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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743172/modelling-nutritional-mutualisms-challenges-and-opportunities-for-data-integration
#1
REVIEW
Teresa J Clark, Colleen A Friel, Emily Grman, Yair Shachar-Hill, Maren L Friesen
Nutritional mutualisms are ancient, widespread, and profoundly influential in biological communities and ecosystems. Although much is known about these interactions, comprehensive answers to fundamental questions, such as how resource availability and structured interactions influence mutualism persistence, are still lacking. Mathematical modelling of nutritional mutualisms has great potential to facilitate the search for comprehensive answers to these and other fundamental questions by connecting the physiological and genomic underpinnings of mutualisms with ecological and evolutionary processes...
July 25, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743100/studies-on-secondary-metabolite-profiling-anti-inflammatory-potential-in-vitro-photoprotective-and-skin-aging-related-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-malaxis-acuminata-a-threatened-orchid-of-nutraceutical-importance
#2
Biswajit Bose, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon, Suman Kumaria
Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743045/wind-friction-parametrisation-used-in-emission-models-for-wastewater-treatment-plants-a-critical-review
#3
REVIEW
Ademir A Prata, Jane M Santos, Victoria Timchenko, Neyval C Reis, Richard M Stuetz
Emission models are widely applied tools for estimating atmospheric emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The friction velocity u∗ is a key variable for the modelling of emissions from passive liquid surfaces in WWTPs. This work evaluated different parametrisations of u∗ for passive liquid surfaces at the scale of WWTP units, which present relatively small fetches, based on available wind friction and wave data measured at wind-wave tanks (fetches spanning from approximately 3 to 100 m, and wind speeds from 2 to 17 m s(-1))...
July 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743041/prospects-for-engineering-and-improvement-of-cross-protective-virus-strains
#4
REVIEW
Heiko Ziebell, Robin MacDiarmid
Mild strain cross-protection is currently an important method for the production of high quality plant products; despite challenge from severe virus isolates the initial protecting strain precludes symptom development. The mechanism of cross-protection is not yet resolved as RNA silencing does not sufficiently explain the phenomenon. Six requirements have been put forward to ensure long-lasting protection. We propose two additional requirements for effective and durable mild strain cross-protection; mild strains based on knowledge of the mechanism and consideration of impacts to consumers...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743038/physiological-vascular-and-nanomechanical-assessment-of-hybrid-poplar-leaf-traits-in-micropropagated-plants-and-plants-propagated-from-root-cuttings-a-contribution-to-breeding-programs
#5
Jaroslav Ďurkovič, Hana Husárová, Lucia Javoříková, Ingrid Čaňová, Miriama Šuleková, Monika Kardošová, Ivan Lukáčik, Miroslava Mamoňová, Rastislav Lagaňa
Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743037/exogenous-applications-of-polyamines-modulate-drought-responses-in-wheat-through-osmolytes-accumulation-increasing-free-polyamine-levels-and-regulation-of-polyamine-biosynthetic-genes
#6
Heba Talat Ebeed, Nemat Mohamed Hassan, Alshafei Mohammed Aljarani
Polyamines (PAs) can improve drought stress tolerance in plants; however, very limited information is available on the mechanism of action of exogenous application by different methods under drought stress in wheat. The present study investigates the mechanism through which seed priming and foliar spraying with PAs protect wheat plants from drought stress. 10 days old wheat seedlings were exposed to drought stress by withholding water alone or with 100 μM PAs solutions (putrescine, Put; spermine, Spm; and mixture of Put and Spm for 10 h seed-priming or three foliar sprays during withholding water...
July 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743015/plant-domestication-wild-date-palms-illuminate-a%C3%A2-crop-s-sticky-origins
#7
Nathan Wales, Benjamin K Blackman
In a new study, previously unknown populations of wild date palm have been identified in remote areas of Oman. Genomic analyses indicate date palm domestication occurred in the eastern portion of the Arabian Peninsula and reveal substantial subsequent gene flow with African palm populations.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743006/restoring-low-input-high-diversity-grasslands-as-a-potential-global-resource-for-biofuels
#8
Brian Machovina, Kenneth J Feeley
Reducing meat consumption by humans and shifting to more efficient plant and animal protein sources could potentially free up large areas of pasture and feedcrop agricultural land for restoration or conversion to low-input high-diversity (LIHD) grasslands. LIHD grasslands improve biodiversity, carbon sequestration, erosion control, water storage, while also providing opportunities to produce biofuels. We examined the potential of converting pastures globally, and animal feedstock agricultural lands in the USA and Brazil, to LIHD biomass sources and the capacity of these systems to meet national energy demands via (1) cellulosic ethanol and (2) integrated gasification and combined cycle technology with Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis (IGCC-FT) processing...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742982/investigation-of-orthologous-pathogen-recognition-gene-rich-regions-in-solanaceous-species
#9
A Di Donato, Giuseppe Andolfo, A Ferrarini, M Delledonne, M R Ercolano
The genome architecture of pathogen receptor genes (PRGs) was extensively investigated in several plant species. However, we still know little about their elaborate reorganization arose during the plant speciation process. Using recently released pepper and eggplant genome sequences we were able to identify 1097 pathogen recognition genes in pepper Zunla-1 and 775 in eggplant Nakate-Shinkuro. The retrieved genes were analysed for their tendency to cluster, using different methods to infer the means of grouping...
