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Fluid optimization

David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
M T Ruiz-Campillo, V Molina-Hernández, J Pérez, I L Pacheco, R Pérez, A Escamilla, F J Martínez-Moreno, A Martínez-Moreno, R Zafra
During Fasciola hepatica infection, the parasite has the capability to modulate the host immune response towards a non-protector Th2 type instead of Th1. This type of immune response is closely related to the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 profile) as has been shown in vivo in murine models. In this study, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the expression of CD68, CD14, CD206 and iNOS in cells present in the peritoneal fluid of sheep during early stages of infection with F. hepatica (1, 3, 9 and 18 days post-infection, dpi) by immunocytochemistry...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Lynn E Kassel, Edward T Van Matre, Charles J Foster, Douglas N Fish, Scott W Mueller, Deb S Sherman, Michael F Wempe, Robert MacLaren, Robert T Neumann, Tyree H Kiser
PURPOSE: Neurocritically-ill patients have clinically significant alterations in pharmacokinetic parameters of renally-eliminated medications, which may result in subtherapeutic plasma and cerebrospinal fluid antibiotic concentrations. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, open-label study of adult neurocritically-ill patients treated with vancomycin and cefepime. Vancomycin 15 mg/kg and cefepime 2 g were dosed at every 8 or 12-hour intervals. The primary outcomes were the achievement of pharmacodynamic targets related to time of unbound drug above minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for 60% or more of the dosing interval (fT>MIC ≥60%) for β-lactams and ratio of 24-hour area under the curve (AUC):MIC of 400 or greater for vancomycin...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Jacquelyn MacDonell, Niravkumar Patel, Gregory Fischer, E Clif Burdette, Jiang Qian, Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Goutam Ghoshal, Tamas Heffter, Emery Williams, Matthew Gounis, Robert King, Juliette Thibodeau, Gene Bogdanov, Olivia W Brooks, Erin Langan, Roy Hwang, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Ablative lesions are current treatments for epilepsy and brain tumors. Interstitial magnetic resonance (MR) guided focused ultrasound (iMRgFUS) may be an alternate ablation technique which limits thermal tissue charring as compared to laser therapy (LITT) and can produce larger ablation patterns nearer the surface than transcranial MR guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS). OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with interstitial focused ultrasound (iFUS) ablations in swine, using MR-guided robotically assisted (MRgRA) delivery...
June 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Pelle Ohlsson, Klara Petersson, Per Augustsson, Thomas Laurell
Sepsis is a common and often deadly systemic response to an infection, usually caused by bacteria. The gold standard for finding the causing pathogen in a blood sample is blood culture, which may take hours to days. Shortening the time to diagnosis would significantly reduce mortality. To replace the time-consuming blood culture we are developing a method to directly separate bacteria from red and white blood cells to enable faster bacteria identification. The blood cells are moved from the sample flow into a parallel stream using acoustophoresis...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janina Rau, Daniela Tiedemann, Jutta Sielhorst, Anna Tönissen, Dominik Burger, Gunilla Martinsson, Karl Rohn, Harriette Oldenhof, Harald Sieme
OBJECTIVE: Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration (TUA) is a procedure which can be used for the reduction of twins post-fixation in the mare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the age of mares and the day of gestation on the outcome of TUA treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 88 mares, diagnosed pregnant with twins, TUA of the yolk sac or allantoic fluid was performed between day 30 and 62 of gestation. Mares were aged 3-22 years. Ultrasonographic examination for a viable singleton pregnancy was performed by referring veterinarians 5-7 days and 4 weeks after TUA...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Y A Guzman, D Sakellari, K Papadimitriou, C A Floudas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Untargeted, high-throughput proteomics methodologies have great potential to aid in identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The application of such methods to the discovery of candidate biomarkers for the resolution of periodontal inflammation after periodontal therapy has been investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 10 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis at baseline and 1, 5, 9 and 13 weeks after completion of mechanical periodontal treatment...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Emeka Emmanuel Okoro, Adewale Dosunmu, Sunny E Iyuke
