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Immunotherapy cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656492/pd-1-blockade-cellular-vesicles-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Xudong Zhang, Chao Wang, Jinqiang Wang, Quanyin Hu, Benjamin Langworthy, Yanqi Ye, Wujin Sun, Jing Lin, Tianfu Wang, Jason Fine, Hao Cheng, Gianpietro Dotti, Peng Huang, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells resist to the host immune antitumor response via multiple suppressive mechanisms, including the overexpression of PD-L1 that exhausts antigen-specific CD8+ T cells through PD-1 receptors. Checkpoint blockade antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 have shown unprecedented clinical responses. However, limited host response rate underlines the need to develop alternative engineering approaches. Here, engineered cellular nanovesicles (NVs) presenting PD-1 receptors on their membranes, which enhance antitumor responses by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis, are reported...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656236/advancing-systems-immunology-through-data-driven-statistical-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Linda E Fong, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Systems biology provides an effective approach to decipher, predict, and ultimately manipulate the complex and inter-connected networks that regulate the immune system. Advances in high-throughput, multiplexed experimental techniques have increased the availability of proteomic and transcriptomic immunological datasets, and as a result, have also accelerated the development of new data-driven computational algorithms to extract biological insight from these data. This review highlights how data-driven statistical models have been used to characterize immune cell subsets and their functions, to map the signaling and intercellular networks that regulate immune responses, and to connect immune cell states to disease outcomes to generate hypotheses for novel therapeutic strategies...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656235/effective-cancer-immunotherapy-in-mice-by-polyic-imiquimod-complexes-and-engineered-magnetic-nanoparticles
#3
Ana Isabel Bocanegra Gondan, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Aintzane Zabaleta, Nina Gómez Blanco, Beatriz Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, María Jesús García-Granda, Daniel Padro, Jordi Llop, Blanca Arnaiz, María Gato, David Escors, Juan C Mareque-Rivas
Encouraging results are emerging from systems that exploit Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, nanotechnology, checkpoint inhibition and molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. A major remaining challenge is developing effective, durable and tumour-specific immune responses without systemic toxicity. Here, we report a simple and versatile system based on synergistic activation of immune responses and direct cancer cell killing by combined TLR ligation using polyIC as TLR3 and imiquimod (R837) as TLR7 agonist, in combination with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and phospholipid micelles loaded with zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655599/plasma-from-some-cancer-patients-inhibits-adenoviral-ad5f35-vector-transduction-of-dendritic-cells
#4
Ping Jin, Wenjing Chen, Jiaqiang Ren, Steven Chen, Lauren Wood, Yingdong Zhao, Alan Remaley, Chauha Pham, Sheena Lian, Shutong Liu, Hui Liu, Steven Highfill, Jay A Berzofsky, David F Stroncek
BACKGROUND: Pooled AB serum is often used as a media supplement for cell culture but it has the potential to transmit infectious diseases. To avoid this risk, we used autologous plasma as a media supplement for manufacturing dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer immunotherapy. We noticed inconsistencies in the DCs and investigated their nature and cause. METHODS: Adenovirus human epidural growth factor receptor 2 (adHER2/neu) DCs for 21 patients were manufactured from autologous peripheral blood monocytes that were treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 for 3 days, transduced with Ad5f35HER2ECTM and then treated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon (IFN)-γ for 1 day...
April 11, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653339/natural-killer-cells-target-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-like-cells-undifferentiated-tumors-strategies-to-optimize-their-growth-and-expansion-for-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Kawaljit Kaur, Milica Perišić Nanut, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaie, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of NK cell loss at the pre-neoplastic stage...
