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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143616/diagnostic-accuracy-of-detection-and-quantification-of-hbv-dna-and-hcv-rna-using-dried-blood-spot-dbs-samples-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Berit Lange, Teri Roberts, Jennifer Cohn, Jamie Greenman, Johannes Camp, Azumi Ishizaki, Luke Messac, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe van de Perre, Christine Pichler, Claudia M Denkinger, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: The detection and quantification of hepatitis B (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C (HCV) RNA in whole blood collected on dried blood spots (DBS) may facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment of HBV and HCV infection in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of DBS compared to venous blood samples for detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA in two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA and HCV RNA from DBS compared to venous blood samples...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141248/association-of-functional-genetic-variants-of-hotair-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-susceptibility-in-a-chinese-population
#3
Hao Li, Xian-Mei Tang, Yangchen Liu, Weizhen Li, Qiaoyun Chen, Yan Pan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HOTAIR are related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese population. METHODS: We genotyped three SNPs of HOTAIR in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) case-control study, including 482 cases and 520 control subjects...
November 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134150/hcv-core-antigen-is-an-alternative-marker-to-hcv-rna-for-evaluating-active-hcv-infection-implications-for-improved-diagnostic-option-in-an-era-of-affordable-daas
#4
Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Chompoonut Auphimai, Nipaporn Siripon, Sirapa Klinfueng, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
The core antigen of the hepatitis C virus (HCV Ag) presents an alternative marker to HCV RNA when screening patients for HCV viremia. This study sought to evaluate the utility of HCV Ag as a marker to assess active HCV infection in individuals residing in an HCV-endemic area. From 298 HCV-seropositive individuals evaluated for the presence of anti-HCV antibody, HCV Ag and HCV RNA, anti-HCV antibody was detected in 252 individuals (signal-to-cutoff ratios ≥5), HCV RNA was detected in 222 individuals (88%), and HCV Ag was reactive (≥3 fmol/L) in 220 individuals (87%)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133129/hbsag-mrna-degradation-induced-by-dihydroquinolizinone-molecule-depends-on-hbv-posttranscriptional-regulatory-element
#5
Tianlun Zhou, Timothy Block, Fei Liu, Andrew S Kondratowicz, Liren Sun, Siddhartha Rawat, Jeffrey Branson, Fang Guo, Hongyan Liang, Lauren Bailey, Chris Moore, Xiaohe Wang, Andy Cuconatti, Min Gao, Amy C H Lee, Troy Harasym, Tim Chiu, Dimitar Gotchev, Bruce Dorsey, Rene Rijnbrand, Michael J Sofia
In pursuit of novel therapeutics targeting the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we evaluated a dihydroquinolizinone compound (DHQ-1) that possessed nanomolar activities against the production of virion and surface protein (HBsAg) in tissue culture. This compound also showed broad HBV genotype coverage and was inactive against a panel of DNA and RNA viruses of other species. Oral administration of DHQ-1 in the AAV-HBV mouse model resulted in a strong reduction of serum HBsAg as soon as 4 days following the commencement of treatment...
November 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129707/apobec3b-edits-hbv-dna-and-inhibits-hbv-replication-during-reverse-transcription
#6
Yanmeng Chen, Jie Hu, Xuefei Cai, Yao Huang, Xing Zhou, Zeng Tu, Jieli Hu, John E Tavis, Ni Tang, Ailong Huang, Yuan Hu
Hepatitis B virus is a partially double-stranded DNA virus that replicates by reverse transcription, which occurs within viral core particles in the cytoplasm. The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B is a cellular restriction factor for HBV. Recently, it was reported that APOBEC3B can edit HBV cccDNA in the nucleus, causing its degradation. However, whether and how it can edit HBV core-associated DNAs during reverse transcription is unclear. Our studies to address this question revealed the following: First, silencing endogenous APOBEC3B in an HBV infection system lead to upregulation of HBV replication...
