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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667175/first-line-drugs-for-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
James M Wright, Vijaya M Musini, Rupam Gill
BACKGROUND: This is the first update of a review published in 2009. Sustained moderate to severe elevations in resting blood pressure leads to a critically important clinical question: What class of drug to use first-line? This review attempted to answer that question. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the mortality and morbidity effects from different first-line antihypertensive drug classes: thiazides (low-dose and high-dose), beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and alpha-blockers, compared to placebo or no treatment...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666676/ranolazine-a-true-pluripotent-cardiovascular-drug-or-jack-of-all-trades-master-of-none
#3
REVIEW
Alice Mezincescu, V J Karthikeyan, Sunil K Nadar
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the majority of patients with CVD are treated with interventional procedures, a substantial number require medical therapy in terms of both prognosis and symptomatic relief. However, commonly used agents such as β-blockers and calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure in patients whose resting pressures are often already low. Ranolazine is a promising agent that does not have significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665423/evaluation-of-four-calcium-channel-blockers-as-fluconazole-resistance-inhibitors-in-candida-glabrata
#4
Lina M Alnajjar, Nailya R Bulatova, Rula M Darwish
OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to evaluate the ability of four calcium channel blockers, verapamil, diltiazem, nicardipine and nifedipine to enhance sensitivity of Candida glabrata strains to fluconazole. METHODS: The synergistic antifungal effect was examined by checkerboard method; fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) was determined. Time-kill curve method was used for the most promising combination to further evaluate the synergetic effects. RESULTS: nicardipine showed additive effect with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible-dose-dependent strains (DSY565 and CBS138) known to express efflux pumps but not against fluconazole-sensitive strains...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664963/trpv4-inhibition-attenuates-stretch-induced-inflammatory-cellular-responses-and-lung-barrier-dysfunction-during-mechanical-ventilation
#5
N Pairet, S Mang, G Fois, M Keck, M Kühnbach, J Gindele, M Frick, P Dietl, D J Lamb
Mechanical ventilation is an important tool for supporting critically ill patients but may also exert pathological forces on lung cells leading to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). We hypothesised that inhibition of the force-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV4) ion channel may attenuate the negative effects of mechanical ventilation. Mechanical stretch increased intracellular Ca2+ influx and induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung epithelial cells that was partially blocked by about 30% with the selective TRPV4 inhibitor GSK2193874, but nearly completely blocked with the pan-calcium channel blocker ruthenium red, suggesting the involvement of more than one calcium channel in the response to mechanical stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664030/do-practice-gaps-exist-in-evidence-based-medication-prescription-at-hospital-discharge-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-coronary-angioplasty
#6
Pradeep Pereira, Aditya Kapoor, Archana Sinha, Surendra K Agarwal, Shantanu Pande, Roopali Khanna, Nilesh Srivastava, Sudeep Kumar, Naveen Garg, Satyendra Tewari, Pravin Goel
Background & objectives: Prescription patterns of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) after coronary artery bypass surgery [coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)] and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at hospital discharge are often not optimal. In view of scarce data from the developing world, a retrospective analysis of medication advice to patients following CABG and PCI was conducted. Methods: Records of 5948 patients (post-PCI: 5152, post-CABG: 796) who underwent revascularization from 2010 to 2014 at a single tertiary care centre in north India were analyzed...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656432/calcium-channel-blockers-and-the-incidence-of-breast-and-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#7
A A Thakur, X Wang, M M Garcia-Betancourt, R A Forse
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer (BCa) and prostate cancer (PCa), both hormone-dependent cancers, are the second leading cause of death in both women and men, respectively. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been thought to increase the risk of cancer by inhibiting calcium signal-mediated apoptosis, but the evidence for this association remains inconclusive. We have reviewed pertinent literature and pooled data to establish a consensus on the relationship of CCB use and the incidence of these two cancers...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656005/the-uricosuric-effects-of-dihydropyridine-calcium-channel-blockers-in-vivo-using-urate-under-excretion-animal-models
