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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923188/electrophysiology-in-fisher-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Satoshi Kuwabara, Yukari Sekiguchi, Sonoko Misawa
Fisher syndrome (FS), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. The lesion sites for these unique clinical features include the oculomotor nerves and group 1a neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, and the presence of FS is determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human nervous system. Neurophysiological findings suggest that ataxia and areflexia are due to an impaired proprioceptive afferent system. Typically, the soleus H-reflex is absent and a body-sway analysis using posturography shows a 1-Hz peak, which indicates proprioception dysfunction...
November 20, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921050/esophagus-related-symptoms-in-first-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-achalasia-is-screening-necessary
#2
Henning R Gockel, Moritz Lesse, Johannes Schumacher, Michaela Müller, Ines Gockel
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of achalasia, the etiology of this esophageal motility disorder remains largely unknown. However, the occurrence of familial achalasia, its association with well-defined genetic syndromes, the candidate gene approach, and recent presentation of the first systematic genome-wide association study on achalasia suggest the involvement of genetic factors. METHODS: In this study we analyzed the frequency with which symptoms associated with esophageal function (swallowing difficulties, regurgitations, retrosternal cramps/pain, heartburn) occur in first-degree relatives of patients with achalasia to determine if screening is useful and justified against the background of early diagnosis in a genetically predisposed population...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921012/expression-of-the-gene-for-autotransporter-autb-of-neisseria-meningitidis-affects-biofilm-formation-and-epithelial-transmigration
#3
Jesús Arenas, Fernanda L Paganelli, Patricia Rodríguez-Castaño, Sara Cano-Crespo, Arie van der Ende, Jos P M van Putten, Jan Tommassen
Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterium that resides as a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but occasionally, it invades the host and causes sepsis and/or meningitis. The bacterium can produce eight autotransporters, seven of which have been studied to some detail. The remaining one, AutB, has not been characterized yet. Here, we show that the autB gene is broadly distributed among pathogenic Neisseria spp. The gene is intact in most meningococcal strains. However, its expression is prone to phase variation due to slipped-strand mispairing at AAGC repeats located within the DNA encoding the signal sequence and is switched off in the vast majority of these strains...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920656/successful-transanal-removal-of-a-rectal-foreign-body-by-abdominal-compression-under-endoscopic-and-x-ray-fluoroscopic-observation-a-case-report
#4
Hironobu Mikami, Norihisa Ishimura, Akihiko Oka, Ichiro Moriyama, Takafumi Yuki, Kousaku Kawashima, Shuichi Sato, Shunji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
We occasionally encounter patients with various types of rectal foreign bodies. When too large to grasp, transanal removal can be difficult. Here, we report a case of successful manual transanal removal of an 18 × 4 × 4 cm silicon rod without complications. A 50-year-old male came to the emergency department of our hospital 12 h after transanal insertion of a whole silicon rod. An abdominal examination showed no evidence of peritonitis, while X-ray and computed tomography findings revealed a large foreign body in the rectum, without any sign of perforation...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920171/chikungunya-pathogenesis-from-the-clinics-to-the-bench
#5
Philippe Gasque, Marie Christine Jaffar Bandjee, Marcela Mercado Reyes, Diego Viasus
Chikungunya alphavirus has caused large epidemics worldwide and leads to acute incapacitating polyarthralgia. The inflammatory reaction over several days will drive robust innate and humoral responses essential to control the infection. Critically, fatal cases and mother-to-child transmission have also been described. Chikungunya can give rise to chronic musculoskeletal diseases, which can last for months to years, particularly in elderly individuals, and occasionally leads to seronegative rheumatoid arthritis-like pathologies...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919615/anatomical-study-of-the-superficial-temporal-branches-of-the-auriculotemporal-nerve-application-to-surgery-and-other-invasive-treatments-to-the-temporal-region
#6
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Christian Fisahn, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) is one of the branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, which gives rise to many branches to the retromandibular and temporal regions. Of these, the superficial temporal branch can occasionally be the cause of migraine headaches and auriculotemporal neuralgia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anatomy of the superficial temporal branch, which has never been described in detail. METHODS: A total of 14 sides of cadaveric heads were used for this study...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919260/a-frameshift-mutation-in-mocos-is-associated-with-familial-renal-syndrome-xanthinuria-in-tyrolean-grey-cattle
#7
Leonardo Murgiano, Vidhya Jagannathan, Christian Piffer, Inmaculada Diez-Prieto, Marilena Bolcato, Arcangelo Gentile, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Renal syndromes are occasionally reported in domestic animals. Two identical twin Tyrolean Grey calves exhibited weight loss, skeletal abnormalities and delayed development associated with kidney abnormalities and formation of uroliths. These signs resembled inherited renal tubular dysplasia found in Japanese Black cattle which is associated with mutations in the claudin 16 gene. Despite demonstrating striking phenotypic similarities, no obvious presence of pathogenic variants of this candidate gene were found...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919246/adjacent-sequences-disclose-potential-for-intra-genomic-dispersal-of-satellite-dna-repeats-and-suggest-a-complex-network-with-transposable-elements
#8
Eva Satović, Tanja Vojvoda Zeljko, Andrea Luchetti, Barbara Mantovani, Miroslav Plohl
BACKGROUND: Satellite DNA (satDNA) sequences are typically arranged as arrays of tandemly repeated monomers. Due to the similarity among monomers, their organizational pattern and abundance, satDNAs are hardly accessible to structural and functional studies and still represent the most obscure genome component. Although many satDNA arrays of diverse length and even single monomers exist in the genome, surprisingly little is known about transition from satDNAs to other sequences. Studying satDNA monomers at junctions and identifying DNA sequences adjacent to them can help to understand the processes that (re)distribute satDNAs and significance that evolution of these sequence elements might have in creating the genomic landscape...
