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Hiroki Hamamoto, Kentaro Maemura, Kentaro Matsuo, Kohei Taniguchi, Yoshihisa Tanaka, Sugiko Futaki, Atsushi Takeshita, Akira Asai, Michihiro Hayashi, Yoshinobu Hirose, Yoichi Kondo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. We previously showed that expression of Delta-like 3 (DLL3), a member of the family of Delta/Serrate/Lag2 ligands for the Notch receptor, is silenced by aberrant DNA methylation and that overexpression of DLL3 in an HCC cell line induces cellular apoptosis. However, how DLL3 expression is regulated during hepatocarcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we show that silencing of DLL3 during hepatocarcinogenesis is closely related to viral infection, especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (p = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kombo F N'Guessan, Ceejay Boyce, Awewura Kwara, Timothy N A Archampong, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena W Sagoe, Ernest Kenu, Adjoa Obo-Akwa, Jason T Blackard
Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of multiple HPgV genotypes with distinct geographic locations. HPgV is of interest because of its potential beneficial impact on HIV disease progression. Despite this, the effects of HPgV in the context of other viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are poorly understood, and data from resource-limited settings are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPgV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana...
March 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lamia Yacoubi, Ségolène Brichler, Frédéric Le Gal, Henda Triki, Emmanuel Gordien
While Tunisia is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV), a recent large-scale retrospective study, revealed a very low prevalence (2%) of hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) (Yacoubi et al. in J Clin Virol 72:126-132, 2015). All strains were classified within the genotype 1 (HDV-1) as assessed by nucleotide sequencing of the so-called 'R0' region of the genome described previously. In this study, we aimed to determine the full-length genome sequence of HDV isolates in order to fully characterize the HDV strains spreading in Tunisia...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
Margo J H van Campenhout, Florian van Bömmel, Maria Pfefferkorn, Janett Fischer, Danilo Deichsel, André Boonstra, Anneke J van Vuuren, Thomas Berg, Bettina E Hansen, Harry L A Janssen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA in serum is a novel biomarker for intrahepatic HBV replication and treatment response. For its proper use it is essential to identify factors influencing serum HBV RNA level. Using a RACE PCR technique (lower limit of detection 800 copies/mL [c/mL]), serum HBV RNA levels were measured in samples of 488 untreated individuals with chronic HBV infection who were eligible to treatment according to currently used recommendations. We explored the association of serum levels of HBV RNA with patient and virus associated factors...
March 7, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Dung Van Nguyen, Cuong Van Nguyen, David Bonsall, Tue Tri Ngo, Juan Carrique-Mas, Anh Hong Pham, Juliet E Bryant, Guy Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Mark Woolhouse, Peter Simmonds
Rodents and bats are now widely recognised as important sources of zoonotic virus infections in other mammals, including humans. Numerous surveys have expanded our knowledge of diverse viruses in a range of rodent and bat species, including their origins, evolution, and range of hosts. In this study of pegivirus and human hepatitis-related viruses, liver and serum samples from Vietnamese rodents and bats were examined by PCR and sequencing. Nucleic acids homologous to human hepatitis B, C, E viruses were detected in liver samples of 2 (1...
February 28, 2018: Viruses
Natalia Freitas, Tetyana Lukash, Sumedha Gunewardena, Benjamin Chappell, Betty L Slagle, Severin O Gudima
Five matching sets of non-malignant liver tissues and HCCs from individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined. The HBV genomic sequences were determined using overlapping PCR amplicons covering the entire viral genome. Four pairs of tissues were infected with HBV of genotype C, while one pair - with genotype B. HBV replication markers were found in all tissues. In majority of HCC samples, the levels of pre-genomic/pre-core RNA (pgRNA) and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were lower than those of liver tissue counterparts...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Smita Nair, Adam Zlotnick
Cytidine deaminases inhibit replication of broad range of DNA viruses by deaminating cytidines on single stranded DNA to generate uracil. While several lines of evidence have revealed HBV genome editing by deamination, it is still unclear which nucleic acid intermediate of HBV is modified. Hepatitis B virus has a relaxed circular double-stranded DNA (rcDNA) genome that is reverse transcribed within virus cores from a RNA template. The HBV genome also persists as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of an infected cell...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rachel Shirazi, Daniela Ram, Aviya Rakovsky, Efrat Bucris, Yael Gozlan, Yaniv Lustig, Pninit Shaked-Mishan, Orit Picard, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Haim Ben-Zvi, Ora Halutz, Yoav Lurie, Ella Veizman, Matthias Carlebach, Marius Braun, Michal Cohen- Naftaly, Amir Shlomai, Rifaat Safadi, Ella Mendelson, Ella H Sklan, Ziv Ben-Ari, Orna Mor
BACKGROUND: Characteristics of hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) coinfection in various geographical regions, including Israel, remain unclear. Here we studied HDV seroprevalence in Israel, assessed HDV/HBV viral loads, circulating genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) conservation. METHODS: Serological anti HDV IgG results from 8969 HBsAg positive individuals tested in 2010-2015 were retrospectively analyzed to determine HDV seroprevalence. In a cohort of HBV/HDV coinfected (n=58) and HBV monoinfected (n=27) patients, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing were performed to determine viral loads, genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) protein sequence...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xiaosong Li, E Pan, Junke Zhu, Lei Xu, Xuemei Chen, Jingjing Li, Li Liang, Yuan Hu, Jie Xia, Juan Chen, Wannan Chen, Jieli Hu, Kai Wang, Ni Tang, Ailong Huang
Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is commonly reported in patients receiving anticancer therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or organ and tissue transplantation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic agent-related HBV reactivation remain unclear. Here, we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) plays a central role in cisplatin-induced HBV transcription and replication...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Laura Houghtaling, Raoul Moh, Mariama Abdou Chekaraou, Delphine Gabillard, Xavier Anglaret, Serge Paul Eholié, Fabien Zoulim, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, Anders Boyd
Immunorecovery could be attenuated in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection versus HIV mono-infection during antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet whether it also occurs in individuals from Sub-Saharan Africa without severe co-morbidities is unknown. In this study, 808 HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire initiating continuous ART were included. Six-month CD4+ count trajectories and the proportion reaching CD4+ T-cell counts >350/mm3, HIV-RNA <300 copies/mL, still alive and not lost to follow-up within 18 months ("optimal immunorecovery") were compared between co-infected groups...
February 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Magnus Lindh, Gustaf E Rydell, Simon B Larsson
A hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of patients. Sustained loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg from the blood are main goals for treatment, and considered as functional cure. It is rarely achieved with long-term nucleoside analogue treatment though, both because cccDNA, the template for viral replication, is not completely cleared, and probably also because hepatocytes with HBV DNA integrated into their chromosomes persist and continue to produce large amounts of HBsAg...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Yitong Yang, Xuan Wang, Yueyue Zhang, Weijie Yuan
Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN). Presence of HBV-DNA and -RNA in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) suggests direct virus-induced injury. Increase in proinflammatory cytokines is also observed under these conditions. Apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HBV-infections. However, the effects of HBV X protein (HBx) on TRAIL-induced apoptosis of RTECs especially under certain inflammatory conditions remain obscure...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Armel M Sanou, Kenza Benkirane, Bachirou Tinto, Assana Cissé, Tani Sagna, Abdoul Kader Ilboudo, Claire Dording, Zekiba Tarnagda, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we monitored the seroprevalence of HBV-HDV co-infection in different population groups in the Western part of Burkina Faso, and described the genetic diversity of the detected virus strains. METHODS: Between October 2013 and December 2014, venous blood samples were collected from different cohorts (blood donors, pregnant women, outpatients) in the western region of Burkina Faso. Samples were tested for HBsAg and total anti-HDV antibodies...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Xin-Min Xu, Xiao-Yang Zhou, Xiang-Yu Li, Jie Guo, Hui-Zhu Wang, Yue Li, Cheng-Cheng Yang, Teng-Hui Liu, Jian-Ping Cai
To evaluate the urinary levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGsn) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxo-Gsn) in liver injury patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to explore the relationship between urinary 8-oxo-dGsn or 8-oxo-Gsn and degree of liver damage. We enrolled 138 liver injury patients with HBV infection and 169 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in this study. A sensitive and accurate isotope-diluted liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the urinary levels of 8-oxo-Gsn and 8-oxo-dGsn...
February 27, 2018: Free Radical Research
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Emanuela Zappulo, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Infection with HBV and HCV represents a growing challenge in the management of patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, hepatitis E (HEV) was recognized as an endemic infection in developed countries and as an emerging health problem in immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We reviewed the current knowledge on the impact of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological setting. Epidemiological features, screening strategies and indications for treatment and monitoring have been explored and commented...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Sha She, Min Yang, Huaidong Hu, Peng Hu, Yixuan Yang, Hong Ren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, we aimed to obtain further information on HBV pathogenesis, and to search for novel putative molecules for anti-HBV therapy. METHODS: We utilized Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) to identify the secretory proteins that are differentially expressed in the HBV DNA-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line and its parental HepG2 cell line...
February 1, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Tian Li, Xi Wu, Guangyu Tao, Haoyan Yin, Junlong Zhang, Feng Liu, Na Li
By combining the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) enumeration with target-induced strand-displacement reaction, we have developed a non-amplification platform for DNA and miRNA detection based on a deliberately designed sandwich-structured nanocomplex probe (SNC Probe). The proposed strategy can realize the sensitive detection of nucleic acids within 40min with the detection limit of 6.6 fM for HBV DNA and 13.5 fM for miRNA-141, respectively. The method presents reasonable ability to discriminate miRNA-141 from all the other members of miRNA-200 family...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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