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calcium channel blockers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641207/ros-and-calcium-signaling-mediated-pathways-involved-in-stress-responses-of-the-marine-microalgae-dunaliella-salina-to-enhanced-uv-b-radiation
#1
Xinxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Ming Wang, Wei Zhang, Bin Zhou, You Wang
UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m(-2) per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640982/mechanisms-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-vasoconstriction-of-rat-afferent-arterioles
#2
Zhengrong Guan, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, Edward W Inscho
AIM: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences resistance vessel function and is implicated in renal pathological processes. Previous studies revealed that S1P evoked potent vasoconstriction of the preglomerular microvasculature, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We postulated that S1P-mediated preglomerular microvascular vasoconstriction involves activation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (L-VDCC) and the rho/rho kinase pathway. METHODS: Afferent arteriolar reactivity was assessed in vitro using the blood-perfused rat juxtamedullary nephron preparation and diameter was measured during exposure to physiological and pharmacological agents...
June 22, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632001/vasodilator-responsiveness-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-identifying-a-distinct-phenotype-with-distinct-physiology-and-distinct-prognosis
#3
David Langleben, Stylianos Orfanos
Within the cohort of patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a group that responds dramatically (VR-PAH) to an acute vasodilator challenge and that has excellent long-term hemodynamic improvement and prognosis on high dose calcium channel blockers compared with vasodilator non-responders (VN-PAH). For the purposes of diagnosing VR-PAH, there is to date no test to replace the acute vasodilator challenge. However, recent studies have identified markers that may aid in the identification of VR-PAH, including peripheral blood lymphocyte RNA expression levels of desmogelin-2 and Ras homolog gene family member Q, and plasma levels of provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus...
June 20, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629764/oral-versus-topical-calcium-channel-blockers-for-chronic-anal-fissure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Khalid Ahmed, Raminta Cerneveciute, Asif Iqbal, Stewart R Walsh, Myles R Joyce
BACKGROUND: Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first line therapy for chronic anal fissures (CAF). Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are associated with similar efficacy but fewer side effects compared to nitrates. However, the optimal formulation (oral versus topical) is unknown. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of oral and topical CCB in the treatment of CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for relevant articles...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629730/synergistic-antinociceptive-effect-of-a-calcium-channel-blocker-and-a-trpv1-blocker-in-an-acute-pain-model-in-mice
#5
Manuella R Palhares, Juliana F Silva, Marcio Junior S Rezende, Duana C Santos, Cláudio A Silva-Junior, Márcia H Borges, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus V Gomez, Célio J Castro Junior
AIMS: Extensive evidence supports a role for voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and TRPV1 receptors in pain transmission and modulation. We investigated the profile of analgesic interaction between Phα1β toxin (a VGCC blocker) and SB366791 (selective TRPV1 antagonist) in a model of acute pain induced by capsaicin. Changes in body temperature induced by combination regimens were also evaluated. MAIN METHODS: Isobolographic approach with a fixed dose-ratio of combined drugs was used to determine whether antinociceptive interaction of Phα1β and SB366791 are subadditive, additive or synergic...
