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Cancer regulatory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352271/sex-disparity-in-cancer-roles-of-micrornas-and-related-functional-players
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra Carè, Maria Bellenghi, Paola Matarrese, Lucia Gabriele, Stefano Salvioli, Walter Malorni
A sexual dimorphism at the cellular level has been suggested to play a role in cancer onset and progression. In particular, very recent studies have unraveled striking differences between cells carrying XX or XY chromosomes in terms of response to stressful stimuli, indicating the presence of genetic and epigenetic differences determining sex-specific metabolic or phenotypic traits. Although this field of investigation is still in its infancy, available data suggest a key role of sexual chromosomes in determining cell life or death...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352052/estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-exploiting-signaling-pathways-implicated-in-endocrine-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Adam M Brufsky, Maura N Dickler
Advancements in molecular profiling and endocrine therapy (ET) have led to more focused clinical attention on precision medicine. These advances have expanded our understanding of breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and hold promising implications for the future of therapy. The estrogen receptor-α is a predominant endocrine regulatory protein in the breast and in estrogen-induced BC. Successful targeting of proteins and genes within estrogen receptor (ER) nuclear and nonnuclear pathways remains a clinical goal...
January 19, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351903/integrative-genomic-analysis-predicts-causative-cis-regulatory-mechanisms-of-the-breast-cancer-associated-genetic-variant-rs4415084
#3
Yi Zhang, Mohith Manjunath, Shilu Zhang, Deborah Chasman, Sushmita Roy, Jun S Song
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several common genetic variants that may significantly modulate cancer susceptibility. However, the precise molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown; it is often not clear whether discovered variants are themselves functional or merely genetically linked to other functional variants. Here we provide an integrated method for identifying functional regulatory variants associated with cancer and their target genes by combining analyses of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), a modified version of allele-specific expression (ASE) that systematically utilizes haplotype information, transcription factor (TF) binding preference, and epigenetic information...
January 19, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351796/the-jun-mir-22-hur-regulatory-axis-contributes-to-tumourigenesis-in-colorectal-cancer
#4
Yanqing Liu, Xiaorui Chen, Rongjie Cheng, Fei Yang, Mengchao Yu, Chen Wang, Shufang Cui, Yeting Hong, Hongwei Liang, Minghui Liu, Chihao Zhao, Meng Ding, Wu Sun, Zhijian Liu, Feng Sun, Chenyu Zhang, Zhen Zhou, Xiaohong Jiang, Xi Chen
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a severe health problem worldwide. Clarifying the mechanisms for the deregulation of oncogenes and tumour suppressors in CRC is vital for its diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Hu antigen R (HuR), which is highly upregulated in CRC, functions as a pivotal oncogene to promote CRC progression. However, the underlying cause of its dysregulation is poorly understood. METHODS: In CRC tissue sample pairs, HuR protein levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351570/joint-adolescent-adult-early-phase-clinical-trials-to-improve-access-to-new-drugs-for-adolescents-with-cancer-proposals-from-the-multi-stakeholder-platform-accelerate
#5
N Gaspar, L V Marshall, D Binner, R Herold, R Rousseau, P Blanc, R Capdeville, J Carleer, C Copland, Y Kerloeguen, K Norga, L Pacaud, M-A Sevaux, C Spadoni, J Sterba, F Ligas, T Taube, M Uttenreuther-Fischer, S Chioato, M A O'Connell, B Geoerger, J-Y Blay, J C Soria, S Kaye, B Wulff, L Brugières, G Vassal, A D J Pearson
The impressive progress recently observed in adult cancers through the introduction of new drugs has not yet been translated to adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Currently adolescents are grouped with children, so their access to new, effective drugs already available for adults is delayed because paediatric drug development starts late relative to adult programmes. Moreover, specific early phase trials designed exclusively for adolescents in rare diseases recruit poorly, even if conducted internationally...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350683/ccat1-stimulation-of-the-symmetric-division-of-nsclc-stem-cells-through-activation-of-the-wnt-signalling-cascade
#6
Chongwen Xu, Guodong Xiao, Boxiang Zhang, Meng Wang, Jichang Wang, Dapeng Liu, Jing Zhang, Hong Ren, Xin Sun
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide, yet this condition remains a poorly understood malignancy, and the subgroup of cancer stem cells (CSCs) leading to therapeutic resistance and adverse prognosis have not been well studied. CSCs frequently undergo symmetric division, which facilitates expansion of the stem cell pool, contributing to long-term relapse and therapy failure. CCAT1 could act as a miRNA sponge to influence downstream genes; however, its roles in NSCLC stem cell are unclear...
