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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#1
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911104/upregulation-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-containing-3-tim-3-in-monocytes-macrophages-associates-with-gastric-cancer-progression
#2
Zhenxin Wang, Ni Yin, Zixiang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Guangbo Zhang, Weichang Chen
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) is an important immune regulatory molecule in cancer immune system. However, expression and function of Tim-3 in monocytes/macrophages in cancer progression mainly remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Tim-3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 62 gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls using flow cytometry and then associated Tim-3 levels with clinical pathological data from patients. We found Tim-3 level was significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls, and that upregulated Tim-3 levels associated with depth of tumor invasion and tumor lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages of gastric cancer patients...
December 2, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911100/mitochondria-and-iron-current-questions
#3
Bibbin T Paul, David H Manz, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that perform numerous bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and regulatory functions and play a central role in iron metabolism. Extracellular iron is taken up by cells and transported to the mitochondria, where it is utilized for synthesis of cofactors essential to the function of enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, DNA synthesis and repair, and a variety of other cellular processes. Areas Covered: This article reviews the trafficking of iron to the mitochondria and normal mitochondrial iron metabolism, including heme synthesis and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910767/immunostimulatory-effects-of-melphalan-and-usefulness-in-adoptive-cell-therapy-with-antitumor-cd4-t-cells
#5
Michal Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Gang Zhou
The alkylating agent melphalan is used in the treatment of hematological malignancies, especially multiple myeloma. In the past, the usefulness of melphalan has been solely attributed to its cytotoxicity on fastgrowing cancerous cells. Although the immunomodulatory effects of melphalan were suggested many years ago, only recently has this aspect of melphalan's activity begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. Emerging evidence indicates that melphalan can foster an immunogenic microenvironment by inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) as characterized by membrane translocation of endoplasmic reticulum protein calreticulin (CRT) and by release of chromatin-binding protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908931/filling-the-tank-keeping-antitumor-t-cells-metabolically-fit-for-the-long-haul
#6
REVIEW
Greg M Delgoffe
Discoveries in tumor immunology and subsequent clinical advances in cancer immunotherapy have revealed that the immune system is not oblivious to tumor progression but heavily interacts with developing neoplasia and malignancy. A major factor preventing immune destruction is the establishment of a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provides architecture to the tumor, supports indirect means of immunosuppression such as the recruitment of tolerogenic cells like regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and represents a zone of metabolically dearth conditions...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907175/p53-specifically-binds-triplex-dna-in-vitro-and-in-cells
#7
Marie Brázdová, Vlastimil Tichý, Robert Helma, Pavla Bažantová, Alena Polášková, Aneta Krejčí, Marek Petr, Lucie Navrátilová, Olga Tichá, Karel Nejedlý, Martin L Bennink, Vinod Subramaniam, Zuzana Bábková, Tomáš Martínek, Matej Lexa, Matej Adámik
Triplex DNA is implicated in a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of gene expression and genomic instability leading to cancer. The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulator of cell fate in response to different type of insults. Sequence and structure specific modes of DNA recognition are core attributes of the p53 protein. The focus of this work is the structure-specific binding of p53 to DNA containing triplex-forming sequences in vitro and in cells and the effect on p53-driven transcription...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906180/mir-148a-3p-represses-proliferation-and-emt-by-establishing-regulatory-circuits-between-erbb3-akt2-c-myc-and-dnmt1-in-bladder-cancer
#8
Xiao Wang, Zhen Liang, Xin Xu, Jiangfeng Li, Yi Zhu, Shuai Meng, Shiqi Li, Song Wang, Bo Xie, Alin Ji, Ben Liu, Xiangyi Zheng, Liping Xie
miR-148a-3p downregulation has emerged as a critical factor in cancer progression yet, the underlying mechanisms of miR-148a-3p expression pattern and its function in bladder cancer remains to be elucidated. Here, we illustrate that miR-148a-3p is frequently downregulated in bladder cancer and that its expression may be regulated by DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and miR-148a-3p function in a positive feedback loop in bladder cancer. miR-148a-3p overexpression functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#9
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904771/tumor-suppressive-function-of-long-noncoding-rna-malat1-in-glioma-cells-by-suppressing-mir-155-expression-and-activating-fbxw7-function
#10
Shuanzhu Cao, Yanzhou Wang, Jinquan Li, Mingliang Lv, Haitao Niu, Yong Tian
The human metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA associated with metastasis, and is a favorable prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies have shown that MALAT1 plays an important role in many malignancies. However, little is known about the role of MALAT1 in glioma. In this study, we determined the expression of MALAT1 and explored its prognostic value in glioma. Further, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of MALAT1 in glioma progression. Our results showed that the expression of MALAT1 was significantly decreased in glioma specimens than in noncancerous brain tissues...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904713/farnesoid-x-receptor-ligand-cdca-suppresses-human-prostate-cancer-cells-growth-by-inhibiting-lipid-metabolism-via-targeting-sterol-response-element-binding-protein-1
#11
Nian Liu, Jun Zhao, Jinguo Wang, Haolin Teng, Yaowen Fu, Hang Yuan
AIM: A wealth of studies have demonstrated that abnormal cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development. Therefore, manipulating lipid metabolism is a potential PCa therapy strategy. In this study, our goal is to investigate the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in regulating the proliferation and lipid metabolism of human PCa cells following its ligand chenodexycholic acid (CDCA) treatment. METHODS: Oil Red O was used to stain lipid contents in PCa cells, and siRNA knockdown was performed to deplete FXR expression...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904673/microrna-206-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-bladder-cancer-via-targeting-yrdc
