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Max Kolton, Ellen R Graber, Ludmila Tsehansky, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn
The 'biochar effect' depicts a phenomenon in which biochar soil amendment enhances plant performance by promoting growth and suppressing disease. Although this phenomenon has been observed in numerous studies, the mode of action that explains it is currently unknown. In order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the 'biochar effect', we comprehensively monitored tomato plant development and resistance to the foliar fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, in biochar-amended and nonamended soils using native biochar and washed biochar, striped of labile chemical constituents...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Weiyang Zhang, Zhuanqin Cao, Qun Zhou, Jing Chen, Gengwen Xu, Junfei Gu, Lijun Liu, Zhiqin Wang, Jianchang Yang, Hao Zhang
This study determined if the variation in grain filling parameters between two different spikelet types of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is regulated by the hormonal levels in the grains. Two rice mutants, namely, a large-grain mutant (AZU-M) and a small-grain mutant (ZF802-M), and their respective wild types (AZU-WT and ZF802-WT) were grown in the field. The endosperm cell division rate, filling rate, and hormonal levels: zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z+ZR), indo-3-acetic acid (IAA), polyamines (PAs), and abscisic acid (ABA) were determined...
2016: PloS One
Anne Argenta, Latha Satish, Phillip Gallo, Fang Liu, Sandeep Kathju
OBJECTIVE: To determine if local prophylactic application of probiotic bacteria to burn wounds will prevent death in a mouse model of burn wound sepsis. BACKGROUND: Infection remains the most common complication after burn injury and can result in sepsis and death, despite the use of topical and systemic antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequently implicated pathogen. Local application of probiotics directly to burn wounds is an attractive novel intervention that avoids the pitfalls of standard antibiotic therapies...
2016: PloS One
Paula Ribeiro Prist, Maria Uriarte, Leandro Reverberi Tambosi, Amanda Prado, Renata Pardini, Paulo Sérgio D Andrea, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans...
2016: PloS One
Eildert Groeneveld, Helmut Lichtenberg
The fast development of high throughput genotyping has opened up new possibilities in genetics while at the same time producing considerable data handling issues. TheSNPpit is a database system for managing large amounts of multi panel SNP genotype data from any genotyping platform. With an increasing rate of genotyping in areas like animal and plant breeding as well as human genetics, already now hundreds of thousand of individuals need to be managed. While the common database design with one row per SNP can manage hundreds of samples this approach becomes progressively slower as the size of the data sets increase until it finally fails completely once tens or even hundreds of thousands of individuals need to be managed...
2016: PloS One
Shi-Peng Chen, Chih-Hsien Kuo, Hsueh-Han Lu, Hui-Shan Lo, Kai-Wun Yeh
IbNAC1 is known to activate the defense system by reprogramming a genetic network against herbivory in sweet potato. This regulatory activity elevates plant defense potential but relatively weakens plants by IbNAC1-mediated JA response. The mechanism controlling IbNAC1 expression to balance plant vitality and survival remains unclear. In this study, a wound-responsive G-box cis-element in the IbNAC1 promoter from -1484 to -1479 bp was identified. From a screen of wound-activated transcriptomic data, one transcriptional activator, IbbHLH3, and one repressor, IbbHLH4, were selected that bind to and activate or repress, respectively, the G-box motif in the IbNAC1 promoter to modulate the IbNAC1-mediated response...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yunfeng Liu, Shengjun Li, Yuan Chen, Athen N Kimberlin, Edgar B Cahoon, Bin Yu
Uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are the basal components of the spliceosome and play essential roles in splicing. The biogenesis of the majority of snRNAs involves 3' end endonucleolytic cleavage of the nascent transcript from the elongating DNA-dependent RNA ploymerase II. However, the protein factors responsible for this process remain elusive in plants. Here, we show that DEFECTIVE in snRNA PROCESSING 1 (DSP1) is an essential protein for snRNA 3' end maturation in Arabidopsis. A hypomorphic dsp1-1 mutation causes pleiotropic developmental defects, impairs the 3' end processing of snRNAs, increases the levels of snRNA primary transcripts (pre-snRNAs), and alters the occupancy of Pol II at snRNA loci...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Tal Hoffmann, Katrin Kistner, Richard W Carr, Mohammed A Nassar, Peter W Reeh, Christian Weidner
The upregulation of the tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.9 has previously been associated with inflammatory hyperalgesia. Na1.9 knockout (KO) mice, however, did not seem insensitive in conventional tests of acute nociception. Using electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral techniques, we now show NaV1.9-null mice exhibit impaired mechanical and thermal sensory capacities and reduced electrical excitability of nociceptors. In single-fiber recordings from isolated skin, the electrical threshold of NaV1...
