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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667909/graphical-review-the-redox-dark-side-of-e-cigarettes-exposure-to-oxidants-and-public-health-concerns
#1
REVIEW
Hua Cai, Chen Wang
Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i...
May 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651854/estimating-the-effect-of-differing-assumptions-on-the-population-health-impact-of-introducing-a-reduced-risk-tobacco-product-in-the-usa
#2
Peter N Lee, John S Fry, John F Hamling, Zheng Sponsiello-Wang, Gizelle Baker, Rolf Weitkunat
We use Population Health Impact Modelling to assess effects on tobacco prevalence and mortality of introducing a Reduced Risk Tobacco Product (RRP). Simulated samples start in 1990 with a US-representative smoking prevalence. Individual tobacco histories are updated annually until 2010 using estimated probabilities of switching between never/current/former smoking where the RRP is not introduced, with current users subdivided into cigarette/RRP/dual users where it is. RRP-related mortality reductions from lung cancer, IHD, stroke and COPD are derived from the histories and the assumed relative risks of the RRP...
June 24, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647626/smoking-cessation-rates-amongst-patients-undergoing-vascular-surgery-in-a-canadian-center
#3
S M McHugh, N Eisenberg, J Montbriand, G Roche-Nagle
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the single most important modifiable risk factor for patients with vascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of smoking and cessation rates amongst patients undergoing vascular surgery in a Canadian centre. METHODS: As part of the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI), a prospectively maintained database was used to identify the patents undergoing vascular surgery between 2010 and 2013. Smoking prevalence data was collated pre-procedure, post-procedure, and at year follow up post intervention at a median of 13 months (Mean = 14...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646217/why-do-physicians-lack-engagement-with-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-their-copd-patients-a-multinational-qualitative-study
#4
Eva Anne Marije van Eerd, Mette Bech Risør, Mark Spigt, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Elena Andreeva, Nick Francis, Anja Wollny, Hasse Melbye, Onno van Schayck, Daniel Kotz
Smoking cessation is the only effective intervention to slow down the accelerated decline in lung function in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nevertheless, physicians often do not routinely provide evidence-based smoking cessation treatment to their patients. To understand underlying reasons, we explored how physicians engage in smoking cessation treatment in their chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. In total, 21 focus group discussions were held with general practitioners and pulmonologists in seven different countries in Europe and Asia...
June 23, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615937/patient-perceived-treatment-burden-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Nathan Harb, Juliet M Foster, Claudia C Dobler
BACKGROUND: While chronic morbidity and mortality from COPD is well documented, little is known about the treatment burden faced by patients with COPD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients with severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <50% predicted) representing different age-groups, sex, and number of comorbidities participated in a semistructured interview. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically using an established treatment-burden framework...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599636/health-coaching-to-improve-self-management-and-quality-of-life-for-low-income-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Beatrice Huang, Rachel Willard-Grace, Denise De Vore, Jessica Wolf, Chris Chirinos, Stephanie Tsao, Danielle Hessler, George Su, David H Thom
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severely hinders quality of life for those affected and is costly to the health care system. Care gaps in areas such as pharmacotherapy, inhaler technique, and knowledge of disease are prevalent, particularly for vulnerable populations served by community clinics. Non-professionally licensed health coaches have been shown to be an effective and cost-efficient solution in bridging care gaps and facilitating self-management for patients with other chronic diseases, but no research to date has explored their efficacy in improving care for people living with COPD...
June 9, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575117/gene-and-metabolite-time-course-response-to-cigarette-smoking-in-mouse-lung-and-plasma
#7
Mikaela A Miller, Thomas Danhorn, Charmion I Cruickshank-Quinn, Sonia M Leach, Sean Jacobson, Matthew J Strand, Nichole A Reisdorph, Russell P Bowler, Irina Petrache, Katerina Kechris
Prolonged cigarette smoking (CS) causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a prevalent serious condition that may persist or progress after smoking cessation. To provide insight into how CS triggers COPD, we investigated temporal patterns of lung transcriptome expression and systemic metabolome changes induced by chronic CS exposure and smoking cessation. Whole lung RNA-seq data was analyzed at transcript and exon levels from C57Bl/6 mice exposed to CS for 1- or 7 days, for 3-, 6-, or 9 months, or for 6 months followed by 3 months of cessation using age-matched littermate controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536253/smoking-cessation-and-copd-further-evidence-is-more-necessary-than-ever
#8
EDITORIAL
Lucy Wood, Jennifer K Quint, Joan B Soriano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536250/improved-outcomes-in-ex-smokers-with-copd-a-uk-primary-care-observational-cohort-study
#9
Lynn Josephs, David Culliford, Matthew Johnson, Mike Thomas
Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces accelerated forced expiratory volume in 1 s decline, but impact on key health outcomes is less clear. We studied the relationship of smoking status to mortality and hospitalisation in a UK primary care COPD population.Using patient-anonymised routine data in the Hampshire Health Record Analytical Database, we identified a prevalent COPD cohort, categorising patients by smoking status (current, ex- or never-smokers). Three outcomes were measured over 3 years (2011-2013): all-cause mortality, respiratory-cause unplanned hospital admission and respiratory-cause emergency department attendance...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535331/computer-and-mobile-technology-interventions-for-self-management-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Catherine McCabe, Margaret McCann, Anne Marie Brady
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction due to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases, for example, cigarette smoke. The pattern of care for people with moderate to very severe COPD often involves regular lengthy hospital admissions, which result in high healthcare costs and an undesirable effect on quality of life. Research over the past decade has focused on innovative methods for developing enabling and assistive technologies that facilitate patient self-management...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528524/a-novel-public-health-approach-to-measuring-tobacco-cessation-needs-among-cancer-survivors-in-alaska
#11
J Michael Underwood, Samantha J Hyde-Rolland, Julia Thorsness, Sherri L Stewart
Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513453/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Klaus F Rabe, Henrik Watz
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) kills more than 3 million people worldwide every year. Despite progress in the treatment of symptoms and prevention of acute exacerbations, few advances have been made to ameliorate disease progression or affect mortality. A better understanding of the complex disease mechanisms resulting in COPD is needed. Smoking cessation programmes, increasing physical activity, and early detection and treatment of comorbidities are further key components to reduce the burden of the disease...