December 6, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918858/d10-in-the-treatment-of-prehospital-hypoglycemia-a-24-month-observational-cohort-study
#9
H Gene Hern, Matthew Kiefer, Derex Louie, Joseph Barger, Harrison J Alter
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital first responders historically have used an IV bolus of 50 mL of 50% dextrose solution (D50) for the treatment of hypoglycemia in the field. A local Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system recently approved a hypoglycemia treatment protocol of IV 10% dextrose solution (D10) due to occasional shortages and higher cost of D50. We use the experience of this EMS system to report the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this approach. METHODS: Over the course of 104 weeks, paramedics treated 1,323 hypoglycemic patients with D10 and recorded patient demographics and clinical outcomes...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918527/induction-and-suppression-of-antiviral-rna-interference-by-influenza-a-virus-in-mammalian-cells
#10
Yang Li, Megha Basavappa, Jinfeng Lu, Shuwei Dong, D Alexander Cronkite, John T Prior, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Paul Hertzog, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Sihem Cheloufi, Fedor V Karginov, Shou-Wei Ding, Kate L Jeffrey
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918262/prevalence-and-correlates-of-vaccine-hesitancy-among-general-practitioners-a-cross-sectional-telephone-survey-in-france-april-to-july-2014
#11
Pierre Verger, Fanny Collange, Lisa Fressard, Aurélie Bocquier, Arnaud Gautier, Céline Pulcini, Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel
This article sought to estimate the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy (VH) among French general practitioners (GPs) and to study its demographic, professional and personal correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey about GPs' vaccination-related attitudes and practices in 2014 in a national panel of 1,712 GPs in private practice, randomly selected from an exhaustive database of health professionals in France. A cluster analysis of various dimensions of VH (self-reported vaccine recommendations, perceptions of vaccine risks and usefulness) identified three clusters: 86% of GPs (95% confidence interval (CI): 84-88) were not or only slightly vaccine-hesitant, 11% (95% CI: 9-12) moderately hesitant and 3% (95% CI: 3-4) highly hesitant or opposed to vaccination...
November 24, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917764/diabetic-cachectic-neuropathy-an-uncommon-neurological-complication-of-diabetes
#12
A Iyagba, A Onwuchekwa
A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdominal swelling, and constipation with occasional episodes of epigastric pain. On examination, she was chronically ill-looking with a body mass index of 17.1 kg/m2, grossly distended abdomen (initially mistaken for gravid abdomen). Blood pressure measurements in the supine and standing positions were 200/130 mmHg and 180/100 mmHg, respectively...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917636/-immune-mediated-necrotizing-myopathy-associated-with-statin-treatment
#13
Jiří Vencovský
Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is an acquired inflammatory myopathy. One form of the disease is associated with serum anti-HMGCR autoantibodies and significant proportion of patients has a history of statin treatment. The disease is rare with the incidence estimated around 23 cases/100 000 statin treated individuals. In contrast to direct statin toxicity, anti-HMGCR associated IMNM is an induced autoimmune disease.Patients suffer particularly from severe muscle weakness, which may be occasionally totally immobilizing...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917338/six-different-extremely-calcified-lesions-of-the-brain-brain-stones
#14
Yurdal Gezercan, Vedat Acik, Gökhan Çavuş, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Emre Bilgin, Hakan Millet, Burak Olmaz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to extend clinical documentation of cerebral calculi by reporting six cases of cerebral calculi with distinct etiologies and localizations. METHODS: We evaluated the age, sex distribution, presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings, pathology results, and location of the calcifications of six patients with intracranial calcifications. RESULTS: Three of the six patients with brain stones were female (50%), and three were male (50%)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917245/reactivity-of-a-ruthenium-carbonyl-complex-in-the-methanol-dehydrogenation-reaction
#15
Fenna F van de Watering, Martin Lutz, Wojciech I Dzik, Bas de Bruin, Joost N H Reek
Finding new catalysts for the release of molecular hydrogen from methanol is of high relevance in the context of the development of sustainable energy carriers. Herein, we report that the ruthenium complex Ru(salbinapht)(CO)(Pi-Pr3) {salbinapht=2-[({2'-[(2-hydroxybenzyl)amino]-[1,1'-binaphthalen]-2-yl}imino)methyl]phenolato} (2) catalyzes the methanol dehydrogenation reaction in the presence of base and water to yield H2, formate, and carbonate. Dihydrogen is the only gas detected and a turnover frequency up to 55 h(-1) at 82 °C is reached...
