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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550609/validation-of-the-taps-1-a-four-item-screening-tool-to-identify-unhealthy-substance-use-in-primary-care
#1
Jan Gryczynski, Jennifer McNeely, Li-Tzy Wu, Geetha A Subramaniam, Dace S Svikis, Lauretta A Cathers, Gaurav Sharma, Jacqueline King, Eve Jelstrom, Courtney D Nordeck, Anjalee Sharma, Shannon G Mitchell, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substance use (TAPS) tool is a combined two-part screening and brief assessment developed for adult primary care patients. The tool's first-stage screening component (TAPS-1) consists of four items asking about past 12-month use for four substance categories, with response options of never, less than monthly, monthly, weekly, and daily or almost daily. OBJECTIVE: To validate the TAPS-1 in primary care patients...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550604/microencapsulation-of-%C3%AE-carotene-based-on-casein-guar-gum-blend-using-zeta-potential-yield-stress-phenomenon-an-approach-to-enhance-photo-stability-and-retention-of-functionality
#2
Deepika Thakur, Ashay Jain, Gargi Ghoshal, U S Shivhare, O P Katare
β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend...
May 26, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550603/development-of-novel-high-density-gastroretentive-multiparticulate-pulsatile-tablet-of-clopidogrel-bisulfate-using-quality-by-design-approach
#3
Nilesh Desai, Ravindra Purohit
Myocardial infarction, i.e., heart attack, is a fatal condition which is on the increase all over the world. It is reported that a large number of heart attack occur in morning hours which are attributable to platelet aggregation. Chronotherapy at this stage can be crucial. Clopidogrel bisulfate (CLB) is an antiplatelet agent and has become a drug of choice for prevention of heart attack. It is soluble in acidic pH and has a narrow absorption window. So, its long residence time in stomach is desirable. Therefore, a novel high density tablet was developed comprising multiparticulate pellets with pulsatile release necessary to maintain chronotherapy of heart attack...
May 26, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549467/the-prediction-diagnosis-and-management-of-complications-in-monochorionic-twin-pregnancies-the-ommit-optimal-management-of-monochorionic-twins-study
#4
Fiona L Mackie, R Katie Morris, Mark D Kilby
BACKGROUND: Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk of complications due to sharing a single placenta and potentially developing unbalanced vascular anastomoses. Complications include twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) which affects 10-15% monochorionic twins, and if untreated has a 70-90% perinatal loss rate. We are currently unable to predict which twins will develop complications or to what severity. We have previously shown differences in angiogenic and placental growth factors in maternal blood in pregnancies complicated by TTTS compared to twin pregnancies not complicated by TTTS but matched for gestation...
May 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547816/three-component-aminoalkylations-yielding-dihydronaphthoxazine-based-sirtuin-inhibitors-scaffold-modification-and-exploration-of-space-for-polar-side-chains
#5
Steffen Vojacek, Katja Beese, Zayan Alhalabi, Sören Swyter, Anja Bodtke, Carola Schulzke, Manfred Jung, Wolfgang Sippl, Andreas Link
Nonpolar derivatives of heterocyclic aromatic screening hits like the non-selective sirtuin inhibitor splitomicin tend to be poorly soluble in biological fluids. Unlike sp(3) -rich natural products, flat aromatic compounds are prone to stacking and often difficult to optimize into leads with activity in cellular systems. The aim of this work was to identify anchor points for the introduction of sp(3) -rich fragments with polar functional groups into the newly discovered active (IC50  = 5 μM) but nonpolar scaffold 1,2-dihydro-3H-naphth[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-thione by a molecular modeling approach...
