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S N Sunil Gowda, S Rajasowmiya, V Vadivel, S Banu Devi, A Celestin Jerald, S Marimuthu, N Devipriya
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for treating cancer with or without surgery and chemotherapy. In lung cancer, it is one of the important treatment steps in excising the tumor from the lung tissue; unfortunately, radiation can induce epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), a typical physiological process in which cuboidal shaped epithelial cell loses its phenotype and acquires mesenchymal-like phenotype thus, increases the metastasis progression in the body...
June 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Alexis A Merdjanoff, David M Abramson
Emerging disease threats like Zika pose a risk to naïve populations. In comparison to chronic diseases, there is scientific uncertainty surrounding emerging diseases because of the lack of medical and public health information available as the threat emerges. Further complicating this are the multiple, diverse channels through which people get information. This article used bivariate and multivariate analysis to first describe the breadth of information sources individuals accessed about the Zika virus, and then describe individuals' primary sources of information for Zika using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional data set collected at 3 time points in 2016 (N = 3,698)...
May 2018: Health Security
Mohammad Z Haider, Majedah A Rasoul, Maria Al-Mahdi, Hessa Al-Kandari, Gursev S Dhaunsi
The incidence of type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) has increased steadily in Kuwait during recent years and it is now considered amongst the high-incidence countries. An interaction between susceptibility genes, immune system mediators and environmental factors predispose susceptible individuals to T1DM. We have determined the prevalence of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene functional variant (C1858T; R620W, rs2476601), HLA-DQ and DR alleles and three autoantibodies in Kuwaiti children with T1DM to evaluate their impact on genetic predisposition of the disease...
2018: PloS One
Nael Aldweib, Victor Farah, Robert W W Biederman
Pericardial diseases are relatively common in clinical practice and encountered in various clinical settings with consequent significant morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis as well as management can be complex and challenging, as the clinical presentation is usually non-specific. Therefore, there is an increasing role for cardiac magnetic resonance Imaging (CMR) as an imaging tool to facilitate the diagnosis of pericardial diseases. Herein we describe conventional and unique CMR approaches to provide an increased non-invasive understanding of the pericardium in health and disease including a novel method to diagnose constrictive pericarditis via radio-frequency tissue tagging by defining unique visceral-parietal adherence patterns easily learned by the cardiologist and radiologist...
June 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Zichao Wang, Huiru Zhang, Yingbin Shen, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Xueqin Wang, Jiaqi Wang, Kun Fan, Xiaobei Zhan
Fungal polysaccharides are mainly taken orally, so it is very important to study the absorption mechanism of which in vivo for understanding its biological activities. In this work, a polysaccharide fraction (GLP) was purified from G. lucidum by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Physicochemical characterization indicated that GLP had a molecular weight of 108 kDa and consisted of glucose (35.56%), xylose (40.11%), rhamnose (16.45%) and l-arabinose (7.88%) in a molar radio of 4.51: 5.09: 2.88: 1...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael John Kerins, John Milligan, James Akira Wohlschlegel, Aikseng Ooi
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by inactivation of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are at a high risk of developing kidney cancer of type 2 papillary morphology that is refractory to current radio-, immuno-, and chemo- therapies. Hence, an effective therapy for this deadly form of cancer is urgently needed. Here we show that FH inactivation (FH-/- ) proves synthetic lethal with inducers of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent and nonapoptotic form of cell death...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Science
Giuseppe Taino, Lorenzo Bordini, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The continuous scientific advances against neoplastic diseases affecting all areas of oncology biomedical research. Age is an extremely important factor in cancer development, since the incidence of cancer increases significantly with age. Because of aging of the Italian population, although the incidence is kept constant, the number of cancer diagnosis is inevitably going to increase over time only to increasing age. METHODS: Survival after the diagnosis of cancer is one of the main indicators that allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the health system against the cancer disease...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Israt S Alam, Idan Steinberg, Ophir Vermesh, Nynke S van den Berg, Eben L Rosenthal, Gooitzen M van Dam, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Sophie Hernot, Stephan Rogalla
Intraoperative imaging (IOI) is performed to guide delineation and localization of regions of surgical interest. While oncological surgical planning predominantly utilizes x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US), intraoperative guidance mainly remains on surgeon interpretation and pathology for confirmation. Over the past decades however, intraoperative guidance has evolved significantly with the emergence of several novel imaging technologies, including fluorescence-, Raman, photoacoustic-, and radio-guided approaches...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Galina V Ilyinskaya, Elena V Mukhina, Alesya V Soboleva, Olga V Matveeva, Peter M Chumakov
Background: Canine mastocytomas (mast cell tumors) represent a common malignancy among many dog breeds. A typical treatment strategy for canine mastocytomas includes surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy, although in many cases the therapy fails and the disease progression resumes. New treatment approaches are needed. Aims: The goal of this pilot study was to examine safety and efficacy of oncolytic Sendai virus therapy administered to canine patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous mastocytomas. Materials and Methods: Six canine patients, with variable grades and stages of the disease, received virus therapy, either as a monotherapy, or in combination with surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Areumnuri Kim, Sehwan Shim, Min-Jung Kim, Jae Kyung Myung, Sunhoo Park
Radiation exposure severely damages the hematopoietic system. Although several radio-protectors have been proposed to prevent radiation-induced damage, most agents have limited efficacy. In the present study, we investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could contribute to the expansion of hematopoietic cells and mitigate radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in vitro and in vivo. We found that co-culture with MSCs promoted hematopoietic progenitor/stem cell (HPSCs) maintenance by providing a bone marrow-like microenvironment...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Manuel Suárez-Albela, Manuel A Díaz-Bouza
Pipes are one of the key elements in the construction of ships, which usually contain between 15,000 and 40,000 of them. This huge number, as well as the variety of processes that may be performed on a pipe, require rigorous identification, quality assessment and traceability. Traditionally, such tasks have been carried out by using manual procedures and following documentation on paper, which slows down the production processes and reduces the output of a pipe workshop. This article presents a system that allows for identifying and tracking the pipes of a ship through their construction cycle...
