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Immunotherapy cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526616/stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-in-treatment-of-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-unsolved-questions-and-frontiers-ahead
#1
Jingze Zhang, Li Kong, Qinghua Jiao, Minghuan Li, Jingming Yu
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has been recognized as a standard alternative treatment to surgery for inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Guaranteed local control rates over 90% makes oncologists wonder whether SABR is qualified enough to challenge surgery in operable patients. The role of SABR for centrally located lesions would be another question because of the increased risk of severe toxic effect. Plenty of studies suggest that optimization of dose regimen and appropriate case selection would be helpful...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525901/direct-inhibition-of-stat-signaling-by-platinum-drugs-contributes-to-their-anti-cancer-activity
#2
Stanleyson V Hato, Carl G Figdor, Susumu Takahashi, Anja E Pen, Altuna Halilovic, Kalijn F Bol, Angela Vasaturo, Yukie Inoue, Nienke de Haas, Dagmar Verweij, Carla M L Van Herpen, Johannes H Kaanders, Johan H J M van Krieken, Hanneke W M Van Laarhoven, Gerrit K J Hooijer, Cornelis J A Punt, Akira Asai, I Jolanda M de Vries, W Joost Lesterhuis
Platinum-based chemotherapeutics are amongst the most powerful anti-cancer drugs. Although their exact mechanism of action is not well understood, it is thought to be mediated through covalent DNA binding. We investigated the effect of platinum-based chemotherapeutics on signaling through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, which are involved in many oncogenic signaling pathways. We performed in vitro experiments in various cancer cell lines, investigating the effects of platinum chemotherapeutics on STAT phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, the expression of STAT-modulating proteins and downstream signaling pathways...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523184/pd-1-targeted-immunotherapy-as-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#3
EDITORIAL
Arik Bernard Schulze, Lars Henning Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523162/a-preliminary-exploration-of-the-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-applied-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis-of-lung-cancer
#4
Xin Ye, Shuo Chen, Yaru Tian, Bin You, Wenqian Zhang, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Bin Hu, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for distinguishing non-metastatic from metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. METHODS: IVIM-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) exams were performed preoperatively on 66 patients with lung cancer from October 2015 to June 2016 in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University. Fifty patients underwent enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) in our hospital, while the other 16 patients already had enhanced chest CT images when they were admitted...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523003/hpv16-e7-specific-activated-cd8-t-cells-in-e7-transgenic-skin-and-skin-grafts
#5
Seyed Davoud Jazayeri, Paula T Kuo, Graham Robert Leggatt, Ian H Frazer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 (E7) protein expression in skin promotes epithelial hyperproliferation and transformation to malignancy. Grafts of murine skin expressing E7 protein as a transgene in keratinocytes are not rejected from immunocompetent recipients, whereas grafts expressing ovalbumin (OVA), with or without coexpression of E7 protein, are promptly rejected, demonstrating that E7-associated non-antigen-specific local immunosuppression is not a major determinant of lack of rejection of E7 transgenic skin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522738/imaging-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-impact-of-protein-concentration-on-distribution-of-anti-pd-l1-spect-agent-in-an-immunocompetent-melanoma-murine-model
#6
Jessie R Nedrow, Anders Josefsson, Sunju Park, Sagar Ranka, Sanchita Roy, George Sgouros
Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is part of an immune checkpoint system that is essential for preventing autoimmunity and cancer. Recent approaches in immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints have shown great promise in a variety of cancers, including metastatic melanoma. The use of targeted molecular imaging would help identify patients who will best respond to anti-PD-L1 treatment while potentially providing key information to limit immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). Recently, we developed an antibody based PD-L1-targeted imaging agent to identify PD-L1 positive tumors in vivo...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#7
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521478/enhancement-of-antitumor-immunity-by-combination-of-anti-ctla-4-antibody-and-radioimmunotherapy-through-the-suppression-of-tregs
#9
Cheol-Hun Son, Jaeho Bae, Hong-Rae Lee, Kwangmo Yang, You-Soo Park
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is expressed during cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T-cell activation and terminates immune responses by interrupting CD28-enhanced activation. In addition, CTLA-4 is known to be constitutively expressed in regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and to contribute to immune suppression by enhancing the suppressive function of Tregs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CTLA-4-mediated Treg suppression remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the in vivo immune suppressive functions of CTLA-4 are mediated only by a reduction in the level of conventional T-cell activity, or enhancement of Treg function...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521443/loss-of-fas-expression-and-high-expression-of-hla-e-promoting-the-immune-escape-of-early-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Renxiang Huang, Dongyang Zhang, Feng Li, Zili Xiao, Meiling Wu, Dongyun Shi, Ping Xiang, Zhijun Bao
Previous studies have investigated the mechanisms of immune evasion of tumor cells in numerous types of advanced solid malignant tumor, and several types of immune preparations have been administered as antitumor adjuvant therapies. However, in the majority of studies, the efficacy of therapies has been revealed to be limited. The present study aimed to investigate the immune evasion mechanisms employed by early colorectal cancer cells and the expression of the molecules associated with immune evasion during the malignant transformation process of normal colorectal epithelial cells to measure the effects of immune intervention for early colorectal cancer, and to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521429/b-cells-inhibit-the-antitumor-immunity-against-an-established-murine-fibrosarcoma
#11
Andrea Maglioco, Damián G Machuca, María Noel Badano, Paula Nannini, Gabriela V Camerano, Héctor Costa, Roberto Meiss, Raúl A Ruggiero, Mirta Giordano, Graciela I Dran