May 26, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544917/effective-and-safe-mannitol-administration-in-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-tumor-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-double-blind-study
#6
Eren Fatma Akcil, Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Esra Sultan Karabulut, Serdar Selcuk Koksal, Fatis Altindas, Yusuf Tunali
OBJECTIVES: Although osmotic diuresis with mannitol is commonly used to provide brain relaxation, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose and combination with loop diuretics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of mannitol and combination of furosemide with different doses of mannitol on brain relaxation and on blood electrolytes, lactate level, urine output, fluid balance and blood osmolarity in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 51 patients (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542804/assessment-of-an-engineered-endothelium-via-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#7
Bin Jiang, Yidi Wu, Chad R Haney, Chongwen Duan, Guillermo A Ameer
The clinical translation of cell-based therapeutics often requires highly sensitive, non-invasive imaging tools to assess cell function and distribution in vivo. The objective of this research was to determine whether human Sodium-Iodide Symporter (hNIS) ectopic expression in endothelial cells (ECs) in combination with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a feasible approach to non-invasively monitor the presence and viability of an engineered endothelium on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)...
May 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541274/cerebrospinal-fluid-procalcitonin-as-a-biomarker-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-neonates
#8
Z Reshi, M Nazir, W Wani, M Malik, J Iqbal, S Wajid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) procalcitonin as a marker for bacterial meningitis in neonates, and to determine its optimal 'cutoff' in CSF that can be called significant for the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Neonates qualifying for lumbar puncture were prospectively studied. Procalcitonin and established CSF parameters were recorded. RESULTS: At a cut-off value of 0.33 ng ml(-1), CSF procalcitonin had a sensitivity of 0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540829/pseudomyxoma-peritonei-natural-history-and-treatment
#9
Rohin Mittal, Anuradha Chandramohan, Brendan Moran
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon disease characterized by mucinous ascites, classically originating from a ruptured low grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix. The natural history of PMP revolves around the "redistribution phenomenon", whereby mucinous tumour cells accumulate at specific sites with relative sparing of the motile small bowel and to a lesser extent other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Peritoneal tumour accumulates due to gravity and at the sites of peritoneal fluid absorption, namely, the greater and lesser omentum and the under-surface of the diaphragm, particularly on the right...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539966/supercritical-fluid-extraction-of-pyrrolidine-alkaloid-from-leaves-of-piper-amalago-l
#10
V S Carrara, L C Filho, V A S Garcia, V S Faiões, E F Cunha-Júnior, E C Torres-Santos, D A G Cortez
Supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract the alkaloid N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl]pyrrolidine from leaves of Piper amalago L. A three-level orthogonal array design matrix, OAD OA9(3(4)), was used for optimization of the parameters of supercritical extraction of the alkaloid, employing supercritical carbon dioxide: extraction time (20, 40, and 60 min), temperature (40, 50, and 60°C), pressure (150, 200, and 250 bar), and the use of cosolvents (ethanol, methanol, and propyleneglycol)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538080/formulation-and-characterization-of-lutetium-177-labeled-stannous-tin-colloid-for-radiosynovectomy
#11
Geetanjali Arora, Manoranjan Singh, Pragati Jha, Sarthak Tripathy, Chandrasekhar Bal, Anirban Mukherjee, Shamim A Shamim
OBJECTIVE: Easy large-scale production, easy availability, cost-effectiveness, long half-life, and favorable radiation characteristics have made lutetium-177 (Lu) a preferred radionuclide for use in therapy. Lutetium-177-labeled stannous (Lu-Sn) colloid particles were formulated for application in radiosynovectomy, followed by in-vitro and in-vivo characterization. METHODS: Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solution and Lu were heated together, the pH was adjusted, and the particles were recovered by centrifugation...
