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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891385/when-pulmonary-function-test-is-available-should-we-wait-for-the-copd-symptoms-to-develop
#1
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Nimit Desai, Smit Patel
Adolescent smokers are more likely to be addicted to nicotine and develop a chronic habit. Chronic smoking has a direct impact on quality of life and life expectancy. Repeated environmental exposure and smoke inhalation can be deleterious to health. In order to evaluate the core functioning of the lungs, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are conducted. This panel of tests should be advised for all patients complaining of shortness of breath. Since clinical features resulting from chronic smoking tend to appear late in the course of the disease, PFTs are immensely useful for early identification of abnormalities in asymptomatic adult smokers...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890625/pharmacological-treatment-optimization-for-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-proposals-from-the-soci%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-de-pneumologie-de-langue-fran%C3%A3-aise
#2
M Zysman, F Chabot, P Devillier, B Housset, C M Panzini, N Roche
The Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française proposes a decision algorithm on long-term pharmacological COPD treatment. A working group reviewed the literature published between January 2009 and May 2016. This document lays out proposals and not guidelines. It only focuses on pharmacological treatments except vaccinations, smoking cessation treatments and oxygen therapy. Any COPD diagnosis, based on pulmonary function tests, should lead to recommend smoking cessation, vaccinations, physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation in case of activity limitation, and short-acting bronchodilators...
November 24, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888969/smoking-behaviors-and-medical-co-morbidities-in-patients-with-mental-illnesses
#3
Peggy El-Mallakh, Danielle McPeak, Milan Khara, Chizimuzo T Okoli
Correlations among smoking behaviors and co-morbid medical illnesses were examined among 982 smokers with mental illnesses enrolled in a smoking cessation program within Mental Health and Addictions Services in Vancouver, Canada. Significant correlates among individuals with psychotic disorders included associations between a history of emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease and cigarettes smoked per day (r's=.35, p≤.01), Confidence in quitting (r's=-.33, p≤.01), and nicotine dependence (r's=...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882792/smoke-free-hospital-site-conversations-how-nurses-can-initiate-change
#4
Peter Mackereth, Charlotte Finchett, Melody Holt
Smoking tobacco continues to be the world's most preventable cause of death and disability with over six trillion cigarettes sold each year. Patients, visitors and health professionals who smoke on hospital sites present a challenge to the effectiveness of public health messages. Health professionals who ignore 'No smoking' hospital/clinic signage, and avoid smoking-cessation activity, help to sustain the perception that smoking is tolerated. Case studies, with a focus on lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are used to illustrate how nurses can 'seed' the idea of hospitals becoming smoke-free, provide brief interventions and support patients, carers and colleagues to make that change...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863344/selection-criteria-limit-generalizability-of-smoking-pharmacotherapy-studies-differentially-across-clinical-trials-and-laboratory-studies-a-systematic-review-on-varenicline
#5
REVIEW
Courtney A Motschman, Julie C Gass, Jennifer M Wray, Lisa J Germeroth, Nicolas J Schlienz, Diana A Munoz, Faith E Moore, Jessica D Rhodes, Larry W Hawk, Stephen T Tiffany
BACKGROUND: The selection criteria used in clinical trials for smoking cessation and in laboratory studies that seek to understand mechanisms responsible for treatment outcomes may limit their generalizability to one another and to the general population. METHODS: We reviewed studies on varenicline versus placebo and compared eligibility criteria and participant characteristics of clinical trials (N=23) and laboratory studies (N=22) across study type and to nationally representative survey data on adult, daily USA smokers (2014 National Health Interview Survey; 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health)...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853040/an-epidemiological-profile-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-community-based-study-in-delhi
#6
B Sinha, R Singla, R Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. METHODOLOGY: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822114/danish-register-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Peter Lange, Sandra Søgaard Tøttenborg, Anne Dichmann Sorknæs, Jørgen Steen Andersen, Mette Søgaard, Henrik Nielsen, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Katrine Abildtrup Nielsen
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD) is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients with a diagnosis of COPD. In the hospital setting, both in- and outpatients are included. In the setting of the general practice (GP), DrCOPD aims to include all patients with a COPD diagnosis who attend an annual control visit for COPD...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822030/management-of-copd-equal-treatment-across-age-gender-and-social-situation-a-register-study
#8
Ingela Henoch, Susann Strang, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Ann Ekberg-Jansson
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic disease where treatment decisions should be based on disease severity and also should be equally distributed across age, gender, and social situation. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent patients with COPD are offered evidence-based interventions and how the interventions are distributed across demographic and clinical factors in the sample. Baseline registrations of demographic, disease-related, and management-related variables of 7,810 patients in the Swedish National Airway Register are presented...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794567/budgetary-impact-analysis-of-reimbursement-varenicline-for-the-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-national-health-system-perspective
#9
Sergio Cedillo, Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime Fernández de Bobadilla, Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez
AIMS: The study aimed to assess the budgetary impact (BI) of reimbursing varenicline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (t2-DM) or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS: The BI was estimated comparing the current non-reimbursed scenario versus a projected reimbursed scenario using the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) perspective. A hybrid model was developed using epidemiological data and Markov chains to estimate smoking cessation rates with varenicline during a 5-year horizon...