November 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119358/hepatitis-b-c-and-d-virus-genotypes-detected-in-hbsag-or-anti-hcv-positive-people-from-the-republic-of-moldova
#7
Ala Gori, Stela Gheorgita, Constantin Spinu, Iurie Pinzaru, Ala Halacu, Octavian Sajen, Luminița Suveica, Aurélie Sausy, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
In the Republic of Moldova, little is known about hepatitis B, C and D virus (HBV, HCV, HDV) genotypes, although the genetic variant may influence the course and outcome of disease. For HBV genotyping, 301 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive sera collected in 2010 and 2011 from drug users, prison inmates, commercial sex workers, and the general population in different geographical regions were investigated. The 31 HBsAg-positive sera collected in 2011 were also tested for HDV. Eighty-eight anti-HCV-positive sera collected between 2010 and 2011 from the general population and health care workers were used for HCV genotyping...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116221/establishment-of-a-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-assay-for-imaging-hepatitis-b-virus-nucleic-acids-in-cell-culture-models
#8
Xiaonan Zhang, Lei Yue, Zhanqing Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
While chronic hepatitis B remains a global public health problem, the detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the key molecular events leading to the multiplication and egress of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are still largely unclear. Previously, we developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization assay for detection of HBV RNA, DNA and covalently closed circular DNA in clinical liver biopsies. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent in situ hybridization method for the visualization of HBV RNA, HBV core particle DNA and intranuclear DNA in a tetracycline-inducible HBV replication system (HepAD38) and a de novo infection system (HepG2-NTCP)...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113909/the-chaperone-dynein-ll1-mediates-cytoplasmic-transport-of-empty-and-mature-hepatitis-b-virus-capsids
#9
Quentin Osseman, Lara Gallucci, Shelly Au, Christian Cazenave, Elodie Berdance, Marie-Lise Blondot, Aurélia Cassany, Dominique Bégu, Jessica Ragues, Cindy Aknin, Irina Sominskaya, Andris Dishlers, Birgit Rabe, Fenja Anderson, Nelly Panté, Michael Kann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a DNA genome but replicates within nucleus by transcription of an RNA pregenome, which is converted to DNA in cytoplasmic capsids. Capsids in this compartment are correlated with inflammation and epitopes of the capsid protein core (Cp) are the main target for T cell-mediated immune response. We investigated the mechanism of cytoplasmic capsid transport, which is important for infection but also for cytosolic capsid removal. METHODS: We used virion-derived capsids with a mature rcDNA (matC), empty capsids (empC), and RNA containing capsids (rnaC) as control...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113304/significant-association-of-yap1-and-hspc111-proteins-with-poor-prognosis-in-chinese-gastric-cancer-patients
#10
Shanshan Huang, Lingling Zhu, Yuan Cao, Li Li, Yongtao Xie, Jun Deng, Jianping Xiong
Hippo-YAP1 is a tumor-suppressor signaling pathway that inhibits cell proliferation and accelerates apoptosis. However, the role of YAP1 in gastric cancer (GC) is still in dispute. Ribosomal biogenesis is closely correlated with human malignancies. HBV pre-S2 trans-regulated protein 3 (HSPC111) is a portion of an RNA-dependent complex and plays a crucial role in ribosome biosynthesis. Nevertheless, little is known about the expression and function of this factor in GC. In the present study, we evaluated the significance of YAP1 together with HSPC111 in gastric cancer...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111540/transcription-and-regulation-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genes-in-host-sperm-cells
#11
Ying Zhong, Dong-Ling Liu, Mohamed Morsi M Ahmed, Peng-Hao Li, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Qing-Dong Xie, Xiao-Qing Xu, Ting-Ting Han, Zhi-Wei Hou, Ji-Hua Huang, Lan Xu, Tian-Hua Huang
To investigate whether transcription of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene occurs in human sperm, total RNA was extracted from sperm of patients with chronic HBV infection (test-1), from donor sperm transfected with a plasmid containing the full-length HBV genome (test-2), and from nontransfected donor sperm (control), used as the template for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive bands for HBV DNA were observed in the test groups but not in the control. Next, to identify the role of host genes in regulating viral gene transcription in sperm, total RNA was extracted from 2-cell embryos derived from hamster oocytes fertilized in vitro by HBV-transfected (test) or nontransfected (control) human sperm and successively subjected to SMART-PCR, suppression subtractive hybridization, T/A cloning, bacterial amplification, microarray hybridization, sequencing and the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search to isolate differentially expressed genes...
November 7, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107929/viral-sequences-in-human-cancer
#12
Paul G Cantalupo, Joshua P Katz, James M Pipas
We have developed a virus detection and discovery computational pipeline, Pickaxe, and applied it to NGS databases provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed a collection of whole genome (WGS), exome (WXS), and RNA (RNA-Seq) sequencing libraries from 3052 participants across 22 different cancers. NGS data from nearly all tumor and normal tissues examined contained contaminating viral sequences. Intensive computational and manual efforts are required to remove these artifacts. We found that several different types of cancers harbored Herpesviruses including EBV, CMV, HHV1, HHV2, HHV6 and HHV7...
November 3, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091324/lncrna-expression-profiles-in-hbv-transformed-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-treated-with-a-novel-inhibitor-of-human-la-protein
#13
Jiaqian Pan, Shuangmei Tong, Jing Tang
We previously identified a novel inhibitor of La protein, H11, which inhibited hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication by inhibiting the interaction between La protein and HBV RNA. However, the other cellular factors involved in this process remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism of H11-mediated inhibition of HBV infection, a lncRNA microarray analysis was performed using H11-treated and untreated stable HBV-expressing human hepatoblastoma HepG2.2.15 cells. The profiles of differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were generated and analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079518/efficacy-of-nvr-3-778-alone-and-in-combination-with-pegylated-interferon-vs-entecavir-in-upa-scid-mice-with-humanized-livers-and-hbv-infection
#14
Klaus Klumpp, Takashi Shimada, Lena Allweiss, Tassilo Volz, Marc Lütgehetmann, G Hartman, Osvaldo A Flores, Angela M Lam, Maura Dandri
BACKGROUND & AIMS: NVR3-778 is a capsid assembly modulator in clinical development. We determined the in vivo anti-viral efficacy and effects on innate and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses of NVR3-778 alone or in combination with pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFN) and compared with entecavir. METHODS: We performed 2 studies, with a total of 61 uPA/SCID mice with humanized livers. Mice were infected with a HBV genotype C preparation; we waited 8 weeks for persistent infection of the human hepatocytes in livers of mice...