June 17, 2018: Sensors
Leif Måwe, Lena Thorén, Jan Persson
Aims To evaluate the effect of spinal interventions following ISIS guidelines [1]. Methods Data from all patients from April 2012 until February 2014 have been registered and followed up after 4-6 months. Patients were mainly referred from surgeons at the regional hospitals. Employment status, medication, VAS, EQ-5D-5L, EQ-VAS and pain reduction were gathered before and at the follow-up. Only patients receiving any kind of treatment were included. Results So far 419/823 patients have been followed-up. Here we present levels of medication and total pain reduction for all patients and, separately, for patients treated with radio frequency facet joint medial branch neurotomy (n = 76)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Masato Ohara, Ryo Oda, Shogo Toyama, Yusei Katsuyama, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
INTRODUCTION: Closed flexor tendon rupture after a malunited distal radius fracture is rare and usually becomes apparent early after the fracture. Most cases are accompanied by a severe distal radio-ulnar joint capsule injury, wherein bone protrusion (as a spur) directly stresses the tendons. We experienced a nonspecific flexor tendon rupture associated with an old fracture and the presence of collagen disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 63-year-old woman presented with delayed complete rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) of the fifth digit...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
PURPOSE: The anaerobic metabolism of glucose by cancer cells, even under well oxygenated conditions, has been documented by Otto Warburg as early as 1927. Micro-environmental hypoxia and intracellular pathways activating the hypoxia-related gene response, shift cancer cell metabolism to anaerobic pathways. In the current review we focus on a major enzyme involved in anaerobic transformation of pyruvate to lactate, namely lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). CONCLUSIONS: The value of LDH5 as a marker of prognosis of cancer patients, as a predictor of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and, finally, as a major target for cancer treatment and radio-sensitization is reported and discussed...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Sean D McGarry, Sarah L Hurrell, Kenneth A Iczkowski, William Hall, Amy L Kaczmarowski, Anjishnu Banerjee, Tucker Keuter, Kenneth Jacobsohn, John D Bukowy, Marja T Nevalainen, Mark D Hohenwalter, William A See, Peter S LaViolette
PURPOSE: This study aims to combine multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digitized pathology with machine learning to generate predictive maps of histologic features for prostate cancer localization. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-nine patients underwent MRI prior to prostatectomy. After surgery, tissue was sliced according to MRI orientation using patient-specific 3-dimensionally printed slicing jigs. Whole-mount sections were annotated by our pathologist and digitally contoured to differentiate the lumen and epithelium...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Zeyan Peng, Shuyang Dong, Yong Tao, Yingchao Huo, Zhenhua Zhou, Wen Huang, Hongdang Qu, Juan Liu, Yang Chen, Zhiqiang Xu, Yanjiang Wang, Huadong Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cognitive impairment in normal aging but this has not been studied in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of MetS on cognitive impairment in PD. METHODS: This study investigated subjects older than 60 years who were diagnosed with PD. They were enrolled into this study between January 2010 and December 2011, and followed for 5 years. The assessment of cognitive function in subjects with PD was based on the cognitive and neuropsychiatric tests, and MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III...
May 16, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ravi Pant, Siva Shakthi A, Anjali B Yelikar
Wideband excitation and control of Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), both of which rely on coherent interaction between two excitation paths, is challenging. It requires precise control and tuning of interacting resonances or coupling between different resonant structures over a wide frequency range. Gain (Stokes) and absorption (anti-Stokes) resonances associated with the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process can be excited and controlled over a wide frequency range by tuning the pump frequency, its power and profile...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joham Choque-Velasquez, Roberto Colasanti, Julio Resendiz-Nieves, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, Olli Tynninen, Juhani Collan, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi
The papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare grade II-III pineal lesion with peculiar histologic and immunohistochemical features. These tumors mostly occur in adults, rarely in children (19 cases reported up to now). We present a 3-year-old boy who was re-operated for a recurrent PTPR (grade II). The gross total resection of the lesion, through an occipital interhemispheric approach in sitting position, was followed by adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Histological examination revealed tumor progression (grade III), and the MIB-1 proliferation index was higher than 25%...
June 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
C Eichler, J R Petta
We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency LC resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bruno Figueira, Bruno Gonçalves, Hugo Folgado, Nerijus Masiulis, Julio Calleja-González, Jaime Sampaio
The present study aims to identify the accuracy of the NBN23&reg; system, an indoor tracking system based on radio-frequency and standard Bluetooth Low Energy channels. Twelve capture tags were attached to a custom cart with fixed distances of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.8 m. The cart was pushed along a predetermined course following the lines of a standard dimensions Basketball court. The course was performed at low speed (<10.0 km/h), medium speed (>10.0 km/h and <20.0 km/h) and high speed (>20.0 km/h)...
June 14, 2018: Sensors
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