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Short versus long acting benzodiazepine

Willy Gomm, Klaus von Holt, Friederike Thomé, Karl Broich, Wolfgang Maier, Klaus Weckbecker, Anne Fink, Gabriele Doblhammer, Britta Haenisch
BACKGROUND: While acute detrimental effects of benzodiazepine (BDZ), and BDZ and related z-substance (BDZR) use on cognition and memory are known, the association of BDZR use and risk of dementia in the elderly is controversially discussed. Previous studies on cohort or claims data mostly show an increased risk for dementia with the use of BDZs or BDZRs. For Germany, analyses on large population-based data sets are missing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between regular BDZR use and incident any dementia in a large German claims data set...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Keith M Borkett, Dennis S Riff, Howard I Schwartz, Peter J Winkle, Daniel J Pambianco, James P Lees, Karin Wilhelm-Ogunbiyi
BACKGROUND: This exploratory study was the first study of remimazolam in patients to assess the safety and efficacy of different single doses for procedural sedation. METHODS: Patients scheduled to undergo a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were randomized to receive 1 of 3 doses of remimazolam or midazolam (25 per group) in a double-blind manner. After a single dose of study drug to achieve sedation, patients underwent gastroscopy. We assessed the success of the procedure, sedation levels, recovery from sedation, and safety...
April 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Judith A Turner, Kathleen Saunders, Susan M Shortreed, Linda LeResche, Kim Riddell, Suzanne E Rapp, Michael Von Korff
BACKGROUND: Urine drug tests (UDTs) are recommended for patients on chronic opioid therapy (COT). Knowledge of the risk factors for aberrant UDT results could help optimize their use. OBJECTIVE: To identify primary care COT patient and opioid regimen characteristics associated with aberrant UDT results. DESIGN: Population-based observational. SAMPLE: 5,420 UDTs for Group Health integrated group practice COT patients...
December 2014: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Murray A Echt, Elizabeth J Samelson, Marian T Hannan, Alyssa B Dufour, Sarah D Berry
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that psychotropic drug changes may signal an acute period of time whereby a person is highly vulnerable to fall. It is unknown whether certain classes of psychotropic agents are less safe with respect to the acute risk of falls. Our purpose was to compare fall rates in the 7 days following a change of an antidepressant, antipsychotic, or benzodiazepine. We also identified specific times when residents are at high risk for falls with respect to a psychotropic drug change...
2013: BMC Geriatrics
Angela L Hill, Bin Sun, David P McDonnell
BACKGROUND: The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) has been shown to be generally low among patients with schizophrenia receiving oral olanzapine. A long-acting injection (LAI) of olanzapine has recently been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in a number of countries. Accordingly, the objective of the current analyses was to compare the incidences of EPS during treatment with olanzapine LAI versus oral olanzapine. METHODS: The incidences of treatment-emergent EPS were examined in adults with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine LAI or oral olanzapine for up to 3 years...
January 2014: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Fernanda Rosa, Andreas Schreiner, Pierre Thomas, Tarek Sherif
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia or related disorders often switch antipsychotic therapy, most commonly due to lack of efficacy and side effects. The differences in anticipated efficacy and tolerability among atypical antipsychotics may drive switching behaviours. Switching to long-acting antipsychotics may improve adherence. Improving adherence is essential as relatively short medication gaps significantly increase the risk of schizophrenia hospitalizations. Long-term treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic, versus oral atypical antipsychotics showed better adherence with RLAI...
April 1, 2012: Clinical Drug Investigation
Sascha Dublin, Rod L Walker, Michael L Jackson, Jennifer C Nelson, Noel S Weiss, Michael Von Korff, Lisa A Jackson
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether use of opioids or benzodiazepines is associated with risk of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: An integrated healthcare delivery system. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling, immunocompetent adults aged 65 to 94 from 2000 to 2003. Presumptive pneumonia cases were identified from health plan automated data and validated through medical record review...
October 2011: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Fernando Cañas, Hans-Jürgen Möller
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Although atypical antipsychotics have beneficial efficacy and tolerance, non-adherence and partial adherence remain in patients treated for schizophrenia. Long-acting injectable or depot atypical antipsychotics offer better medication adherence and tolerability advantages. Currently, two drugs are available for the treatment of schizophrenia, risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and olanzapine pamoate (OP). AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: Short- and long-term safety and tolerability data on RLAI and OP from January 2006 through September 2009 were reviewed by performing Medline and PubMed searches, reviewing abstracts and poster presentations, and viewing available material from the FDA and European Medicines Agency...
September 2010: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Michael H Wiegand
The popularity of antidepressants in the treatment of insomnia is not supported by a large amount of convincing data, but rather by opinions and beliefs of the prescribing physicians on the advantages of these agents compared with drugs acting on the benzodiazepine receptor or other drugs used for the treatment of insomnia. The existing data do not allow for clear-cut, evidence-based recommendations concerning the use of antidepressants in insomnia. Our conclusions result from a few short-term studies on single agents, clinical experience and inferences from knowledge on the effect of antidepressants in other indications...