May 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481981/socioeconomic-position-and-mortality-risk-of-smoking-evidence-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-elsa
#13
Dan Lewer, Martin McKee, Antonio Gasparrini, Aaron Reeves, Cesar de Oliveira
: It is not clear whether the harm associated with smoking differs by socioeconomic status. This study tests the hypothesis that smoking confers a greater mortality risk for individuals in low socioeconomic groups, using a cohort of 18 479 adults drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Additive hazards models were used to estimate the absolute smoking-related risk of death due to lung cancer or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Smoking was measured using a continuous index that incorporated the duration of smoking, intensity of smoking and the time since cessation...
May 7, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481639/ct-measure-of-lung-at-risk-and-lung-function-decline-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Surya P Bhatt, Sandeep Bodduluri, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Jessica C Sieren, Mark T Dransfield, Joseph M Reinhardt
RATIONALE: The rate of decline of lung function is greater than age-related change in a substantial proportion of patients with COPD, even after smoking cessation. Regions of the lung adjacent to emphysematous areas are subject to abnormal stretch during respiration, and this biomechanical stress likely influences emphysema initiation and progression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether quantifying this penumbra of lung-at-risk would predict FEV1 decline. METHODS: We analyzed paired inspiratory-expiratory computerized tomography (CT) images at baseline of 680 subjects participating in a large multicenter study (COPDGene) over approximately 5 years...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473506/cardiovascular-and-neuropsychiatric-risks-of-varenicline-and-bupropion-in-smokers-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Daniel Kotz, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Colin R Simpson, Onno C P van Schayck, Robert West, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Varenicline and bupropion are effective smoking cessation treatments, but there are concerns about their safety in smokers with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether varenicline and bupropion are associated with serious adverse cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric events in smokers with COPD. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we used data from 14 350 patients with COPD included in the QResearch database, which holds data from 753 National Health Service general practices across England...
May 4, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461294/asthma-and-smoking-induced-airway-disease-without-spirometric-copd
#16
REVIEW
Neil C Thomson
Due to the high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and asthma, current and ex-smokers frequently develop chronic airway disease without spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), either alone or associated with asthma. This review considers the classification, clinical outcomes, inflammatory and imaging variables, phenotypes, and management of current and ex-smokers with airway disease without COPD, focusing on overlaps in those with and without asthma. These individuals have more respiratory symptoms, worse quality of life, increased exacerbation rates, reduced lung function and more comorbidities than never-smokers with asthma or healthy never-smokers...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409593/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-diagnosis-and-management
#17
Shari Gentry, Barry Gentry
The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected based on findings from the history and physical examination, but must be confirmed by spirometry to detect airflow obstruction. Findings that are most helpful to rule in COPD include a smoking history of more than 40 pack-years, a self-reported history of COPD, maximal laryngeal height, and age older than 45 years...
April 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378724/-a-personalized-approach-to-the-pulmonary-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
S I Ovcharenko, B A Volel', Ya K Galetskaite
AIM: To elaborate and introduce personalized pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs adapted in terms of the types of disease response in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 85 patients with COPD of more than 2 years' duration (the shortest time frame that was valid to assess the type of disease response) were examined. All the patients underwent adequate physical, instrumental, laboratory, and psychiatric examinations, during which the type of COPD response was determined...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371857/association-of-the-dbh-polymorphism-rs3025343-with-smoking-cessation-in-a-large-population-based-sample
#19
Katariina Hirvonen, Tellervo Korhonen, Veikko Salomaa, Satu Männistö, Jaakko Kaprio
Introduction: Genetic variations in DBH-gene and its surroundings have been shown to associate with smoking behavior including smoking cessation in several studies. In this study we replicate and measure the effect size for association between DBH polymorphism rs3025343 and smoking cessation in a large population-based sample while examining environmental factors that could relate to the association. Methods: We studied 11,926 adult subjects from four surveys of the National FINRISK Study...
March 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349353/management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Barbara Rinaldi, Clive Page, Giuseppe Rosano, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases often coexist. The mechanistic links between these two diseases are complex, multifactorial and not entirely understood, but they can influence the therapeutic approach. Therapy can be primarily directed towards treating the respiratory symptoms and reducing lung inflammation. Smoking cessation, bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids are central to this therapeutic approach. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that are responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk in COPD remain unclear, but might include arterial stiffness, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of systemic exposure to chemicals in cigarette smoke or airborne pollution...
May 2017: Drugs
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