July 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742940/functional-analysis-of-the-pepper-protein-phosphatase-caaipp1-and-its-interacting-partner-caairf1-modulation-of-aba-signaling-and-the-drought-stress-response
#10
Woonhee Baek, Chae Woo Lim, Sung Chul Lee
Plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress are coordinated by restriction of plant growth and development. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is the key regulator of the response to abiotic stress, and its sensitivity determines abiotic stress tolerance levels. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CaAIRF1 functions as a positive regulator of ABA and drought stress via modulation of transcription and stability of the type 2C protein phosphatase CaADIP1. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of a novel type 2C phosphatase, CaAIPP1 (Capsicum annuum CaAIRF1 Interacting Protein Phosphatase 1)...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742938/sexes-in-gynodioecious-geranium-sylvaticum-do-not-differ-in-their-isotopic-signature-or-photosynthetic-capacity
#11
Sandra Varga, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
In gynodioecious plants, females are expected to produce more or better seeds than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained within the same population. Even though rarely measured, higher seed production can be achieved through differences in physiology. In this work, we measured sexual dimorphism in several physiological traits in the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and isotopic signatures were measured in plants growing in two habitats differing in light availability...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742914/plantar-fasciitis
#12
Christopher C Muth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742872/the-wheat-wrky-transcription-factors-tawrky49-and-tawrky62-confer-differential-high-temperature-seedling-plant-resistance-to-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#13
Junjuan Wang, Fei Tao, Wei Tian, Zhongfeng Guo, Xianming Chen, Xiangming Xu, Hongsheng Shang, Xiaoping Hu
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant resistance responses to pathogens. Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. In this study, the two WRKY genes TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were originally identified in association with high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Pst (HTSP) resistance in wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 by RNA-seq. Interestingly, the expression levels of TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were down- and up-regulated, respectively, during HTSP resistance in response to Pst...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742868/combining-ability-of-highland-tropic-adapted-potato-for-tuber-yield-and-yield-components-under-drought
#14
Betaw Hirut, Hussein Shimelis, Mengistu Fentahun, Merideth Bonierbale, Manuel Gastelo, Asrat Asfaw
Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742863/antibacterial-activity-of-tannins-isolated-from-sapium-baccatum-extract-and-use-for-control-of-tomato-bacterial-wilt
#15
Thuy Thu Vu, Hun Kim, Vu Khac Tran, Hoang Dinh Vu, Tien Xuan Hoang, Jae Woo Han, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim
In the search for new antibacterial agents from natural sources, we revealed that a crude methanol extract of Sapium baccatum was highly active against Ralstonia solanacearum, a causal agent of a serious disease called bacterial wilt of tomato. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation of seven known active compounds, including gallic acid, methyl gallate, corilagin, tercatain, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside. Their chemical structures were determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742854/risk-of-exposure-to-potential-vector-mosquitoes-for-rural-workers-in-northern-lao-pdr
#16
Julie-Anne A Tangena, Phoutmany Thammavong, Steve W Lindsay, Paul T Brey
BACKGROUND: One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages...
July 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742846/endophytic-fungal-communities-of-polygonum-acuminatum-and-aeschynomene-fluminensis-are-influenced-by-soil-mercury-contamination
#17
William Pietro-Souza, Ivani Souza Mello, Suzana Junges Vendruscullo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Cátia Nunes da Cunha, James Francis White, Marcos Antônio Soares
The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742823/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-mads-box-gene-family-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#18
Jian Ma, Yujie Yang, Wei Luo, Congcong Yang, Puyang Ding, Yaxi Liu, Linyi Qiao, Zhijian Chang, Hongwei Geng, Penghao Wang, Qiantao Jiang, Jirui Wang, Guoyue Chen, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng, Xiujin Lan
The MADS-box genes encode transcription factors with key roles in plant growth and development. A comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has not yet been conducted, and our understanding of their roles in stress is rather limited. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the MADS-box gene family in wheat. A total of 180 MADS-box genes classified as 32 Mα, 5 Mγ, 5 Mδ, and 138 MIKC types were identified. Evolutionary analysis of the orthologs among T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742505/effects-of-a-hops-humulus-lupulus-l-dry-extract-supplement-on-self-reported-depression-anxiety-and-stress-levels-in-apparently-healthy-young-adults-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-pilot-study
#19
Ioannis Kyrou, Aimilia Christou, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Charikleia Stefanaki, Katerina Skenderi, Konstantina Katsana, Constantine Tsigos
OBJECTIVE: The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. DESIGN: Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742490/observing-and-understanding-the-ultrafast-photochemistry-in-small-molecules-applications-to-sunscreens
#20
Lewis A Baker, Vasilios G Stavros
In this review, we discuss the importance of biological and artificial photoprotection against overexposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Transient electronic and transient vibrational absorption spectroscopies are highlighted as important tools in understanding the energy transfer in small molecules, with a focus on the application to commercial sunscreens with representative examples given. Oxybenzone, a common ingredient in commercial sunscreens and sinapoyl malate, a biological sunscreen in plant leaves are presented as case studies...
September 1, 2016: Science Progress
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