May 19, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537998/lactate-and-microcirculation-as-suitable-targets-for-hemodynamic-optimization-in-resuscitation-of-circulatory-shock
#12
Michael E Kiyatkin, Jan Bakker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A discussion of recent research exploring the feasibility of perfusion-guided resuscitation of acute circulatory failure with a focus on lactate and microcirculation. RECENT FINDINGS: Upon diagnosis of shock, hyperlactemia is associated with poor outcome and, under appropriate clinical circumstances, may reflect inadequate tissue perfusion. Persistent hyperlactemia despite resuscitation is even more strongly correlated with morbidity and mortality...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535530/mathematical-model-of-potassium-profiling-in-chronic-dialysis
#13
Mauro Ursino, Gabriele Donati
Potassium balance is a difficult task in hemodialysis: low potassium in the dialysate is associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death, whereas excessive dialysate potassium may provoke insufficient removal and hyperkalemia. A better understanding of the problem can be achieved with the use of mathematical models of solute kinetics. This study is aimed at presenting an improved model of solute kinetics and fluid shifts during hemodialysis. It comprises a 2-compartment (intracellular and extracellular) description of sodium, potassium, and urea, including volume fluid shifts induced by osmotic forces...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530093/iron-oxide-nanoparticles-powered-micro-optical-coherence-tomography-for-in-situ-imaging-the-penetration-and-swelling-of-polymeric-microneedles-in-skin
#14
Razina Z Seeni, Xiaojun Yu, Hao Chang, Peng Chen, Linbo Liu, Chenjie Xu
In recent years, polymeric microneedles (MNs) have attracted keen interests among researchers for their applicability in transdermal drug delivery and interstitial skin fluid (ISF) extraction. When design and characterize such devices, it is critical to monitor their real-time in vitro and in vivo performances to optimize the desired effects, yet most of the existing methods are incapable of such functions. To address this unmet need, we develop a real-time non-invasive imaging methodology by integrating iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles into polymeric MNs to enhance image contrast for micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) imaging...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529343/excellent-auc-for-joint-fluid-cytology-in-the-detection-exclusion-of-hip-and-knee-prosthetic-joint-infection
#15
Jiri Gallo, Jarmila Juranova, Michal Svoboda, Jana Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (SWCC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte percentage in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for particular threshold values. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective study of 391 patients in whom SF specimens were collected before total joint replacement revisions. SF was aspirated before joint capsule incision. The PJI diagnosis was based only on non-SF data...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529239/formulation-optimization-of-gastro-retention-tablets-of-paeonol-and-efficacy-in-treatment-of-experimental-gastric-ulcer
#16
Xitong Zhang, Yue Zhang, Han Han, Jun Yang, Benliang Xu, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang
This study aims to develop a gastroretentive sustained-release drug delivery system of paeonol using floating properties and to investigate its therapeutic effects in rat models. The gastric retention tablets of paeonol (GRT-Ps) were prepared by a direct compression method, and the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize its formulation. The optimized formulation containing 15% NaHCO3 and a 2:1 ratio of paeonol and HPMC-K4M floated within 1 min and remained afloat for more than 8 h in the simulated gastric fluid (200 mL, pH=1...
May 19, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528283/poly-vinyl-alcohol-hydroxyapatite-monolithic-in-needle-extraction-mine-device-preparation-and-examination-of-drug-affinity
#18
Monika Pietrzyńska, Michał Czerwiński, Adam Voelkel
Polymer-ceramic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxyapatite were applied as sorption material in Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device. The presented device provides new possibilities for the examination of bisphosphonates affinity for bone and will be a helpful tool in evaluation of potential antiresorptive drugs suitability. A ceramic part of monoliths was prepared by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the reaction mixture or by using a soaking method (mineralization of HA on the PVA)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528002/iron-microencapsulation-in-gum-tragacanth-using-solvent-evaporation-method
#19
Elham Asghari-Varzaneh, Mohammad Shahedi, Hajar Shekarchizadeh
In this study iron salt (FeSO4·7H2O) was microencapsulated in gum tragacanth hydrogel using solvent evaporation method. Three significant parameters (ferrous sulfate content, content of gum tragacanth, and alcohol to mixture ratio) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. Ferrous sulfate content, 5%, content of gum tragacanth, 22%, and alcohol to mixture ratio, 11:1 was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. Microstructure of iron microcapsules was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525778/inferior-vena-cava-collapsibility-detects-fluid-responsiveness-among-spontaneously-breathing-critically-ill-patients
#20
Keith A Corl, Naomi R George, Justin Romanoff, Andrew T Levinson, Darin B Chheng, Roland C Merchant, Mitchell M Levy, Anthony M Napoli
PURPOSE: Measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility (cIVC) by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been proposed as a viable, non-invasive means of assessing fluid responsiveness. We aimed to determine the ability of cIVC to identify patients who will respond to additional intravenous fluid (IVF) administration among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. METHODS: Prospective observational trial of spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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