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Betaine AND Homocysteine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786139/one-carbon-metabolite-ratios-as-functional-b-vitamin-markers-and-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk
#1
Björn Gylling, Robin Myte, Arve Ulvik, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Jörn Schneede, Göran Hallmans, Jenny Häggström, Ingegerd Johansson, Bethany Van Guelpen, Richard Palmqvist
One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679304/analytic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-its-impact-on-vascular-disease
#2
REVIEW
Soo-Sang Kang, Robert S Rosenson
Homocysteine is an intermediary metabolite in the methionine cycle. Accumulation of homocysteine is caused either by mutation of relevant genes or by nutritional depletion of related vitamin(s). This review covers the historical background of hyperhomocysteinemia in which indispensable subjects in relation to underlying pathophysiological processes are discussed with the view of metabolism and genetics of folate and methionine cycles. This review emphasizes the unique role of homocysteine that is clearly distinct from other risk factors, particularly cholesterol in the development of vascular disease...
April 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558000/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-with-dual-caution-in-an-infant-cobalamin-c-defect-and-complement-dysregulation-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab
#3
Ulkem Kocoglu Barlas, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Nilufer Goknar, Melike Ersoy, Nihal Akcay, Esra Sevketoglu
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a devastating disease with significant mortality and high risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease. It is mostly caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Cobalamin C (Cbl C) defect is a genetic disorder of cobalamin metabolism and is a rare cause of HUS. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We present a 6-month-old male infant who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) due to restlessness, severe hypertension, anemia, respiratory distress, and acute kidney injury...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503817/cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-is-necessary-for-axis-development-in-vivo
#4
Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Chris Koceja, Anindya Dey, Shahram Eisa-Beygi, Noah R Leigh, Resham Bhattacharya, Priyabrata Mukherjee, Ramani Ramchandran
The cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) is a critical enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway and is responsible for the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine. Cystathionine is a precursor to amino acid cysteine. CBS is also responsible for generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) from cysteine. Mutation in CBS enzyme causes homocysteine levels to rise, and gives rise to a condition called hyperhomocysteinuria. To date, numerous mouse knockout models for CBS enzyme has been generated, which show panoply of defects, reflecting the importance of this enzyme in development...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453804/probiotics-affect-one-carbon-metabolites-and-catecholamines-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#5
Sandra Tillmann, Hussain M Awwad, Amanda R Eskelund, Giulia Treccani, Juergen Geisel, Gregers Wegener, Rima Obeid
SCOPE: Probiotics may influence one-carbon (C1) metabolism, neurotransmitters, liver function markers, or behavior. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats (model of depression, FSL; n = 22) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (109 or 1010 colony-forming units per day) or vehicle for 10 weeks. The controls, Flinders Resistant Line rats (FRL, n = 8), only received vehicle. C1-related metabolites were measured in plasma, urine, and different tissues...
April 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#6
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376352/mitotically-stable-modification-of-dna-methylation-in-igf2-h19-imprinting-control-region-is-associated-with-activated-hepatic-igf2-expression-in-offspring-rats-from-betaine-supplemented-dams
#7
Shu Yang, Nannan Zhao, Yang Yang, Yun Hu, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
The growth-promoting action of betaine involves activation of GH/IGF-1 signaling, yet it remains unclear whether insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an imprinting gene, is affected by maternal dietary betaine supplementation. In this study, F1 offspring rats derived from dams fed basal or betaine-supplemented diet were examined at D21 and D63. Maternal betaine significantly upregulated the hepatic expression of IGF2 mRNA and protein in offspring rats at both D21 and D63, which was accompanied by enhanced hepatic IGF2 immunoreactivity and elevated serum IGF-2 level...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374341/late-onset-cobalamin-c-deficiency-chinese-sibling-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-presentations
#8
Sheng-Jun Wang, Chuan-Zhu Yan, Yi-Ming Liu, Yu-Ying Zhao
The Cobalamin C deficiency (cblC), characterized with elevated methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria in plasma, is an inborn error of cobalamin metabolism. The late-onset cblC siblings patients were rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed the clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of late-onset cblC in Chinese sibling patients with neuropsychiatric presentations. The clinical data of four pairs of Chinese patients were retrospectively analyzed. Serum homocysteine, urine organic acids measurements, neuroimaging exams and gene analysis were carried out in all patents...