#12
Bisheng Huang, Wei Zhai, Guanghui Hu, Chi Huang, Tiancheng Xie, Jingwei Zhang, Yunfei Xu
Accumulating evidence suggested that microRNA (miRNA) plays important regulatory roles in the initiation and development of various cancers. Previous study showed that microRNA-206 (miR-206) is dysregulated in human bladder cancer tissues, however, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-206 in human bladder cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of miR-206 and its target gene YRDC in human bladder cancer, and to determine its effects on oncogenic phenotypes of this disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904654/augmentation-of-histone-deacetylase-3-hdac3-epigenetic-signature-at-the-interface-of-proinflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Mahalingam Balakumar, Raji Lenin, Durai Prabhu, Ranjith Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
BACKGROUND: A role of proinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, but the up-stream regulatory signals and molecular signatures are poorly understood. While histone modifications such as changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) are emerging as novel epigenetic biomarkers, there is lack of studies to demonstrate their clinical relevance in diabetes. Therefore, we investigated the extent of HDAC machinery and inflammatory signals in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to control subjects...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903980/identification-of-biomarker-micrornas-for-predicting-the-response-of-colorectal-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-based-on-microrna-regulatory-network
#14
Yaqun Zhu, Qiliang Peng, Yuxin Lin, Li Zou, Peipei Shen, Feifei Chen, Ming Min, Li Shen, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
Preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy has become a standard procedure for treatment of patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, patients' responses to treatment are different and personalized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for predicting personalized responses. In this study, we collected 30 publicly reported miRNAs associated with chemoradiotherapy of CRC. We extracted 46 differentially expressed miRNAs from samples of responders and non-responders to preoperative radiotherapy from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (Student's t test, p-value < 0...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903862/improved-cancer-immunotherapy-by-a-cd25-mimobody-conferring-selectivity-to-human-interleukin-2
#15
Natalia Arenas-Ramirez, Chao Zou, Simone Popp, Daniel Zingg, Barbara Brannetti, Emmanuelle Wirth, Thomas Calzascia, Jiri Kovarik, Lukas Sommer, Gerhard Zenke, Janine Woytschak, Catherine H Regnier, Andreas Katopodis, Onur Boyman
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) immunotherapy is an attractive approach in treating advanced cancer. However, by binding to its IL-2 receptor α (CD25) subunit, IL-2 exerts unwanted effects, including stimulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) and contribution to vascular leak syndrome. We used a rational approach to develop a monoclonal antibody to human IL-2, termed NARA1, which acts as a high-affinity CD25 mimic, thereby minimizing association of IL-2 with CD25. The structure of the IL-2-NARA1 complex revealed that NARA1 occupies the CD25 epitope of IL-2 and precisely overlaps with CD25...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903835/identification-of-microrna-signature-and-potential-pathway-targets-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohammed Ziada, Abubaker Elshaikh, Amrita Datta, Hogyoung Kim, Krzysztof Moroz, Sudesh Srivastav, Raju Thomas, Jonathan L Silberstein, Krishnarao Moparty, Fatma Elzahraa H Salem, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American men. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to improving therapeutic benefits. However, the current clinical biomarkers for PC do not reliably decipher indolent PC from other urogenital disorders. Thus, effective clinical intervention necessitates development of new biomarkers for early detection of PC. The present study aimed to identify the miRNA signature in organ-confined (Gleason Score 6) prostate tumors...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#17
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902469/the-mir-196b-mirna-inhibits-the-gata6-intestinal-transcription-factor-and-is-upregulated-in-colon-cancer-patients
#18
Sebastian Fantini, Valentina Salsi, Luca Reggiani, Antonino Maiorana, Vincenzo Zappavigna
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible misexpression of the microRNA miR-196b in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its role in controlling the expression of GATA6, a putative target gene crucial to intestinal cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. DESIGN: The expression of miR-196b was analysed by qRT-PCR in surgical resection samples from a cohort of sporadic colon cancer patients. Manipulations of miR-196b expression were performed to demonstrate its inhibition of GATA6 protein levels...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900516/nucleotides-and-nucleoside-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-the-epithelium-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt
#19
REVIEW
A S Martínez-Ramírez, M Díaz-Muñoz, A Butanda-Ochoa, F G Vázquez-Cuevas
The epithelium-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process of cell plasticity, consisting in the loss of epithelial identity and the gain of mesenchymal characteristics through the coordinated activity of a highly regulated informational program. Although it was originally described in the embryonic development, an important body of information supports its role in pathology, mainly in cancerous and fibrotic processes. The purinergic system of inter-cellular communication, mainly based in ATP and adenosine acting throughout their specific receptors, has emerged as a potent regulator of the EMT in several pathological entities...
November 29, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900048/regulatory-network-of-micrornas-and-genes-in-testicular-cancer
#20
Yansong Zhao, Zhiwen Xu, Ning Wang, Shang Wang
Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in men between 20-40 years of age. A large number of studies have focused on identifying the cause of this disease; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated and the specific cause remains unclear. The present study systematically analyzed the regulatory associations between genes, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), aiming to obtain key information regarding the regulatory processes of TC. Three different networks were derived from the analysis: Global, related and differentially-expressed...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
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