January 19, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350283/epigenetic-regulation-of-neuroblastoma-development
#7
REVIEW
Durinck Kaat, Speleman Frank
In recent years, technological advances have enabled a detailed landscaping of the epigenome and the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation that drive normal cell function, development and cancer. Rather than merely a structural entity to support genome compaction, we now look at chromatin as a very dynamic and essential constellation that is actively participating in the tight orchestration of transcriptional regulation as well as DNA replication and repair. The unique feature of chromatin flexibility enabling fast switches towards more or less restricted epigenetic cellular states is, not surprisingly, intimately connected to cancer development and treatment resistance, and the central role of epigenetic alterations in cancer is illustrated by the finding that up to 50% of all mutations across cancer entities affect proteins controlling the chromatin status...
January 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349763/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-breast-cancer
#8
April Swoboda, Rita Nanda
An effective antitumor immune response requires interaction between cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Three key elements are required: generation of activated tumor-directed T cells, infiltration of activated T cells into the tumor microenvironment, and killing of tumor cells by activated T cells. Tumor immune evasion can occur as a result of the disruption of each of these three key T cell activities, resulting in three distinct cancer-immune phenotypes. The immune inflamed phenotype, characterized by the presence of a robust tumor immune infiltrate, suggests impaired activated T cell killing of tumor cells related to the presence of inhibitory factors...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348878/identification-of-cancer-prognosis-associated-functional-modules-using-differential-co-expression-networks
#9
Wenshuai Yu, Shengjie Zhao, Yongcui Wang, Brian Nlong Zhao, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid accumulation of cancer-related data owing to high-throughput technologies has provided unprecedented choices to understand the progression of cancer and discover functional networks in multiple cancers. Establishment of co-expression networks will help us to discover the systemic properties of carcinogenesis features and regulatory mechanisms of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed a computational workflow to identify differentially co-expressed gene modules across 8 cancer types by using combined gene differential expression analysis methods and a higher-order generalized singular value decomposition...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348831/aberrant-expression-of-mir-21-mir-376c-and-mir-145-and-their-target-host-genes-in-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Ismini Lasithiotaki, Eliza Tsitoura, Anastasios Koutsopoulos, Eleni Lagoudaki, Chara Koutoulaki, George Pitsidianakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos M Siafakas, George Sourvinos, Katerina M Antoniou
Merkel Cell Polyoma Virus (MCPyV) infection has been associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Viruses can manipulate cellular miRNAs or have a profound impact on cellular miRNA expression to control host regulatory pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of cancer-associated and virally affected host microRNAs miR-21, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-302c, miR-367 and miR-376c in a series of NSCLC tissue samples as well as in samples from "healthy" sites, distant from the tumour region that were either positive or negative for MCPyV DNA...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348692/genome-wide-search-for-higher-order-epistasis-as-modifiers-of-treatment-effects-on-bone-mineral-density-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#11
Cindy Im, Kirsten K Ness, Sue C Kaste, Wassim Chemaitilly, Wonjong Moon, Yadav Sapkota, Russell J Brooke, Melissa M Hudson, Leslie L Robison, Yutaka Yasui, Carmen L Wilson
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to interactions between regulatory elements that modulate gene transcription may explain some of the uncharacterized variation for complex traits. We explored this hypothesis among 856 adult survivors of pediatric cancer exposed to curative treatments that adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD). To restrict our search to interactions among SNPs in regulatory elements, our analysis considered 75523 SNPs mapped to putative promoter or enhancer regions. In anticipation that power to detect higher order epistasis would be low using an exhaustive search and a Bonferroni-corrected threshold for genome-wide significance (e...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348685/overexpression-of-adhesion-molecules-and-barrier-molecules-is-associated-with-differential-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Young Kwang Chae, Wooyoung M Choi, William H Bae, Jonathan Anker, Andrew A Davis, Sarita Agte, Wade T Iams, Marcelo Cruz, Maria Matsangou, Francis J Giles
Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347949/effects-of-surgery-and-anesthetic-choice-on-immunosuppression-and-cancer-recurrence
#13
REVIEW