January 26, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366935/glycine-betaine-rather-than-acting-only-as-an-osmolyte-also-plays-a-role-as-regulator-in-cellular-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
For many years, glycine betaine (GB) has been widely studied as an osmolyte in plants and bacteria. In animal cells, GB is an osmolyte mainly in the kidneys, but in humans many studies have shown its role as a methyl donor in homocysteine metabolism in the liver. GB is also a protein stabilizer, and thus, it became known as an osmoprotector. In many organisms GB is synthesized from choline and can also be obtained from some foods. Over the last twenty years GB has gone from being considered simply as an osmolyte to being known as a cytoprotector involved in cell metabolism and as a chemical chaperone...
April 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356306/evidence-of-interaction-between-genes-in-the-folate-homocysteine-metabolic-pathway-in-controlling-risk-of-nonsyndromic-oral-cleft
#10
Ping Wang, Tao Wu, Holger Schwender, Hong Wang, Bing Shi, Zhuqing Wang, Yuan Yuan, Dongjing Liu, Mengying Wang, Jing Li, Zhibo Zhou, Hongping Zhu, Terri H Beaty
OBJECTIVE: Little consistent evidence is available for the association between the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) and any of the individual genes in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway. We investigated the genes in the folate pathway to further clarify its potential influence on the risk of NSCL/P considering gene-gene (G×G) interaction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We selected markers in 18 genes from the pathway and applied the Cordell's method to test for G×G interaction using 1,908 NSCL/P case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium where a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of oral clefts was conducted...
January 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329322/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-contributes-to-allergic-airway-disease
#11
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246599/manifestations-of-neurological-symptoms-and-thromboembolism-in-adults-with-mthfr-deficiency
#12
Paulus S Rommer, Johannes Zschocke, Brian Fowler, Manuela Födinger, Vassiliki Konstantopoulou, Dorothea Möslinger, Elisabeth Stögmann, Erhard Suess, Matthias Baumgartner, Eduard Auff, Gere Sunder-Plassmann
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting intracellular folate metabolism with affection of different organ systems and clinical manifestation usually in childhood. OBJECTIVE: We report on four adult members of a family with MTHFR deficiency presenting with neurological and thromboembolic complications in adulthood. METHODS: Extensive diagnostic work-up including genetic testing was performed in four adult members...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204947/improved-sp1-and-betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase-expression-and-homocysteine-clearance-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-zinc-on-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-pretreated-mice
#13
Li Wu, Xihong Zhou, Tiejun Li, Juyun He, Linli Huang, Zicheng Ouyang, Liuqin He, Tao Wei, Qinghua He
Zinc plays a role in alleviating oxidative stress. However, the related mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the recovery of oxidative stress in high-fat-diet (HFD)-pretreated mice was affected by zinc. Male mice received either an HFD or a low-fat-diet (LFD) for 8 weeks. Then, the mice fed with HFD and LFD were both assigned to either a control diet (30 mg zinc, ZD) or a no-added zinc diet (NZD) for an additional 4 weeks. The results showed that after feeding with NZD for 4 weeks, the HFD-pretreated mice had the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, while had the lowest CuZn-SOD and glutathione concentrations...
December 4, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178045/considering-choline-as-methionine-precursor-lipoproteins-transporter-hepatic-promoter-and-antioxidant-agent-in-dairy-cows
#14
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Rab N Soomro, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Wen Li, Ren Hao, Feifei Sun, Bello M Bodinga, Khawar Hayat, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows...