2008: Drugs
M Alan Brookhart, Jeremy A Rassen, Philip S Wang, Colin Dormuth, Helen Mogun, Sebastian Schneeweiss
BACKGROUND: Postmarketing studies of prescription drugs are challenging because prognostic variables that determine treatment choices are often unmeasured. In this setting, instrumental variable (IV) methods that exploit differences in prescribing patterns between physicians may be used to estimate treatment effects; however, IV methods require strong assumptions to yield consistent estimates. We sought to explore the validity of physician-level IV in a comparative study of short-term mortality risk among elderly users of conventional versus atypical antipsychotic medications (APM)...
October 2007: Medical Care
David K Conn, Robert Madan
This paper reviews the use of sleep-promoting medications in nursing home residents with reference to risks versus benefits. Up to two-thirds of elderly people living in institutions experience sleep disturbance. The aetiology of sleep disturbance includes poor sleep hygiene, medical and psychiatric disorders, sleep apnoea, periodic limb movements and restless leg syndrome. One key factor in the development of sleep disturbance in the nursing home is the environment, particularly with respect to high levels of night-time noise and light, low levels of daytime light, and care routines that do not promote sleep...
2006: Drugs & Aging
K Tu, M M Mamdani, J E Hux, J B Tu
OBJECTIVES: The extensive use of benzodiazepines has been a concern of healthcare providers and policy makers in Canada and around the world. The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends in benzodiazepine prescriptions dispensed in older people from 1993-1998. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cross-sectional study using administrative databases. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: The over 1 million residents of Ontario age 65 and older covered by the provincial universal drug benefit program...
October 2001: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
R M Leipzig, R G Cumming, M E Tinetti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate critically the evidence linking psychotropic drugs with falls in older people. DESIGN: Fixed-effects meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: English-language articles in MEDLINE (1966 - March 1996) indexed under accidents or accidental falls and aged or age factors; bibliographies of retrieved papers. STUDY SELECTION: Systematic evaluation of sedative/hypnotic, antidepressant, or neuroleptic use with falling in people aged 60 and older...
January 1999: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
R G Cumming
About 30% of people aged over 65 years living in the community fall at least once a year; the fall rate is even higher in nursing homes. Many of these falls lead to fractures, the most serious type being hip fractures. Whether or not the use of various medications causes falls and fractures has been the subject of more than 50 observational epidemiological studies, most published after 1988. Few of these studies were specifically designed to investigate the associations between medication use and falls, so most have methodological limitations...
January 1998: Drugs & Aging
M Lader
Anxiety syndromes are poorly defined and classified and none of the systems at present in use is entirely satisfactory: some attempt to define anxiety states purely in terms of symptoms, while others do so by viewing anxiety as the product of interactions between external events and innate tendencies. Whatever scheme is used, however, it is essential that the type and level of anxiety is assessed before undertaking drug treatment. In general, tranquillizers such as benzodiazepines are more effective in lessening acute or chronic sustained levels of anxiety than peaks, as in panic attacks...
1984: Current Medical Research and Opinion
D D Breimer, R Jochemsen, H H von Albert
Among the various benzodiazepines large differences exist with regard to their pharmacokinetic properties and metabolism in man. Some are eliminated from the body at a relatively slow rate (e. g. diazepam), others are metabolized rather rapidly (e. g. oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam). Several benzodiazepines have the long-acting metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam in common (diazepam, fosazepam, prazepam, clorazepate). Such differences may be very important clinically because pharmacokinetic factors will determine the duration of drug effect and pharmacokinetic parameters constitute the basis for a rational dosage regimen...
1980: Arzneimittel-Forschung
I Bertin, G Colombo, M Furlanut, P Benetello
Chlordesmethyldiazepam a long-acting benzodiazepine was compared with lorazepam a short-acting one in a double-blind placebo cross-over study against generalized anxiety disorders. Chlordesmethyldiazepam therapy was more effective than lorazepam. Clinical efficacy, drowsiness and insomnia seem well correlated with pharmacokinetic properties of these two benzodiazepines. These results further support the use of a long-acting benzodiazepine rather than a short-acting one as an anti-anxiety agent.
1989: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research
G D Burrows, T R Norman, F K Judd, P F Marriott
An increasing body of evidence suggests that benzodiazepines--which have long been considered the drugs of choice in the treatment of various anxiety disorders due to their relative lack of side effects, lack of adverse drug reaction, their safety, and increased efficacy over other agents--are effective in the treatment of panic disorders. Originally, the benzodiazepines were believed to be devoid of dependence-inducing properties, even at high doses. Recent evidence, however, suggests that discontinuation of both high and normal doses of both short- and long-acting benzodiazepines generally results in similar withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety and sleep and perceptual disturbances...
1990: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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