October 24, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079285/a-novel-orally-available-small-molecule-that-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-expression
#15
Henrik Mueller, Steffen Wildum, Souphalone Luangsay, Johanna Walther, Anais Lopez, Philipp Tropberger, Giorgio Ottaviani, Wenzhe Lu, Neil John Parrott, Jitao David Zhang, Roland Schmucki, Tomas Racek, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Erich Kueng, Floriane Point, Xue Zhou, Guido Steiner, Marc Lütgehetmann, Gianna Rapp, Tassilo Volz, Maura Dandri, Song Yang, John A T Young, Hassan Javanbakht
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The hallmarks of chronic HBV infection are a high viral load (HBV DNA) and even higher levels (>100-fold in excess of virions) of non-infectious membranous particles containing the tolerogenic viral S antigen (HBsAg). Currently, standard treatment effectively reduces viremia but only rarely results in a functional cure (defined as sustained HBsAg loss). There is an urgent need to identify novel therapies that reduce HBsAg levels and restore virus-specific immune responsiveness in patients...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065733/hepatitis-b-core-protein-as-a-therapeutic-target
#16
Lung-Yi Mak, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man Fung Yuen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure, due to the presence of covalently-closed-circular DNA and virus-mediated blunting of host immune response. Existing therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogue or pegylated-interferon are not sufficient to achieve a high rate of HBV surface antigen seroclearance, a more desirable treatment outcome. Novel therapeutic agents targeting alternative viral replication steps are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) as a therapeutic target...
November 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065155/prmt5-a-novel-regulator-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-and-an-arginine-methylase-of-hbv-core
#17
Barbora Lubyova, Jan Hodek, Ales Zabransky, Hana Prouzova, Martin Hubalek, Ivan Hirsch, Jan Weber
In mammals, protein arginine methyltransferase 5, PRMT5, is the main type II enzyme responsible for the majority of symmetric dimethylarginine formation in polypeptides. Recent study reported that PRMT5 restricts Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication through epigenetic repression of HBV DNA transcription and interference with encapsidation of pregenomic RNA. Here we demonstrate that PRMT5 interacts with the HBV core (HBc) protein and dimethylates arginine residues within the arginine-rich domain (ARD) of the carboxyl-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057524/organ-transplantation-from-increased-infectious-risk-donors-the-experience-of-the-nord-italia-transplant-program-a-retrospective-study
#18
Paolo Antonio Grossi, Daniela Dalla Gasperina, Domenico Lombardi, Andrea Ricci, Giuseppe Piccolo, Alessandro Nanni Costa
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and the clinical outcome associated with organ transplantation from increased infectious risk donors (IRD). We retrospectively identified all adult deceased IRD referred to the Nord Italia Transplant program coordinating center from November 2006 to November 2011. All potential donors were screened for social risk factors that may increase the risk of donor-derived infection with human immunodeficiency (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
October 23, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046350/host-transcription-factor-speckled-110kda-sp110-a-nuclear-body-protein-is-hijacked-by-hepatitis-b-virus-protein-x-for-viral-persistence
#19
Isha Sengupta, Dipanwita Das, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Runu Chakravarty, Chandrima Das
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PMLNB) are sub-nuclear organelles which are the hub of numerous proteins. DNA/RNA viruses often hijack cellular-factors resident in PML-NBs to promote their proliferation in host cells. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), belonging to Hepadnaviridae family, remains undetected in early infection as it does not induce the innate immune response and is known to be the cause of several hepatic diseases leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The association of PML-NB proteins and HBV is being addressed in a number of recent studies...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020289/a-novel-human-pegivirus-hpgv-2-hhpgv-1-is-tightly-associated-with-hcv-infection-and-hcv-hiv-1-co-infection
#20
Haiying Wang, Zhengwei Wan, Ru Xu, Yujuan Guan, Nalin Zhu, Jianping Li, Zhiwei Xie, Aiqi Lu, Fuchun Zhang, Yongshui Fu, Shixing Tang
Background: HPgV-2 is a novel blood-borne human pegivirus that mainly infects HCV-infected subjects. We have investigated the prevalence of HPgV-2 in China, its association with HCV and HIV-1, and the impact on HCV viral load and liver damage. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with both blood donors and HCV- and HIV-1-infected patients in Guangzhou, China. All subjects were screened for antiHPgV-2 and HPgV-2 RNA. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from electronic medical records...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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