September 15, 2016: Pain
Hemant K Nagar, Amit K Srivastava, Rajnish Srivastava, Mahendra S Ranawat
The aim of present study was to determine the effect of newly formulated gels and suspensions of extractive Phytoconstituents of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers and Gardenia gummifera leaves by using UV Radiation induced psoriasis in rats. Both plants are traditionally claimed to be useful in treatment of number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for their potential in psoriasis. Formulated Gels and Suspensions of ethanolic extract of both plants were tested for acute dermal and oral toxicity study respectively...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bakhta Aouey, Amira Mahjoubi Samet, Hamadi Fetoui, Monique S J Simmonds, Mohamed Bouaziz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Vitis vinifera is used in traditional medicine for diarrhea, hepatitis and stomachaches. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Vitis vinifera (EVV) on experimental models to provide scientific basis for its use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EVV was chemically characterized by LC-MS/MS analyses. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the EVV extract were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP)...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Joby Jose, A T Dhanya, Karickal R Haridas, T M Sumesh Kumar, Sony Jayaraman, E Jayadevi Variyar, Sudheesh Sudhakaran
The study was initiated to determine the anticancer activity of a novel compound isolated from the plant Mimosa pudica. The structure of the compound was identified as a derivative of myricetin having alkyl, hydroxy alkyl and methyl substitutions on the basis of spectral evidences (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and Mass spectra). The isolated compound was interpreted as 2-(2',6'-dimethyl-3',4',5'-alkyl or hydroxy alkyl substituted phenyl)-3-oxy-(alkyl or hydoxy alkyl)- 5,7-dihydroxy-chromen-4-one. In vitro evaluation of anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human erythroleukemic cell line (K562) were conducted using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Seema Patel
Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kenneth D Birnbaum
Plants often make the same organ in different development contexts. Roots are a quintessential example, with embryonic, primary, lateral, adventitious, and regenerative roots common to many plants. The cellular origins and early morphologies of different roots can vary greatly, but the adult structures can be remarkably similar. Recent studies have highlighted the diversity of mechanisms that can initiate roots while late patterning mechanisms are frequently shared. In the middle stages when patterning emerges, evidence shows that antagonistic auxin-cytokinin interactions regulate tissue patterns in root embryogenesis, vascular organization, and regeneration but it is not yet clear if a common ontogeny for the root body plan exists...
October 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Marta W Vasconcelos, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Plant-based foods offer a wide range of nutrients that are essential for human and animal health. Among these nutrients, iron stands out as one of the most important micronutrients. Increasing the iron content in many staple and non-staple plant foods continues to be a goal of many scientists around the world. However, the success of such initiatives has sometimes fallen short of their expected targets. In this review we highlight the most recent and promising results that have contributed to increasing the iron content in different crops...
October 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
William Schafer
Nematodes comprise one of the largest phyla in the animal kingdom, both in terms of individual numbers and species diversity. Although only 20,000-30,000 species have been described, it is estimated that the true number ranges between 100,000 and 10 million. Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial species are all widespread, and some nematodes have even been isolated from such inhospitable environments as deserts, hot springs, and polar seas. Some nematode species are parasitic, with either plant or animal hosts; other species are free-living microbivores, scavengers, or predators of insects or other nematodes...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Blanca Bernal, J Patrick Megonigal, Thomas J Mozdzer
Understanding the processes that control deep soil carbon (C) dynamics and accumulation is of key importance, given the relevance of soil organic matter (SOM) as a vast C pool and climate change buffer. Methodological constraints to measure SOM decomposition in the field prevent from addressing real-time rhizosphere effects regulating nutrient cycling and SOM decomposition. An invasive lineage of Phragmites australis roots deeper than native vegetation (Schoenoplectus americanus and Spartina patens) in coastal marshes of North America, having the potential to dramatically alter C cycling and accumulation in these ecosystems...
October 25, 2016: Global Change Biology
Janice A Lake, Heather J Walker, Duncan D Cameron, Barry H Lomax
Investigations were undertaken in the context of the potential environmental impact of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) transportation in the form of a hypothetical leak of extreme levels of CO2 into the soil environment and subsequent effects on plant physiology. Laboratory studies using purpose built soil chambers, separating and isolating the soil and aerial environments, were used to introduce high levels of CO2 gas exclusively into the rhizosphere. CO2 concentrations greater than 32% in the isolated soil environment revealed a previously unknown whole plant stomatal response...
October 25, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Volker Sommer, Umaru Buba, Gonçalo Jesus, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVE: At some sites across Africa, chimpanzees consume army ants, often aided by plant tools, although consumption frequencies vary greatly. Other populations do not eat these insects at all, despite apparent abundance. The relative importance of this type of myrmecophagy for chimpanzee diet therefore remains unclear. We investigate if army ants constitute a preferred food or a fallback resource for chimpanzees at Gashaka, Nigeria, where army ants are consumed much more frequently than elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Da-Wun Yang, Ok-Hwa Kang, Young-Seob Lee, Sin-Hee Han, Sang-Won Lee, Seon-Woo Cha, Yun-Soo Seo, Su-Hyun Mun, Ryong Gong, Dong-Won Shin, Dong-Yeul Kwon
Salidroside [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl β-D-gluco-pyranoside (SAS)] has been identified as the most potent ingredient of the plant Rhodiola rosea L. Previous studies have demonstrated that it possesses a number of pharmacological properties, including anti-aging, anti-fatigue, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, to ascertain the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of SAS, we used phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 to induce inflammation in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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