes in epigenetic patterns of DNA methylation, which has been implicated in "fetal programming", a phenomenon associated with poor nutrition during fetal development that results in low birth weight and disease in later life...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Pramod K Dash, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Cameron B Jeter, H Alex Choi, Nobuhide Kobori, Anthony N Moore
Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) that serves as the principal methyl (-CH3) donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases (MTs) to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Laura E McBreairty, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine is an indispensable amino acid that, when not incorporated into protein, is converted into the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine as entry into the methionine cycle. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is either remethylated to reform methionine or irreversibly trans-sulfurated to form cysteine. Methionine flux to transmethylation and to protein synthesis are both high in the neonate and this review focuses on the dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development, when growth requires expansion of pools of protein and transmethylation products such as creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC)...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
F A Cabezón, K R Stewart, A P Schinckel, W Barnes, R D Boyd, P Wilcock, J Woodliff
This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16...
July 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Tarun Kumar, Gurumayum Suraj Sharma, Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh
Homocystinuria is a disorder of sulfur metabolism pathway caused by deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). It is characterized by increased accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) in the cells and plasma. Increased homocysteine results in various vascular and neurological complications. Present strategies to lower cellular and plasma homocysteine levels include vitamin B6 intake, dietary methionine restriction, betaine supplementation, folate and vitamin B12 administration. However, these strategies are inefficient for treatment of homocystinuria...
July 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Joana Rosa, Daniel M Tiago, Cátia L Marques, Parameswaran Vijayakumar, Luis Fonseca, M Leonor Cancela, Vincent Laizé
BACKGROUND: To better understand the complex mechanisms of bone formation it is fundamental that genes central to signaling/regulatory pathways and matrix formation are identified. Cell systems were used to analyze genes differentially expressed during extracellular matrix mineralization and bhmt3, coding for a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, was shown to be down-regulated in mineralizing gilthead seabream cells. METHODS: Levels and sites of bhmt3 expression were determined by qPCR and in situ hybridization throughout seabream development and in adult tissues...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
L Knowles, A A M Morris, J H Walter
S-adenosyl methionine, which is formed from methionine, is an essential methyl donor within the central nervous system. Methionine is formed by the enzyme methionine synthase for which 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and homocysteine are substrates. Patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency cannot make 5-MTHF and have extremely low levels in the CSF. As a consequence, methylation reactions in the CNS are compromised, and this is likely to play an important role in the neurological abnormalities that occur in MTHFR deficiency...
February 23, 2016: JIMD Reports
Marcelo Dutra Arbo, Simone Melega, Regina Stöber, Markus Schug, Eugen Rempel, Jörg Rahnenführer, Patricio Godoy, Raymond Reif, Cristina Cadenas, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Helena Carmo, Jan G Hengstler
The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs...
January 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"