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Nmn NikNadia, Chee Wah Tan, Kien Chai Ong, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) neutralization escape mutants were generated with monoclonal antibody MAB979 (Millipore). The VP2-T141I and VP1-D14N substitutions were identified. Using reverse genetics, infectious clones with these substitutions were constructed and tested by neutralization assay with immune sera from mice and humans. The N-terminus VP1-14 is more important than EF loop VP2-141 in acute human infection, mainly because it recognised IgM present in acute infection. The N-terminus VP1 could be a useful target for diagnostics and therapeutic antibodies in acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Angelina Pilatti, Jennifer P Read
AIMS: The present study was divided into two different stages that sought to develop (Stage 1) and validate (Stage 2) the Argentinean-version of the Pregaming Motives Questionnaire (PMQ-Arg), a new, ecologically valid measure to assess pregaming (i.e., the consumption of alcohol prior to attending a social/sporting event where alcohol may or may not be available) motives among Spanish-speaking youth. METHOD: Two separate samples of Argentinian young adults (all last-year pregamers) were recruited by disseminating an invitation through online social networks and e-mail listings...
January 31, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Emeka Dumbili, Clare Williams
Background: Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Methods: Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Denise J Montell
Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xuwei Jiang, Yuqing Hao
The aims of the present study were to identify key genes and pathways associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and predict compounds potentially associated with this type of carcinogenesis. The gene expression profile data of the GSE49515 dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The limma software package was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Biological Networks Gene Ontology tool and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, respectively...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Khary K Rigg, Anthony T Estreet
Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug's recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women "loose." There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Cátia A Sousa, Helena M V M Soares, Eduardo V Soares
The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has spurred concerns about their toxic effects. This work aimed to assess the potential hazards of nickel oxide (NiO) NPs using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cell model. Yeast cells exposed for 6 h to 100 mg/L NiO NPs presented reduced metabolic activity (esterase activity and FUN-1 dye processing) and enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. NiO NPs induced the loss of cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Study of the dissolution of NiO NPs in aqueous media, together with the toxicological data, suggests that the nickel released by the NPs cannot explain all the toxic effects observed in S...
February 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hoi Ping Mok, Nicholas J Norton, Jack C Hirst, Axel Fun, Mikaila Bandara, Mark R Wills, Andrew M L Lever
The persistence of infected T cells harbouring intact HIV proviruses is the barrier to the eradication of HIV. This reservoir is stable over long periods of time despite antiretroviral therapy. There has been controversy on whether low level viral replication is occurring at sanctuary sites periodically reseeding infected cells into the latent reservoir to account its durability. To study viral evolution in a physiologically relevant population of latent viruses, we repeatedly performed virus outgrowth assays on a stably treated HIV positive patient over two years and sequenced the reactivated latent viruses...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Craig A Williams
In 2017, considerable attention has been paid by researchers on early sports specialization for youth athletes. Issues related to injury, burnout, and talent development to name a few have been debated, particularly when contrasted against other opposing youth development approaches, such as a multisport approach. The increasing professionalization of young athletes, a particular concern of this author, is coupled with the ensuing physical and mental pressures on these youngsters, as highlighted by the 2 highlighted publications in this commentary...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
S Reber, J Scheel, L Stoessel, K Schieber, S Jank, C Lüker, F Vitinius, F Grundmann, K-U Eckardt, H-U Prokosch, Y Erim
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a common problem in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Mobile health approaches to improve medication adherence are a current trend, and several medication adherence apps are available. However, it is unknown whether RTRs use these technologies and to what extent. In the present study, the mobile technology affinity of RTRs was analyzed. We hypothesized significant age differences in mobile technology affinity and that mobile technology affinity is associated with better cognitive functioning as well as higher educational level...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Shu-Chi Lu, Wen-Chuan Lin
People who receive peritoneal dialysis (PD) have more freedom than those who are on hemodialysis. However, some PD patients have difficulty adapting to their new environment and thus remain largely homebound. When they work or travel abord, who cannot rely wholly on others, these patients must handle certain life problems alone. It is essential for nursing staff to help PD patients to prepare for overcoming typical inconveniences, improving quality of life, and handling unfamiliar environments. The present study assists patients to arrange domestic and foreign tourism and to participate in various activities...
February 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Willibald Ruch, Sonja Heintz, Tracey Platt, Lisa Wagner, René T Proyer
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alice E Barsoumian, Heather C Yun
Background: The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Bobo Hi-Po Lau, Amy Y M Chow, Daniel F K Wong, Jessie S M Chan, Celia H Y Chan, Rainbow T H Ho, Tsz-Him So, Tai-Chung Lam, Victor Ho-Fun Lee, Anne W M Lee, Sau Fong Chow, Cecilia L W Chan
Compared to cancers at other sites, lung cancer often results in greater psychosocial distress to both the patients and their caregivers, due to the poor prognosis and survival rate, as well as the heavy symptom burden. In recent years, making protocols of proposed or on-going studies publicly available via clinical trial registries and/or peer-reviewed journals has benefited health sciences with timely communication of the latest research trends and improved transparency in reporting. However, such practice is yet to be a common sight in evidence-informed social work...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Midori Matsushita, Rie Koyama, Yue Fun, Yuki Fukuda, Ayaka Nushida, Syoko Nezu, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the direct action of GH signaling in energy homeostasis in myocytes. DESIGN: We investigated the GH-induced expression of UCP3 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts, and rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, as well as its direct effect on the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway using a combination of a reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting...
January 31, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hao-Yu Chiao, Chang-Yi Chou, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng, Chih-Hsin Wang, Shyi-Gen Chen, Niann-Tzyy Dai
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Kim Tien Ng, Xiang Yong Oong, Sin How Lim, Jack Bee Chook, Yutaka Takebe, Yoke Fun Chan, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
Background: Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the main viral etiologic agents of acute respiratory illnesses. Despite the heightened disease burden caused by RV, the viral factors that increase the severity of RV infection, the transmission pattern and seasonality of RV infections remain unclear. Methods: An observational study was conducted among 3,935 patients presenting with acute upper respiratory illnesses in the ambulatory settings between 2012 and 2014. Results: The VP4/VP2 gene was genotyped from all 976 RV-positive specimens, where the predominance of RV-A (49%) was observed, followed by RV-C (38%) and RV-B (13%)...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Claudia Barned, Jennifer Dobson, Alain Stintzi, David Mack, Kieran C O'Doherty
BACKGROUND: Participation in research is associated with benefits and burdens for individual research participants. Children living with a chronic illness are considered particularly vulnerable as they are already burdened with symptoms of their illness. In particular contexts, such as learning healthcare systems (LHS), where research and clinical care are integrated, children with chronic illnesses may be asked to participate in research related to their illness. A growing body of literature has focused on children's perspectives as research subjects; however, a relatively understudied aspect concerns children's experiences of research in clinics where they are also patients...
January 25, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Jay Siwek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Dawn L Hershman, Joseph M Unger, Katherine D Crew, Cathee Till, Heather Greenlee, Lori M Minasian, Carol M Moinpour, Danika L Lew, Louis Fehrenbacher, James L Wade, Siu-Fun Wong, Michael J Fisch, N Lynn Henry, Kathy S Albain
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and disabling side effect of taxanes. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) was unexpectedly found to increase CIPN in a randomized trial. We investigated the long-term patterns of CIPN among patients in this trial. Methods: S0715 was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing ALC (1000 mg three times a day) with placebo for 24 weeks in women undergoing adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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