June 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625505/bioequivalence-study-of-a-new-fixed-dose-combination-tablet-containing-s-amlodipine-nicotinate-and-olmesartan-medoxomil-in-healthy-korean-male-subjects
#6
Mi Jin Oh, Hyun Hwan Hwang, Hyun Gyu Kim, Geun Hyeog Lee, Yun-Seok Cho, Sun Young Lee, Soo Yeon Kang, Kyung Hee Cho, Yun Young Lee, Yun Jeong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Seok-Yong Lee
PURPOSE: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623463/hypotonicity-induced-cell-swelling-activates-trpa1
#7
Fumitaka Fujita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yasunori Takayama, Yoshiro Suzuki, Masayuki Takaishi, Makoto Tominaga
Hypotonic solutions can cause painful sensations in nasal and ocular mucosa through molecular mechanisms that are not entirely understood. We clarified the ability of human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) to respond to physical stimulus, and evaluated the response of hTRPA1 to cell swelling under hypotonic conditions. Using a Ca(2+)-imaging method, we found that modulation of AITC-induced hTRPA1 activity occurred under hypotonic conditions. Moreover, cell swelling in hypotonic conditions evoked single-channel activation of hTRPA1 in a cell-attached mode when the patch pipette was attached after cell swelling under hypotonic conditions, but not before swelling...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622547/co-morbidity-and-clinically-significant-interactions-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-other-drugs-in-elderly-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy
#8
Emmi Bruun, Lauri J Virta, Reetta Kälviäinen, Tapani Keränen
PURPOSE: A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. METHOD: From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529)...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618427/matrix-metalloproteases-in-arterial-hypertension-and-their-trend-after-antihypertensive-treatment
#9
Eugenia Hopps, Rosalia Lo Presti, Gregorio Caimi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Arterial hypertension is characterized by vascular remodelling, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Matrix metalloproteases (MPPs) are endopeptidases produced by all the cells present in the vascular wall and are involved in the regulation of the extracellular matrix protein turnover. MMPs contribute to blood vessel formation, remodelling, angiogenesis; whereas an altered expression or activity of MMPs or their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) results correlated with the development and progression of cardiovascular complications...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616215/the-impact-of-renal-protection-clinics-on-prescription-of-and-adherence-to-cardioprotective-drug-therapy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#10
Fanny Lepeytre, Héloise Cardinal, Lorraine Fradette, Jacobien Verhave, Marc Dorais, Jacques LeLorier, Vincent Pichette, François Madore
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of follow-up in renal protection clinics on the prescription of and adherence to cardioprotective drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We studied stage 4 and 5 CKD patients who initiated follow-up in three renal protection clinics. The prescription pattern of antihypertensive agents (AHA) and lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) was measured as the percentage of patients who are prescribed the agents of interest at a given time. Adherence to drug therapy was defined as the percentage of days, during a pre-defined observation period, in which patients have an on-hand supply of their prescribed medications...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611679/icariin-a-novel-blocker-of-sodium-and-calcium-channels-eliminates-early-and-delayed-afterdepolarizations-as-well-as-triggered-activity-in-rabbit-cardiomyocytes
#11
Wanzhen Jiang, Mengliu Zeng, Zhenzhen Cao, Zhipei Liu, Jie Hao, Peipei Zhang, Youjia Tian, Peihua Zhang, Jihua Ma
Icariin, a flavonoid monomer from Herba Epimedii, has confirmed pharmacological and biological effects. However, its effects on arrhythmias and cardiac electrophysiology remain unclear. Here we investigate the effects of icariin on ion currents and action potentials (APs) in the rabbit myocardium. Furthermore, the effects of icariin on aconitine-induced arrhythmias were assessed in whole rabbits. Ion currents and APs were recorded in voltage-clamp and current-clamp mode in rabbit left ventricular myocytes (LVMs) and left atrial myocytes (LAMs), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611661/discovery-and-development-of-calcium-channel-blockers
#12
REVIEW
Théophile Godfraind
In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611355/improved-efficacy-of-an-arthropod-toxin-expressing-fungus-against-insecticide-resistant-malaria-vector-mosquitoes
#13
Etienne Bilgo, Brian Lovett, Weiguo Fang, Niraj Bende, Glenn F King, Abdoulaye Diabate, Raymond J St Leger
The continued success of malaria control efforts requires the development, study and implementation of new technologies that circumvent insecticide resistance. We previously demonstrated that fungal pathogens can provide an effective delivery system for mosquitocidal or malariacidal biomolecules. Here we compared genes from arthropod predators encoding insect specific sodium, potassium and calcium channel blockers for their ability to improve the efficacy of Metarhizium against wild-caught, insecticide-resistant anophelines...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608534/recent-advances-in-the-development-of-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers-for-pain-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Terrance P Snutch, Gerald W Zamponi
Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important regulators of pain signals in afferent pain pathway, and their activities are dysregulated during various chronic pain states. Therefore it stands to reason that inhibiting T-type calcium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons and in the spinal dorsal horn can be targeted for pain relief. This is supported by early pharmacological studies with T-type channel blockers such as ethosuximide, and by analgesic effects of siRNA depletion of Cav3.2 channels. In the past five years, considerable effort has been applied towards identifying novel classes of T-type calcium channel blockers...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608304/lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-lems-a-rare-autoimmune-presynaptic-disorder-often-associated-with-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Benedikt Schoser, Bruno Eymard, Joe Datt, Renato Mantegazza
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder that is related to the loss of functional P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) on presynaptic nerve terminals. Up to 60% of cases occur as a paraneoplastic disorder (SCLC-LEMS), most commonly in association with small cell lung cancer. The remaining cases have an idiopathic non-tumor etiology but are associated with underlying autoimmune disease (NT-LEMS). Patients with LEMS invariably experience progressive proximal muscle weakness, often accompanied by general fatigue and autonomic symptoms...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608026/monotherapy-and-dual-combination-therapies-based-on-olmesartan-a-comprehensive-strategy-to-improve-blood-pressure-control
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Volpe, Caterina Santolamazza, Vittoria Mastromarino, Roberta Coluccia, Allegra Battistoni, Giuliano Tocci
Olmesartan medoxomil is an antihypertensive drug of the class of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists (or blockers), characterized by tight and prolonged binding to AT1 receptor compared to other molecules within the same class. These characteristics produce effective and sustained blood pressure reductions in hypertensive patients at different cardiovascular risk profile with a good tolerability profile. After a brief description of the pharmacological characteristics of olmesartan, we will provide a thorough overview of the clinical studies that investigated its efficacy and safety in the clinical management of hypertensive patients both in monotherapy and in dual combination therapies with either thiazide diuretics or calcium channel blockers...
June 12, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608025/triple-combination-therapies-based-on-olmesartan-a-personalized-therapeutic-approach-to-improve-blood-pressure-control
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Volpe, Caterina Santolamazza, Vittoria Mastromarino, Roberta Coluccia, Allegra Battistoni, Giuliano Tocci
Recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that effective and sustained blood pressure (BP) control is achieved in a relatively small proportion of treated hypertensive patients. Indeed, treatment of hypertension represents a key strategy for preventing coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and cardiovascular death. Several interventions have been proposed by international guidelines for ameliorating hypertension management and control, mostly including integrated and multi-dimensional pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies...
June 12, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597766/identifying-super-responders-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Stephen J Halliday, Anna R Hemnes
Pharmacotherapeutic options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have increased dramatically in the last two decades and along with this have been substantial improvements in survival. Despite these advances, however, PAH remains a progressive and ultimately fatal disease for most patients and only epoprostenol has been shown to improve survival in a randomized control trial. Clinical observations of the heterogeneity of treatment response to different classes of medications across the phenotypically diverse PAH population has led to the identification of patients who derive significantly more benefit from certain medications than the population mean, the so-called "super responders...
April 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597712/blockade-and-knock-out-of-calhm1-channels-attenuate-ischemic-brain-damage
#19
Abraham Cisneros-Mejorado, Miroslav Gottlieb, Asier Ruiz, Juan C Chara, Alberto Pérez-Samartín, Philippe Marambaud, Carlos Matute
Overactivation of purinergic receptors during cerebral ischemia results in a massive release of neurotransmitters, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to the extracellular space which leads to cell death. Some hypothetical pathways of ATP release are large ion channels, such as calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a membrane ion channel that can permeate ATP. Since this transmitter contributes to postischemic brain damage, we hypothesized that CALHM1 activation may be a relevant target to attenuate stroke injury...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595561/sexual-dysfunction-cardiovascular-risk-and-effects-of-pharmacotherapy
#20
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Asterios Karagiannis, Vasilios G Athyros
Sexual dysfunction affects millions of people with an increasing prevalence, worldwide. The pathophysiology of the disease shares several similarities with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, structural vascular damage and subclinical inflammation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) and female sexual dysfunction are common among patients with CVD and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Given the common pathogenesis of the diseases, ED is an independent prognostic factor of future ED events...
June 9, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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