Ryungsa Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between surgery and anesthetic-induced immunosuppression and cancer recurrence remains unresolved. Surgery and anesthesia stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to cause immunosuppression through several tumor-derived soluble factors. The potential impact of surgery and anesthesia on cancer recurrence was reviewed to provide guidance for cancer surgical treatment. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to December 31, 2016 using search terms such as, "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347911/micrornas-associated-with-early-neural-crest-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#14
Nicole J Ward, Darrell Green, Janet Higgins, Tamas Dalmay, Andrea Münsterberg, Simon Moxon, Grant N Wheeler
BACKGROUND: The neural crest (NC) is a class of transitory stem cell-like cells unique to vertebrate embryos. NC cells arise within the dorsal neural tube where they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in order to migrate and differentiate throughout the developing embryo. The derivative cell types give rise to multiple tissues, including the craniofacial skeleton, peripheral nervous system and skin pigment cells. Several well-studied gene regulatory networks underpin NC development, which when disrupted can lead to various neurocristopathies such as craniofrontonasal dysplasia, DiGeorge syndrome and some forms of cancer...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345906/prediction-of-hot-spots-at-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-inhibitors-interface-using-energy-estimation-and-alanine-scanning-mutagenesis
#15
Parthiban Marimuthu, Kalaimathy Singaravelu
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays central role in apoptosis regulation. Also, Mcl1 has the potency to resist apoptotic cues resulting in up-regulation and cancer cell protection. A molecular probe that has the potential to specifically target Mcl1, and thereby provoke its down-regulatory activity is very essential. The aim of the current study is to probe the internal conformational dynamics of protein motions and potential binding mechanism in response to a series of picomolar range Mcl1 inhibitors using explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345757/whole-genome-sequencing-analysis-for-cancer-genomics-and-precision-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Hidewaki Nakagawa, Masashi Fujita
Explosive advances of next-generation sequencer (NGS) and computational analyses have been exploring somatic protein-altered mutations in most cancer types and these coding mutation data are intensively accumulated. However, there is limited information on somatic mutations in non-coding regions including introns, regulatory elements, and non-coding RNAs, structural variants and pathogen in cancer genomes remain widely unexplored. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) approaches can comprehensively explore all types of genomic alterations in cancer and help us to better understand the whole landscape of driver mutations and mutational signature in cancer genomes and elucidate functional or clinical implications of these unexplored genomic regions and mutational signature...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345297/mir-135b-5p-promotes-gastric-cancer-progression-by-targeting-cmtm3
#17
Mingdong Lu, Yingpeng Huang, Weijian Sun, Pihong Li, Liyi Li, Leping Li
CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 3 (CMTM3) is considered to be a tumor suppressor gene in multiple types of malignancies. Previous studies have indicated that CMTM3 suppresses metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer cell proliferation has rarely been discussed. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms of CMTM3 in gastric cancer remain unclear. In this study, RT‑qPCR and IHC were used to assess the expression of CMTM3 and miR‑135b‑5p in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#18
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344744/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-angiogenesis-in-gastric-cancer
#19
Zhenqiang Gong, Jiachi Ma, He Su, Tiankang Guo, Hui Cai, Quan Chen, Xiaodan Zhao, Jianbo Qi, Jianbo Du
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) inhibits IL-1 selectively and specifically through IL-1R type I (IL-1RI). However, the underlying mechanism by which IL-1RA modulates the interactions of tumor cells and their micro-environment is poorly understood. We have evaluated the role of IL-1RA in the metastatic process as well as the mutual or reciprocal actions between gastric cancer cells and stromal cells...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344641/inhibition-of-rptor-overcomes-resistance-to-egfr-inhibition-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Kyu Sic You, Yong Weon Yi, Sahng-June Kwak, Yeon-Sun Seong
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells frequently exhibit activated growth factor signaling and resistance to inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), despite the overexpression of EGFR protein, and this is associated with a malignant behavior and a poor prognosis. In this study, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibitor and identify inhibitors that exert a synergistic effect with EGFR inhibition, we examined the inhibitory effects of selected protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) in combination with gefitinib on the viability of a mesenchymal stem-like (MSL) subtype TNBC cell line...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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