April 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652798/the-double-face-of-exosome-carried-micrornas-in-cancer-immunomodulation
#6
REVIEW
Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651966/specific-cytostatic-and-cytotoxic-effect-of-dihydrochelerythrine-in-glioblastoma-cells-role-of-nf-kb-b-catenin-and-stat3-il-6-pathways
#7
Tereza Cristina Costa Silva, Noelio de Jesus Menezes-Filho, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes, Diego Madureira de Oliveira, Ezequiel Pereira, Bruno Penas Seara Pitanga, Eudes S Velozo, Songeli Menezes Freire, Jorge Clarencio de Souza Andrade, Helena Lobo Borges, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Silvia Lima Costa
A glioblastoma is a primary CNS tumor that is more aggressive and lethal than other brain tumors. Its location, rapid proliferation, invasive growth, angiogenesis and immunosuppression are the main factors that limit its treatment, making it a major challenge to neuro-oncology. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the in vitro effects of the alkaloid dihydrochelerythrine (DHC), which is extracted from Zanthoxylum stelligerum, on the viability, proliferation, cell death and b-catenin, NFkB, STAT3/pSTAT3 and interleukins roles...
April 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651744/prospects-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Sorab Gupta, Amos Lal, Muhammad Masab, Rashmika Potdar
Despite advances in various chemotherapy regimens, current therapeutic options are limited for ovarian cancer patients. Immunotherapy provides a promising and novel treatment option for ovarian cancer. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological tumors and current research is going on in various solid tumors like ovarian cancer. CAR T cells are genetically engineered T cells with major histocompatibility complex-independent, tumor-specific, immune-mediated cytolytic actions against cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651624/in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-expression-by-immunohistochemistry-of-braf-v600e-pd-l1-and-pd-1-is-closely-related
#9
Yanhua Bai, Ting Guo, Xiaozheng Huang, Qi Wu, Dongfeng Niu, Xinqiang Ji, Qin Feng, Zhongwu Li, Kennichi Kakudo
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies targeting PD-L1/PD-1 have been shown to be effective in treating several types of human cancer. In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), little is known about the expression of PD-L1/PD-1 in the tumor microenvironment or its potential correlation with BRAF V600E mutation status. In this study, we examined the expression of PD-L1, PD-1, and BRAF V600E in PTC by immunohistochemistry and investigated the clinical significance of expression status. We studied the expression of PD-L1, PD-1, and BRAF V600E by immunohistochemical staining in 110 cases of PTC with a diameter > 1 cm...
April 12, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651429/therapeutic-potential-of-thymoquinone-in-glioblastoma-treatment-targeting-major-gliomagenesis-signaling-pathways
#10
REVIEW
Fabliha Ahmed Chowdhury, Md Kamal Hossain, A G M Mostofa, Maruf Mohammad Akbor, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most devastating brain tumors with median survival of one year and presents unique challenges to therapy because of its aggressive behavior. Current treatment strategy involves surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy even though optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications from both the disease and its treatment. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa L., has exhibited anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651375/codon-optimization-significantly-enhanced-the-expression-of-human-37-kda-ilrp-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Bainan Liu, Qianqian Kong, Dong Zhang, Lingli Yan
37-kDa immature laminin receptor protein (iLRP), the precursor of 67-kDa laminin receptor protein (LRP), is overexpressed on the surface of most cancer cells and recognized as a universal tumor antigen. The role makes it a potential target for cancer immunotherapy, which has been well-studied. Our study aimed to produce high quality of human iLRP in bacteria so that the needs in research of its clinical application could be met. The powerful system for heterologous protein expression, pET system was used. Two types of DNA sequences encoding the same amino acid sequences were separately cloned into the vector pET30a(+)...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650841/-a-case-of-advanced-esophageal-cancer-successfully-treated-with-multidisciplinary-therapy
#12
Junji Kawada, Masaya Nishino, Tomoki Hata, Takayuki Ogino, Masateru Okawa, Hiromitsu Hoshino, Miho Okano, Kenichi Nagai, Naruyasu Kakita, Yongkook Kim, Masaki Okuyama, Toshimasa Tsujinaka
We report a case of advanced esophageal cancer that was successfully treated using chemotherapy, operation, and chemoradiotherapy. A 66-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer(Mt, O-Is, T4[N0.7-stomach], N2, M0, Stage III)was administered chemotherapy(docetaxel[DOC], cisplatin[CDDP], and 5-fluorouracil[5-FU]: DCF). As the esophageal tumor achieved complete clinical response after 2 courses of chemotherapy, lymph node dissection and proximal gastrectomy were performed for the residual tumor. Abdominal CT 3 months after surgery revealed lymph node swelling...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650270/radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Yuchen Jin, Douglas Van Nostrand, Lingxiao Cheng, Min Liu, Libo Chen