#8
Takayuki Hori, Motoshi Ouchi, Naoyuki Otani, Masakatsu Nohara, Asuka Morita, Yusuke Otsuka, Promsuk Jutabha, Ikuko Shibasaki, Yasushi Matsushita, Tomoe Fujita, Hirotsugu Fukuda, Naohiko Anzai
The purpose of this study was to create novel urate under-excretion animal models using pyrazinamide and to evaluate whether dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have uricosuric effects in vivo. Adult male ICR mice were treated with pyrazinamide, vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide: DMSO), or tap water. Thirty minutes later, pyrazinamide-treated mice were given benzbromarone, losartan, nilvadipine, nitrendipine, nifedipine or azelnidipine. Six hours after the second administration, urine (by urinary bladder puncture) and plasma were collected to measure uric acid and creatinine levels, and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) were calculated and evaluated...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653089/modification-of-levosimendan-induced-suppression-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-secretion-in-hypertrophied-rat-atria
#9
Lamei Yu, Kuichang Yuan, Byung Mun Park, Suhn Hee Kim
This study aimed to determine the effects of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer, on atrial contractility and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and its modification in hypertrophied atria. Isolated perfused beating rat atria were used from control and isoproterenol-treated rats. Levosimendan and its metabolite OR-1896 caused a positive inotropic effect and suppressed ANP secretion in rat atria. Similar to levosimendan, the selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) or PDE4 inhibitor also suppressed ANP secretion...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652421/arterial-hypertension-after-age-65-from-epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-to-therapy-do-we-know-where-we-stand
#10
Jerzy Gąsowski, Karolina Piotrowicz, Franz H Messerli
Arterial hypertension is a prevalent disease with great harming potential. After the age of 55 years the remaining lifetime risk of hypertension amounts to 90%. Despite the constant advances some important issues such as the cut-off blood pressure for the initiation of antihypertensive therapy or the therapeutic goal are debated. In this review, we present - based on the available literature - the current concepts concerning the pathophysiology, epi-demiology and antihypertensive therapy in patients aged 65 years or older...
2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642692/noncardiac-chest-pain-a-2018-update
#11
Marilena Durazzo, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Rinaldo Pellicano
Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is defined as recurring, angina-like, chest pain of noncardiac origin. Studies have estimated that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common contributing factor for NCCP. In patients with non-GERD related NCCP, esophageal motility disorders, and functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin are the main underlying mechanisms for symptoms. Epidemiologic studies show a high prevalence of panic disorder, anxiety and major depression in NCCP patients. The diagnostic esophageal workup starts only after that cardiac and pulmonary diseases have been ruled out...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628463/-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-response-to-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-and-aortic-dissection
#12
Masanori Yoshizumi, Jing Zhao, Yoji Kyotani
Acute aortic dissection is the most common life-threatening vascular disease, with sudden onset of severe pain and a high fatality rate. The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vessel wall to cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS), which evokes VSMC death, phenotypic switching, and migration, leading to aortic dissection. We have revealed that CMS of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) caused JNK- and p38-dependent cell death and that a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, olmesartan decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and, subsequently, decreased cell death by CMS...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623857/the-large-conductance-calcium-and-voltage-activated-potassium-channel-bk-and-epilepsy-a-short-review
#13
Kai Zang, Yuwen Zhang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are a kind of widely distributed channel proteins which exist in virtually every cell type of mammals and function to influence membrane excitability and Ca2+ signaling. BK channels can be activated by the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a consequence of neuronal excitation, and then terminate the action potential with the outward K+ flux. Moreover, after-hyperpolarization induced by BK channels closes Cav channels and thus precludes excessive Ca2+ influx...