November 25, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129236/effects-of-betaine-supplementation-on-nitric-oxide-metabolism-atherosclerotic-parameters-and-fatty-liver-in-guinea-pigs-fed-a-high-cholesterol-plus-methionine-diet
#15
Zeynep Küskü-Kiraz, Sema Genc, Seldağ Bekpınar, Yeşim Ünlücerci, Aydın Çevik, Vakur Olgaç, Figen Gürdöl, Müjdat Uysal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high cholesterol (CHOL) and CHOL + methionine (MET) diets on atherogenic and oxidative index parameters and on the factors that influence nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Also, attempts were made to determine whether dietary betaine (BET) resulted in any improvement in the changes that occurred after CHOL + MET administration. METHODS: Guinea pigs were fed chow containing 1.5% CHOL with or without 2% MET for 10 wk...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099709/sulphur-containing-amino-acids-metabolism-in-experimental-hyper-and-hypothyroidism-in-rats
#16
V Nechiporuk, N Zaichko, М Korda, A Melnyk, O Koloshko
Hyper- and hypothyroidism are some of the most common endocrinopathies that cause many metabolic disorders including amino acids metabolism. However, a specific molecular mechanism of thyroid hormones influence on sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism has not been established. The aim of our research was to investigate experimentally the influence of thyroid gland functional state on the main enzymatic systems of sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism in liver and kidneys, the content of homocysteine, cysteine and H2S in blood...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068997/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-induced-by-cblc-subtype-of-methylmalonic-academia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Minguang Chen, Jieqiu Zhuang, JianHuan Yang, Dexuan Wang, Qing Yang
RATIONALE: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a common organic acidemia, mainly due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) or its coenzyme cobalamin (VitB12) metabolic disorders. Cobalamin C (CblC) type is the most frequent inborn error of cobalamin metabolism; it can develop symptoms in childhood and often combine multisystem damage, which leads to methylmalonic acid, propionic acid, methyl citrate, and other metabolites abnormal accumulation, causing nerve, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and other organ damage...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045954/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-as-leading-manifestation-of-methylmalonic-aciduria-clinical-characteristics-and-gene-testing-in-15-cases
#18
X Q Liu, H Yan, J X Qiu, C Y Zhang, J G Qi, X Zhang, H J Xiao, Y L Yang, Y H Chen, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) by analyzing the characteristics of clinical presentation, pulmonary high resolusion CT(HRCT), treatment response and gene mutation. METHODS: This study includes 15 cases of pediatric patients with MMA associated PH diagnosed and treated in Peking University First Hospital pediatric department between May 2012 and May 2016 with symptoms of PH as their leading presentation...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035128/prospective-study-of-plasma-homocysteine-its-dietary-determinants-and-risk-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-men
#19
William G Christen, Nancy R Cook, Stephanie E Chiuve, Paul M Ridker, J Michael Gaziano
PURPOSE: Cross-sectional and case-control studies generally support a direct association between elevated plasma homocysteine and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but data from prospective studies are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level, its dietary determinants, and risk of AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy male physicians. METHODS: During a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, we identified 146 incident cases of visually significant AMD (responsible for a reduction of visual acuity to 20/30 or worse), and 146 controls matched for age, smoking status, and time of blood draw...
February 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984387/gene-expression-differences-in-the-methionine-remethylation-and-transsulphuration-pathways-under-methionine-restriction-and-recovery-with-d-l-methionine-or-d-l-hmtba-in-meat-type-chickens
#20
S E Aggrey, F González-Cerón, R Rekaya, Y Mercier
This study examined the molecular mechanisms of methionine pathways in meat-type chickens where birds were provided with a diet deficient in methionine from 3 to 5 weeks of age. The birds on the deficient diet were then provided with a diet supplemented with either D,L-methionine or D,L-HMTBA from 5 to 7 weeks. The diet of the control birds was supplemented with L-methionine from hatch till 7 weeks of age. We studied the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha, methionine adenosyltransferase 1, beta, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and cystathionine beta synthase genes in the liver, duodenum, Pectoralis (P...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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