October 29, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785005/defining-and-targeting-health-disparities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Roy A Pleasants, Isaretta L Riley, David M Mannino
The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES) due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF) exposure are more common in low SES populations...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730185/recommendations-to-improve-smoking-cessation-outcomes-from-people-with-lung-conditions-who-smoke
#11
Sarah Masefield, Pippa Powell, Carlos Jiménez-Ruiz, Peter Hajek, Keir Lewis, Stefan Andreas, Philip Tønnesen, Onno van Schayck, Christina Gratziou, Bertrand Dautzenberg, Serena Tonstad, Thomas Hering, Stephano Nardini, Monica Fletcher
This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on "Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit". A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729398/smoking-cessation-in-pulmonary-care-subjects-a-mixed-methods-analysis-of-treatment-seeking-participation-and-preferences
#12
Freda Patterson, David S Zaslav, Diana Kolman-Taddeo, Hillary Cuesta, Mary Morrison, Frank T Leone, Aditi Satti
BACKGROUND: African-American smokers experience disproportionate COPD morbidity. As a front-line COPD behavioral management strategy, smoking cessation is less prevalent among African-American smokers. Identifying barriers and predictors to smoking cessation in this population is important to bridging this disparity. METHODS: In this study, the predictors of enrollment and attendance to a 3-session urban hospital smoking cessation program were examined. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all pulmonary clinic patients who smoked and were referred to the cessation program between June 2013 and May 2014...
October 11, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701692/-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-an-update
#13
Nikolas Bernhard, Robert Bals, Sebastian Fähndrich
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis. The disease is widely underdiagnosed. The hallmarks of therapy are smoking cessation, prevention from environmental dust exposure and augmentation therapy. Findings from the recently published prospective, placebo-controlled and randomized RAPID trial proved effectiveness of AAT augmentation therapy for slowing progression of emphysema, measured by CT lung density. CT lung density may be more sensitive than forced exspiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or monoxid diffusion capacity (DLCO)...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695308/health-related-quality-of-life-in-current-smokers-with-copd-factors-associated-with-current-smoking-and-new-insights-into-sex-differences
#14
Vinay K Cheruvu, Lorriane A Odhiambo, Dana S Mowls, Melissa D Zullo, Abdi T Gudina
Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: "excellent/very good/good" and "fair/poor", and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent) and ≥14 (frequent) unhealthy days in the past 30 days...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669518/probing-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-immune-response-in-the-progression-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-using-multiscale-network-modeling
#15
Zhichao Pan, Haishan Yu, Jie-Lou Liao
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by progressive destruction of lung tissues and airway obstruction. COPD is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide and there is no curative treatment available so far. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for COPD. Yet, only a relatively small percentage of smokers develop the disease, showing that disease susceptibility varies significantly among smokers. As smoking cessation can prevent the disease in some smokers, quitting smoking cannot halt the progression of COPD in others...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650026/-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-for-copd-not-a-real-solution-after-all
#16
G J Wesseling
Hyperinflation is an important element in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing significantly to dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Bronchodilators have some, albeit slight, effect on hyperinflation. Lung volume reduction surgery has been advocated in a highly select group of patients with heterogeneous, predominantly upper lobe, emphysema but morbidity and mortality associated with this intervention have hampered its widespread use in respiratory medicine. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction has recently been introduced...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647086/continued-smoking-in-lung-transplant-patients-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Miroslav Zmeškal, Eva Králíková, Ivana Kurcová, Pavel Pafko, Robert Lischke, Libor Fila, Lucie Valentová Bartáková, Keely Fraser
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with a higher incidence of post-lung transplantation complications and mortality. Prior to inclusion on the lung transplant waiting list in the Czech Republic, patients are supposed to be tobacco free for at least 6 months. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking, validated by urinary cotinine, among patients post lung transplantation and prior to inclusion on the transplant waiting list. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of urinary cotinine to assess tobacco exposure in 203 patients in the Lung Transplant Program in the Czech Republic...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636923/-pulmonary-rehabilitation-as-an-effective-method-for-optimizing-therapeutic-and-preventive-measures-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-concurrent-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
A V Budnevsky, Ya V Isaeva, E Yu Malysh, S A Kozhevnikova
AIM: to evaluate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) cycle based on patient education, smoking cessation, physical exercises, and balanced nutrition in addition to standard therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD in patients with this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 70 patients (27 (38.6%) women and 43 (61.4%) men) aged 18 to 60 years (mean age, 48.31±0.64 years) with moderate COPD in remission concurrent with MS were examined. The comprehensive examination of the patients encompassed assessment of clinical, instrumental, and laboratory findings at baseline and 12 months...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618084/mortality-and-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-cigarette-smoking-in-qingdao-china
#19
Yani Wang, Fei Qi, Xiaorong Jia, Peng Lin, Hui Liu, Meiyun Geng, Yunning Liu, Shanpeng Li, Jibin Tan
In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR)...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576232/respiratory-conditions-update-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Daphne J Karel
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as persistent airflow limitation due to irritant-induced chronic inflammation. A postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of 0.7 or less is diagnostic in a patient with dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production, and a history of irritant exposure. Tobacco smoking is the most significant etiology, and smoking cessation is the only intervention shown to slow disease progression. Long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are first-line treatments for patients with persistently symptomatic COPD with an FEV1 of 80% or less of predicted...
September 2016: FP Essentials
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