Despite the classic role of B cells in favoring the immune response, an inhibitory action of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity has emerged in certain studies. In methylcolanthrene-induced murine fibrosarcoma (MCC), the loss of immunogenicity and the establishment of tolerance are paralleled by systemic immune suppression and the appearance of B(+)IL-10(+) cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. The present study aimed to assess the role of the B(+)IL-10(+) cell population in the immune evasion and tolerance induced by MCC through the depletion of B cells in mice at various times of tumor progression: Prior to or subsequent to tumor implantation...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521284/cytokine-mediated-activation-of-human-ex-vivo-expanded-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells
#12
Eisuke Domae, Yuya Hirai, Takashi Ikeo, Seiji Goda, Yoji Shimizu
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, the major subset of the human peripheral blood γδ T-cell, respond to microbial infection and stressed cells through the recognition of phosphoantigens. In contrast to the growing knowledge of antigen-mediated activation mechanisms, the antigen-independent and cytokine-mediated activation mechanisms of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are poorly understood. Here, we show that interleukin (IL) -12 and IL-18 synergize to activate human ex vivo-expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells treated with IL-12 and IL-18 enhanced effector functions, including the expression of IFN-γ and granzyme B, and cytotoxicity...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516435/management-considerations-in-cancer-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Richard J Zogala, Kristina Goutsouliak, Maria E Suarez-Almazor
Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease that requires treatment with immunosuppressants to control symptoms and avoid joint destruction. Managing cancer in patients with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis poses special challenges that require close coordination of care between oncologists and rheumatologists. Potential clinical issues needing special consideration include: 1) perioperative management in patients undergoing cancer surgery, which often requires discontinuation of antirrheumatic therapy; 2) use of immunosuppressant therapies for rheumatoid arthritis, especially biologic agents that inhibit cytokine and immune pathways, which conceivably could affect immune-mediated antitumor responses (the issues are different in patients with active cancer vs those with a past history of cancer and no recurrences); 3) management in the palliative care setting; and 4) use of cancer immunotherapy, such as checkpoint inhibitor agents, in patients with pre-existing rheumatoid arthritis...
May 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515944/identifying-baseline-immune-related-biomarkers-to-predict-clinical-outcome-of-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Sacha Gnjatic, Vincenzo Bronte, Laura Rosa Brunet, Marcus O Butler, Mary L Disis, Jérôme Galon, Leif G Hakansson, Brent A Hanks, Vaios Karanikas, Samir N Khleif, John M Kirkwood, Lance D Miller, Dolores J Schendel, Isabelle Tanneau, Jon M Wigginton, Lisa H Butterfield
As cancer strikes, individuals vary not only in terms of factors that contribute to its occurrence and development, but as importantly, in their capacity to respond to treatment. While exciting new therapeutic options that mobilize the immune system against cancer have led to breakthroughs for a variety of malignancies, success is limited to a subset of patients. Pre-existing immunological features of both the host and the tumor may contribute to how patients will eventually fare with immunotherapy. A broad understanding of baseline immunity, both in the periphery and in the tumor microenvironment, is needed in order to fully realize the potential of cancer immunotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515941/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-sentinel-of-the-transformed-tissue
#15
EDITORIAL
Saïda Dadi, Ming O Li
Tumor cells can be detected and cleared by lymphocytes in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance. However, the contributing cell types had not been fully characterized. Using oncogene-induced murine models of epithelial cancer, a recent study showed that cell transformation triggers expansion of tissue-resident lymphocytes derived from innate, T cell receptor (TCR) αβ and TCRγδ lineages. These type-1-like innate lymphoid cells (ILC1ls) and type 1 innate-like T cells (ILTC1s) share a gene expression program distinct from those of conventional lymphocytes, and exhibit cytolytic activities against tumor cells...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#16
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515726/comparative-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-molecules-and-their-potential-role-in-the-transmissible-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease
#17
Andrew S Flies, Nicholas B Blackburn, Alan Bruce Lyons, John D Hayball, Gregory M Woods
Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515303/spontaneous-and-vaccine-induced-clearance-of-mus-musculus-papillomavirus-type-1-mmupv1-muspv1-infection
#18
Rosie T Jiang, Joshua W Wang, Shiwen Peng, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chenguang Wang, Fabiana Cannella, Yung-Nien Chang, Raphael P Viscidi, Simon R A Best, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden
Mus musculus Papillomavirus1 (MmuPV1/MusPV1) induces persistent papillomas in immunodeficient mice but not common laboratory strains. To facilitate study of immune control, we sought an outbred and immune competent laboratory mouse strain in which persistent papillomas could be established. We found that challenge of SKH1 mice (Crl:SKH1-Hrhr) by scarification on their tail with MmuPV1 resulted in three clinical outcomes: 1) persistent (>2 months) papillomas (∼20%), 2) transient papillomas that spontaneously regress typically within 2 months (∼15%), 3) no visible papillomas and viral clearance (∼65%)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515246/immunotherapies-for-lung-cancer
#19
Matthew A Gubens
In 2017, immunotherapy is the standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) either in the first or second line depending on programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and mutation status. For first-line therapy, pembrolizumab is currently the standard of care for patients whose tumors express PD-L1 >50%. All patients with NSCLC should undergo PD-L1 testing before initiating treatment on pembrolizumab. For patients not eligible in the first line, immunotherapy is the standard of care for most in the second line...
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515097/the-phoenix-rises-the-rebirth-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Ivan M Blasutig, Sofia Farkona, Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Jason J Luke, Padmanee Sharma, Mario Sznol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
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