September 7, 2016: ChemCatChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916633/characterization-of-the-tetraspan-junctional-complex-4jc-superfamily
#16
Amy Chou, Andre Lee, Kevin J Hendargo, Vamsee S Reddy, Maksim A Shlykov, Harikrishnan Kuppusamykrishnan, Arturo Medrano-Soto, Milton H Saier
Connexins or innexins form gap junctions, while claudins and occludins form tight junctions. In this study, statistical data, derived using novel software, indicate that these four junctional protein families and eleven other families of channel and channel auxiliary proteins are related by common descent and comprise the Tetraspan (4 TMS) Junctional Complex (4JC) Superfamily. These proteins all share similar 4 transmembrane α-helical (TMS) topologies. Evidence is presented that they arose via an intragenic duplication event, whereby a 2 TMS-encoding genetic element duplicated tandemly to give 4 TMS proteins...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916139/effects-of-an-ethanol-paired-cs-on-responding-for-ethanol-and-food-comparisons-with-a-stimulus-in-a-truly-random-control-group-and-to-a-food-paired-cs-on-responding-for-food
#17
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
Motivational increases due to exposure to alcohol-paired Conditioned Stimuli (CS) are central to some accounts of alcoholism. However, few studies isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other potential functions. Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) procedures isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other functions. Though there are several relevant studies using PIT, knowledge gaps exist. Particularly, it is not clear that an alcohol-paired CS will increase alcohol seeking compared to the same stimulus in a Truly-Random-Control group, nor whether such increases are specific to alcohol seeking...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916009/insertion-of-a-tracheoesophageal-speech-valve-a-novel-approach-in-a-difficult-situation
#18
C P Yiannakis, R B Townsley, I G Smillie, G L Picozzi
BACKGROUND: Functional voice rehabilitation is becoming increasingly important following total laryngectomy and pharyngolaryngectomy. Tracheoesophageal voice via a shunt valve is currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for voice rehabilitation. Traditional techniques usually allow for the replacement of valves in the out-patient setting; however, patient factors such as altered anatomy may occasionally prevent this. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a novel approach for speech valve insertion that is safe, quick and cost-effective, and which uses equipment commonly available in ENT wards and the operating theatre...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914683/paediatric-cutaneous-adnexal-tumours-a-study-of-559-cases
#19
Amanda M Ireland, Nathan T Harvey, Bligh D Berry, Benjamin A Wood
Cutaneous adnexal tumours encompass a wide group of lesions with apocrine, eccrine, follicular, sebaceous and mixed differentiation. The large majority are benign and represent sporadic lesions, though malignant forms are occasionally encountered and some cases develop in the setting of inherited tumour syndromes. Accurate histological classification can be difficult as there are numerous histological appearances, many of which are individually uncommon, and complex, overlapping and historically variable nomenclature is typical...
November 30, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914587/outcomes-of-chest-wall-resections-in-pediatric-sarcoma-patients
#20
Carmen Lopez, Arlene Correa, Ara Vaporciyan, Mary Austin, David Rice, Andrea Hayes-Jordan
PURPOSE: Chest wall tumors in pediatric patients are rare. This study evaluates outcomes in pediatric patients who have undergone chest wall resections secondary to sarcomas. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for patients <19years old who underwent chest wall resections for sarcoma 1999-2014 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. RESULTS: Of 44 patients, Ewing's sarcoma (n=18) and osteosarcoma (n=16) were most common...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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