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is usually curable with surgery, radioactive iodine (RAI), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression. However, local recurrence and/or distant metastases occur in approximately 15% of cases during follow-up, and nearly two-thirds of these patients will become RAI-refractory (RR-DTC) with a poor prognosis. This review focuses on the most challenging and rapidly evolving aspects of RR-DTC, and we discuss the considerable improvement in more accurately defining RR-DTC, more effective therapeutic strategies, and describe the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and future prospects of RR-DTC...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650269/current-perspectives-on-the-crosstalk-between-lung-cancer-stem-cells-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#14
REVIEW
Cristina Alguacil-Núñez, Inés Ferrer-Ortiz, Elena García-Verdú, Pilar López-Pirez, Irene Maria Llorente-Cortijo, Bruno Sainz
Lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is the second most common cancer in both men and women and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its prognosis and diagnosis are determined by several driver mutations and diverse risk factors (e.g. smoking). While immunotherapy has proven effective in some patients, treatment of NSCLC using conventional chemotherapy is largely ineffective. The latter is believed to be due to the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like, highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant cells within the tumor population known as cancer stem cells (CSC)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650143/perioperative-immunotherapy-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Min Yuen Teo, Jonathan E Rosenberg
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients are ineligible for cisplatin owing to renal impairment or other medical comorbidities. The introduction of anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1(PD1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has redefined the therapeutic landscape for platinum-resistant urothelial cancers; their clinical efficacy and favorable toxicity render these agents attractive therapeutic options either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents in earlier disease states, including muscle-invasive disease...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649510/ilt4-functions-as-a-potential-checkpoint-molecule-for-tumor-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Aiqin Gao, Yuping Sun, Guangyong Peng
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting CTLA4 and PD-1/PD-L1 is a promising strategy in the treatment of different types of cancers. However, the clinical success rates of these therapies are still moderate and varied among cancer types. Therefore, identification of alternative and novel checkpoint molecules or interrupting tolerogenic pathways is urgently needed for successful tumor immunotherapy. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) is as an immunosuppressive molecule predominantly expressed in myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes...
April 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649374/precision-therapy-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
P J Polverini, N J D'Silva, Y L Lei
Precision medicine is an approach to disease prevention and treatment that takes into account genetic variability and environmental and lifestyle influences that are unique to each patient. It facilitates stratification of patient populations that vary in their susceptibility to disease and response to therapy. Shared databases and the implementation of new technology systems designed to advance the integration of this information will enable health care providers to more accurately predict and customize prevention and treatment strategies for patients...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649368/mouse-models-for-studying-oral-cancer-impact-in-the-era-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
J J Luo, C D Young, H M Zhou, X J Wang
Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649037/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-new-paradigm
#19
Thibaut Reverdy, Andy Karabakakian, Max Gau, Jérôme Fayette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645007/statistical-methods-for-clinical-trial-designs-in-the-new-era-of-cancer-treatment
#20
Beibei Guo, Rui Zhang
Recent success of immunotherapy and other targeted therapies in cancer treatment has signaled the advent of precision medicine. Unlike conventional trial designs that aim to find an optimal treatment ignoring inter-patient heterogeneity, clinical trial designs for precision medicine must take into account patients' variability in genes, environments, and lifestyle. This article provides a review of recent research development of clinical trial designs toward this trend.
February 2018: Biostatistics and biometrics open access journal
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