April 3, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622976/patients-with-non-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-admitted-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-carry-a-better-outcome-compared-to-those-with-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Yasser Yazied Abdelmonem, Adel Abdelgawad Bakr, Hossam Ghanem El-Hossary, Mohammed Mahmoud Abdel Ghany
Background: The characterization of patients who have acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and insignificant coronary stenosis is unclear. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the clinical profile, in-hospital and 3-month outcome of AMI patients with insignificant coronary stenosis in comparison with those with significant disease. Methods: This prospective observational study included 200 consecutive patients admitted with AMI. Group I (100 patients) included patients with insignificant CAD (all lesions <50% stenosis)...
September 2017: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622412/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-aminobenzothiazoles-as-blockers-of-n-and-t-type-calcium-channels
#15
Anjali Sairaman, Fernanda Caldas Cardoso, Anjie Bispat, Richard J Lewis, Peter J Duggan, Kellie L Tuck
Both N- and T-type calcium ion channels have been implicated in pain transmission and the N-type channel is a well-validated target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. An SAR investigation of a series of substituted aminobenzothiazoles identified a subset of five compounds with comparable activity to the positive control Z160 in a FLIPR-based intracellular calcium response assay measuring potency at both CaV 2.2 and CaV 3.2 channels. These compounds may form the basis for the development of drug leads and tool compounds for assessing in vivo effects of variable modulation of CaV 2...
March 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620606/apelin-reduces-nitric-oxide-induced-relaxation-of-cerebral-arteries-by-inhibiting-activation-of-large-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channels
#16
Amreen Mughal, Chengwen Sun, Stephen T OʼRourke
Activation of the apelin/APJ receptor signaling system causes endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation in several peripheral arteries. The effects of apelin in cerebral arteries are unknown; however, apelin inhibits voltage-dependent increases in large-conductance, calcium-activated K channel (BKCa) currents in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Because NO-induced relaxation of cerebral arteries is mediated, in part, by activation of BKCa channels, the goals of this study were to determine the net effect of apelin in cerebral arteries, as well as test the hypothesis that the actions of apelin in cerebral arteries are secondary to stimulation of APJ receptors...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619635/the-role-of-arterial-hypertension-in-development-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-just-a-risk-factor-or-something-more
#17
REVIEW
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Athanasios Frydas, Guido Grassi
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an entity that still raises many questions. The agreement about definition, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approach is still missing. Arterial hypertension is present in majority of patients with HFpEF, and it is still not clear if it represent a risk factor or "sine qua non" condition for HFpEF development. The underlying mechanisms of hypertension and HFpEF involve the same biohumoral systems: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, sympathetic nervous system, and oxidative stress...
April 4, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615102/a-case-report-of-nifedipine-induced-hepatitis-with-jaundice
#18
Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, David Owen, Meghan Ho, David Li, Martin J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal's angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608546/postdiagnostic-calcium-channel-blocker-use-and-breast-cancer-mortality-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
John Busby, Ken Mills, Shu-Dong Zhang, Fabio Giuseppe Liberante, Chris R Cardwell
BACKGROUND: There have long been concerns that calcium channel blockers (CCBs), widely used to treat hypertension, may contribute to malignant growth through the evasion of apoptosis and proliferation of cancer cells. Worryingly, a recent cohort study found breast cancer patients who used CCBs had higher death rates, but interpreting these results was difficult as they were based on all-cause mortality and medication use before cancer diagnosis. We used UK population-based data to more robustly investigate the association between CCB use and cancer-specific mortality...
May 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604966/anoctamin-9-tmem16j-is-a-cation-channel-activated-by-camp-pka-signal
#20
Hyungsup Kim, Hyesu Kim, Jesun Lee, Byeongjun Lee, Hee-Ryang Kim, Jooyoung Jung, Mi-Ock Lee, Uhtaek Oh
Anoctamins (ANOs) are multifunctional membrane proteins that consist of 10 homologs. ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are anion channels activated by intracellular calcium that meditate numerous physiological functions. ANO6 is a scramblase that redistributes phospholipids across the cell membrane. The other homologs are not well characterized. We found ANO9/TMEM16J is a cation channel activated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Intracellular cAMP-activated robust currents in whole cells expressing ANO9, which were inhibited by a PKA blocker...
May 2018: Cell Calcium
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