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Meng-Meng Gu, Ming Li, Dexuan Gao, Lang-Huan Liu, Yue Lang, Si-Ming Yang, Hongling Ou, Bo Huang, Ping-Kun Zhou, Zeng-Fu Shang
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in China. Since chemotherapy is the standard clinical intervention for advanced ESCC, the development of highly effective and minimal/non-toxic drugs is essential to improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of the patients. A novel derivative of vanillin, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (BVAN08), has been recently reported to activate different cell death pathways in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that BVAN08 exhibits a potent anti-proliferation effect on ESCC cells (TE-1 and ECA-109) by inhibiting the expression of PLK1, an important mitotic kinase...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
E Wadsworth, A McNeill, L Li, D Hammond, J F Thrasher, H-H Yong, K M Cummings, G T Fong, S C Hitchman
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertising regulations differ across countries. This study examines how differences in e-cigarette advertising regulations influence exposure to e-cigarette advertising, and perceptions about what participants had seen and read about e-cigarettes. Data come from the ITC Four Country Survey (Canada [CA], United States [US], Australia [AU] and United Kingdom [UK]) carried out between August 2013 and March 2015 (n = 3460). In 2014, AU and CA had laws prohibiting the retail sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine while the US and UK had no restrictions, although a voluntary agreement restricting advertising in the UK was introduced during fieldwork...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Julian Gründner, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Michael Stürzl, Roland Croner, Jan Christoph, Dennis Toddenroth
Using gene markers and other patient features to predict clinical outcomes plays a vital role in enhancing clinical decision making and improving prognostic accuracy. This work uses a large set of colorectal cancer patient data to train predictive models using machine learning methods such as random forest, general linear model, and neural network for clinically relevant outcomes including disease free survival, survival, radio-chemotherapy response (RCT-R) and relapse. The most successful predictive models were created for dichotomous outcomes like relapse and RCT-R with accuracies of 0...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Se Won Seo, Jung Woo Seo, Donghwan Kim, Ki-Beom Cheon, Doh-Kwon Lee, Jin Young Kim
The successful use of Al-/Ga-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cell is demonstrated. The AGZO thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The structural, crystallographic, electrical, and optical properties of the AGZO thin films were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of CZTSSe thin film solar cells incorporating the AGZO-based TCO layer were also reported. It has been found that the RF power and substrate temperature of the AGZO thin film are important factors determining the electrical, optical, and structural properties...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hanyeob Nam, Hong-Seok Kim, Jae-Hee Han, Sang Jik Kwon, Eou Sik Cho
As direct formation of p-type two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) films on substrates, tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin films were deposited onto sapphire glass substrate through shadow mask patterns by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering at different sputtering powers ranging from 60 W to 150 W and annealed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) at various high temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 800 °C. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and Raman spectra, better surface roughness and mode dominant E12g and A1g peaks were found for WS2 thin films prepared at higher RF sputtering powers...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Seongha Oh, Yong Seob Park, Pil Ju Ko, Nam-Hoon Kim
Supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices due to their high power density, long cycling life, and short charging time. NiO is one of the alternative inorganic materials that could be used to replace the conventional RuO2 electrodes in these supercapacitors. In the present study, NiO thin film was prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a NiO alloy target. This process offeres several advantages such as the superior adhesion of the resulting thin films and the easy control of the deposition rate...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Donghwan Kim, Hyunsuk Lee, Joohyeon Bae, Hyomin Jeong, Byeongkeun Choi, Taehyun Nam, Jungpil Noh
Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kyeong-Keun Choi, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Won-Beom Lee, Deok-Kee Kim, Chan-Gyung Park
Radio-frequency plasma enhanced CVD (RF-PECVD) carbon films were grown directly on 4-inch 4H-SiC substrates as a capping layer for MOSFET device applications. An approximately 50-nm-thick CVD carbon capping layer was found to reduce the surface roughness, as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profile results revealed that carbon capping layer can suppress the dopant out-diffusion on the implanted surface after annealing even at high temperature (1700 °C) for 30 min...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Leann Lerie Matta, Saranraj Karuppuswami, Premjeet Chahal, Evangelyn C Alocilja
Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented...
