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Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vitor C Pacheco da Silva, Mehmet Bora Kaydan, Thibaut Malausa, Jean-François Germain, Ferran Palero, Marcos Botton
The Serra Gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern Brazil. Despite mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. A survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in Serra Gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and DNA analyses for species identification. The most abundant species were Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), found on all four host plant species, and Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), infesting persimmon, vines and weeds...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joanna Milala, Monika Kosmala, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jerzy Juskiewicz, Zenon Zdunczyk, Bartosz Fotschki
The present paper describes a comparative study of the metabolism of 1) ellagic acid, 2) monomeric ellagitannins - a mixture of α- and β-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and 3) dimeric ellagitannins - mainly agrimoniin with both glucose residues being esterified with hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP), in rats fed polyphenol-rich diets. Their metabolites were identified and quantified in selected parts of the gastrointestinal tract i.e., the stomach, small intestine, and cecum on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day of the experiment, as well as in the feces, blood serum, and urine of rats...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anne Nilsson, Ilkka Salo, Merichel Plaza, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND: Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF), may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes) or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design...
2017: PloS One
Sujeet Verma, Jason D Zurn, Natalia Salinas, Megan M Mathey, Beatrice Denoyes, James F Hancock, Chad E Finn, Nahla V Bassil, Vance M Whitaker
The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is consumed worldwide for its flavor and nutritional benefits. Genetic analysis of commercially important traits in strawberry are important for the development of breeding methods and tools for this species. Although several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been previously detected for fruit quality and flowering traits using low-density genetic maps, clarity on the sub-genomic locations of these QTLs was missing. Recent discoveries in allo-octoploid strawberry genomics led to the development of the IStraw90 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, enabling high-density genetic maps and finer resolution QTL analysis...
2017: Horticulture Research
Bruna Balen Forcelini, Carolina Suguinoshita Rebello, Nan-Yi Wang, Natalia Peres
Quinone-outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides are used to manage anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. However, selection for resistance to QoI fungicides was first reported in 2013 in Florida, and subsequently in strawberry nurseries and production areas across the USA and Canada. C. acutatum resistance to QoIs is associated with the G143A point mutation in the cytochrome b gene. This mutation is known to be associated with field resistance even at high rates of QoIs. In this study, we investigated the relative fitness and competitive ability of QoI-resistant and -sensitive C...
November 14, 2017: Phytopathology
Anna M Amini, Karolin Muzs, Jeremy Pe Spencer, Parveen Yaqoob
This study hypothesized that the predominant strawberry anthocyanin, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-glc), and 3 of its plasma metabolites (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, and phloroglucinaldehyde [PGA]) would affect phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and the production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a whole blood culture model. For the assessment of phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of monocytes and neutrophils, whole blood was preincubated in the presence or absence of the test compounds at concentrations up to 5 μmol/L, followed by analysis of phagocytic and oxidative burst activity using commercially available test kits...
September 21, 2017: Nutrition Research
Tomohiro Yanagi, Kenta Shirasawa, Mayuko Terachi, Sachiko Isobe
Background: Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) has homoeologous chromosomes because of allo-octoploidy. For example, two homoeologous chromosomes that belong to different sub-genome of allopolyploids have similar base sequences. Thus, when conducting de novo assembly of DNA sequences, it is difficult to determine whether these sequences are derived from the same chromosome. To avoid the difficulties associated with homoeologous chromosomes and demonstrate the possibility of sequencing allopolyploids using single chromosomes, we conducted sequence analysis using microdissected single somatic chromosomes of cultivated strawberry...
2017: Plant Methods
María Cecilia Opazo, Rodrigo Lizana, Yazmina Stappung, Thomas M Davis, Raúl Herrera, María Alejandra Moya-León
BACKGROUND: Fragaria vesca or 'woodland strawberry' has emerged as an attractive model for the study of ripening of non-climacteric fruit. It has several advantages, such as its small genome and its diploidy. The recent availability of the complete sequence of its genome opens the possibility for further analysis and its use as a reference species. Fruit softening is a physiological event and involves many biochemical changes that take place at the final stages of fruit development; among them, the remodeling of cell walls by the action of a set of enzymes...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
Teresa Röhrig, Olga Pacjuk, Silvia Hernández-Huguet, Johanna Körner, Katharina Scherer, Elke Richling
Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay...
November 4, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Lucia Oro, Erica Feliziani, Maurizio Ciani, Gianfranco Romanazzi, Francesca Comitini
The effectiveness of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocontrol agents on postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. 'Alba') fruit, and their inhibitory activities on some decay-causing fungi were evaluated. Volatile organic compounds from these yeasts decreased mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea by 69%, and by less for Monilinia fructicola, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus carbonarius, Penicillium digitatum, Cladosporium spp., and Colletotrichum spp...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
María Urrutia, José L Rambla, Konstantinos G Alexiou, Antonio Granell, Amparo Monfort
The volatile composition of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruit differs from that of the cultivated strawberry, having more intense and fruity aromas. Over the last few years, the diploid F. vesca has been recognized as a model species for genetic studies of cultivated strawberry (F. x ananassa), and here a previously developed F. vesca/F. bucharica Near Isogenic Line collection (NIL) was used to explore genetic variability of fruit quality traits. Analysis of fruit volatiles by GC-MS in our NIL collection revealed a complex and highly variable profile...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rafaela G Feresin, Sarah A Johnson, Shirin Pourafshar, Jeremiah C Campbell, Salvador J Jaime, Negin Navaei, Marcus L Elam, Neda S Akhavan, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Gershon Tenenbaum, Kenneth Brummel-Smith, Gloria Salazar, Arturo Figueroa, Bahram H Arjmandi
Growing evidence indicates that strawberries are cardioprotective. We conducted an eight-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm clinical trial to investigate the effects of daily consumption of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) control, (2) 25 g FDSP and (3) 50 g FDSP (n = 20 per group). Assessments of body weight, BP, arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and collection of blood samples for analyses of vasoactive and antioxidant molecules were performed at baseline, four and eight weeks...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
Yanqun Xu, Marie Thérèse Charles, Zisheng Luo, Benjamin Mimee, Pierre-Yves Veronneau, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel
Preharvest ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation is an innovative approach for increasing the bioactive phytochemical content of strawberries to increase the disease resistance and nutritional value. This study investigated the changes in individual flavonoids in strawberry developed with three different cumulative doses of preharvest UV-C treatment (low, 9.6 kJ m(-2); middle, 15 kJ m(-2); and high , 29.4 kJ m(-2)). Significant accumulation (p < 0.05) of phenolics (25-75% increase), namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside/rutinoside, glucoside and glucuronide of quercetin and kaempferol, and ellagic acid, was found in the fruit subjected to low and middle supplemental doses of UV-C radiation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Caixia Yang, Tong Han, Jingjing Fu, Yiming Liao, Sha Chen
In August 2016, a yellow vein disease was observed on leaves of Euonymus bungeanus Maxim (Euonymus, Celastraceae) in Liaoning, China. Virions measuring 750 × 13 nm were observed in a sample from the diseased plant. A potexvirus was detected in the sample by small-RNA deep sequencing analysis and recovered by traditional cloning. The genome of this potexvirus consists of 7,279 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' end, and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). Based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the coat protein gene, the virus shared the highest sequence similarity with white clover mosaic virus (WCMV, X16636) (40...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Virology
A Gil, J A Siles, P Márquez, M C Gutiérrez, M A Martín
This study evaluates the feasibility of using simultaneous mass balances of different nutrients as a tool for optimizing feeding composition in anaerobic digestion. Different ratios, among them total chemical oxygen demand/total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TCOD/TKN) and soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD) were assessed. As an example, the TCOD/TVS ratio reached a value of 1.73 kg O2/kg TVS, while, with the exception of the sewage sludge, pig slurry and animal wastes, a linear relationship was established between phosphorus and nitrogen, whose slope was found to be 0...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
Eduardo Cruz-Rus, Rafael Sesmero, José A Ángel-Pérez, José F Sánchez-Sevilla, Detlef Ulrich, Iraida Amaya
Flavor improvement is currently one of the most important goals for strawberry breeders. At the same time, it is one of the most complex traits to improve, involving the balanced combination of several desired characteristics such as high sweetness, moderate acidity, and the appropriate combination of aroma compounds that are beginning to be delineated in consumer tests. DNA-informed breeding will expedite the selection of complex traits, such as flavor, over traditional phenotypic evaluation, particularly when markers linked to several traits of interests are combined during the breeding process...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Felipe Andreazza, Henry E Vacacela Ajila, Khalid Haddi, Felipe B Colares, Angelo Pallini, Eugênio E Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The application of synthetic insecticides remains the most used tool for the management of spotted-wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). However, the management of this pest in the organic production of soft-skinned fruits is a complex task due to the restricted number of registered products. Here, we assessed the toxicity of lime-sulfur and evaluated whether lime-sulfur-treated strawberry plants affected the oviposition and development of D...
October 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
José F Sánchez-Sevilla, José G Vallarino, Sonia Osorio, Aureliano Bombarely, David Posé, Catharina Merchante, Miguel A Botella, Iraida Amaya, Victoriano Valpuesta
RNA-seq has been used to perform global expression analysis of the achene and the receptacle at four stages of fruit ripening, and of the roots and leaves of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). About 967 million reads and 191 Gb of sequence were produced, using Illumina sequencing. Mapping the reads in the related genome of the wild diploid Fragaria vesca revealed differences between the achene and receptacle development program, and reinforced the role played by ethylene in the ripening receptacle. For the strawberry transcriptome assembly, a de novo strategy was followed, generating separate assemblies for each of the ten tissues and stages sampled...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
V J Sravani, N Ravi, N Roopa, S Kumar, A K Pandey, O P Chauhan
Jam like product was prepared using high pressure (HP) processing technology and was compared with thermally processed one for quality attributes. Strawberry pulp was mixed with pectin (1%) and sugar and packed in low density polyethylene pouches (50 g pack size) and processed at 200, 400 and 600 MPa for 30 min at 50 °C. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activities were found to be significantly retained to a better extent in HP processed jams as compared to thermally processed one...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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