April 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
David Azria, Muriel Brengues, Sophie Gourgou, Celine Bourgier
While adjuvant treatments of early breast cancers (BCs) had significantly improved patients' overall survival, some of them will still develop locoregional relapses and/or severe late radio-induced toxicities. Here, we propose to review how to personalize locoregional treatment by identifying patients at high and low risk of locoregional relapse, patients at risk of late radio-induced side effects. We will, therefore, discuss how to enhance BC radiosensitivity. Finally, we will address how personalized radiotherapy could be implemented in prospective clinical trials...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Wei Liu, Xiongyi Huang, Michael S Placzek, Shane W Krska, Paul McQuade, Jacob M Hooker, John T Groves
The first direct C-H 18 F fluorination reaction of unactivated aliphatic sites using no-carrier-added [18 F]fluoride is reported. Under the influence of a manganese porphyrin/iodosylbenzene system, a variety of unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds can be selectively converted to C-18 F bonds. The mild conditions, broad substrate scope and generally inaccessible regiochemistry make this radio-fluorination a powerful alternate to established nucleophilic substitution for the preparation of 18 F labeled radio tracers...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Saskia Roesch, Thomas Lindner, Max Sauter, Anastasia Loktev, Paul Flechsig, Martin Müller, Walter Mier, Rolf Warta, Gerhard Dyckhoff, Christel Herold-Mende, Uwe Haberkorn, Annette Altmann
Alpha v beta 6 (αvβ6) integrin is overexpressed by several carcinomas, and thus considered as target for diagnostic imaging and anti-cancer therapies. Recently, we presented SFITGv6 as a novel potential tracer for imaging and targeted therapy of αvβ6 integin-positive carcinomas. Here, we analyzed affinity and specificity of five native αvβ6 integrin-specific binders in comparison to SFITGv6. Methods: Sunflower trypsin inhibitor (SFTI)-1-based peptides containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif-spanning octamers of fibronectin (SFFN1), tenascin C (SFTNC), vitronectin (SFVTN), and latency-associated peptides (LAP) 1 (SFLAP1), and 3 (SFLAP3) were synthesized and their binding potential to αvβ6 integrin-expressing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines was evaluated...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Patricia Simon, Deepa Camenga, Meghan Morean, Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Among adolescents, low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater exposure to tobacco cigarette advertising and cigarette use. However, associations among SES, e-cigarette advertising and e-cigarette use are not well understood. This study examined exposure to e-cigarette advertisements as a mediator of the relationship between SES and adolescent e-cigarette use. Adolescents (N = 3473; 51% Female) from 8 high schools in Connecticut completed an anonymous survey in Spring 2015. Mediation analysis was used to examine whether the total number of sources of recent e-cigarette advertising exposure (e...
April 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Tevfik Kaplan, Ayhan Comert, Ali Firat Esmer, Gökçe Kaan Ataç, Halil Ibrahim Acar, Bulent Ozkurt, Ibrahim Tekdemir, Serdar Han
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to identify possible compression points along the transit route of the subclavian artery and to provide a detailed anatomical analysis of areas that are involved in the surgical management of the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). The results of the current study are based on measurements from cadavers, computed tomography (CT) scans and dry adult first ribs. METHODS: The width and length of the interscalene space and the width of the costoclavicular passage were measured on 18 cervical dissections in 9 cadavers, on 50 dry first ribs and on CT angiography sections from 15 patients whose conditions were not related to TOS...
April 16, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
J Benedikt, M Mokhtar Hefny, A Shaw, B R Buckley, F Iza, S Schäkermann, J E Bandow
Non-equilibrium radio-frequency driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in He/0.6%O2 gas mixture has been used to study the reaction mechanism of plasma-generated oxygen atoms in aqueous solutions. The effluent from the plasma source operated with standard and 18O-labeled O2 gas was used to treat water in the presence of phenol as a chemical probe. Comparing the mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data of the solutions treated with plasma under normal and labeled oxygen provides clear evidence that O(aq) originating from the gas phase enters the liquid and reacts directly with phenol, without any intermediate reactions...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mirella Baroni, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie, Paola Fernanda Fedatto, Augusto Faria Andrade, Veridiana Kill Suazo, Gustavo Alencastro Veiga Cruzeiro, Rosane de Paula Queiroz, Luiz Gonzaga Tone, Carlos Alberto Scrideli
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor affecting adults. In pediatric patients, GBM exhibits genetic variations distinct from those identified in the adult GBM phenotype. This tumor exhibits complex genetic changes leading to malignant progression and resistance to standard therapies including radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment. The GDF15 gene codes for a growth factor whose expression is altered in the presence of inflammations and malignancies...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Adrian Münscher, Sebastian Prochnow, Amit Gulati, Guido Sauter, Balazs Lörincz, Marco Blessmann, Henning Hanken, Arne Böttcher, Till Sebastian Clauditz
OBJECTIVES: Strong expression of survivin is associated with worse survival in many different tumours, and in cell culture, a correlation between radiation resistance and survivin expression can be seen. The potential of survivin expression as a prognostic/predictive marker or therapeutic target has not been examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 452 tissue samples and clinical data from patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx/hypopharynx (LSCC), oral cavity (OSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC) treated in the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2002 and 2006...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Viveca Björnhagen, Kristina Schüldt Ekholm, Flemming Larsen, Jan Ekholm
OBJECTIVE: To follow up the long-term outcome in return-to-work (RTW) rate in burn-injury patients, and to determine the degree of impairment in pulmonary and muscular function and exercise tolerance. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study without a control group. PATIENTS: Twenty-five burn-injury patients referred for medical-vocational rehabilitation. METHODS: Return-to-work rate was followed after completed medical-vocational rehabilitation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Zhen Liu, Jinping Sui, Zhenhua Wei, Xiang Li
This paper focuses on developing an anti-velocity jamming strategy that enhances the ability of a pulse-Doppler (PD) radar to detect moving targets in the presence of translational and/or micro motion velocity jamming generated by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) repeat jammers. The strategy adopts random pulse initial phase (RPIP) pulses as its transmitted signal and thus gets DRFM jammers not adaptable to the randomness of initial phase of the transmitted pulses in the pulse repetition interval (PRI) domain...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
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