The focus of this research was to present a data article for analyzing the cost of displacing a drilling fluid during the drilling operation. The cost of conventional Spud, KCl and Pseudo Oil base (POBM) muds used in drilling oil and gas wells are compared with that of a Reversible Invert Emulsion Mud. The cost analysis is limited to three sections for optimum and effective Comparison. To optimize drilling operations, it is important that we specify the yardstick by which drilling performance is measured. The most relevant yardstick is the cost per foot drilled...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Anat Lavie, Maya Ram, Shaul Lev, Yair Blecher, Uri Amikam, Yael Shulman, Tomer Avnon, Eran Weiner, Ariel Many
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is among the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The clinical utility of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in preeclampsia (e.g., Swan-Ganz catheter) is controversial. Thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC) and Doppler echocardiography are noninvasive techniques but they both have important limitations. NICaS™ (NI Medical, PetachTikva, Israel) is a noninvasive cardiac system for determining cardiac output (CO) that utilizes regional impedance cardiography (RIC) by noninvasively measuring the impedance signal in the periphery...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Katja Kalenyak, Romy M Heilmann
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The term "atypical" HoAC is used for a subgroup of dogs with either an isolated glucocorticoid deficiency or a combined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency but normal electrolytes. Dogs with HoAC can present with a large variety of clinical signs, ranging from shaking, weakness, and mild gastrointestinal signs to seizures, hypovolemic shock, and collapse...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Michael Karsy, Christian A Bowers, Jonathan Scoville, Bornali Kundu, Mohammed Atef, J Michael Gee, Jian Guan, William T Couldwell
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas are among the most common primary brain tumors. Recently, overlapping surgery has been curbed in many institutions because of the suggestion there might be more significant adverse events, despite several studies showing that complication rates are equivalent. OBJECTIVE: To assess complications and costs associated with overlapping surgery during the transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the cases of patients who underwent a transsphenoidal approach for pituitary tumor resection...
June 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Elif Öztürk Er, Emine Gülhan Bakırdere, Tuğçe Unutkan, Sezgin Bakırdere
A new competitive ligand has been synthesized for the preconcentration to obtain lower detection limits by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (DLLME-SQT-FAAS). The proposed method is simple, eco-friendly and has high sensitivity. The preconcentration procedure was optimized on the basis of various parameters affecting the complex formation and extraction efficiency such as pH and volume of buffer solution, volume of ligand solution, mixing period, volume and type of extraction solvent, volume and type of dispersive solvent, and salt effect...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
G Manasa, Ronald J Mascarenhas, Ashis K Satpati, Basavanakote M Basavaraja, Sriram Kumar
Due to the enforcement of regulatory restrictions to prevent risk to human health from Bisphenol A (BPA), its structural analogue Bisphenol F (BPF) has been introduced into the market as an alternative. But however recent studies describe BPF as an effectual endocrine disruptor. Hence, there is an indispensible need for research concerning BPF human and environmental exposure level. In this work, we have elicited the development of an economical electrochemical sensor, to quantify and investigate in detail the electrochemical behavior of BPF using carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with zinc oxide reduced graphene nanocomposite (ZnO/G) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)...
June 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yingchuan Peng, Kangxu Wang, Wenxi Fu, Chengwang Sheng, Zhaojun Han
Double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) degrading nuclease is responsible for the rapid degradation of dsRNA molecules, and thus accounts for variations in RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy among insect species. Here, the biochemical properties and tissue-specific activities of dsRNA degrading nucleases in four insects ( Spodoptera litura, Locusta migratoria, Periplaneta americana , and Zophobas atratus ) from different orders were characterized using a modified assay method. The results revealed that all insect dsRNA degrading nucleases tested showed high activity in alkaline environments at optimal Mg2+ concentrations and elevated temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sylvain Lehmann, Constance Delaby, Guilaine Boursier, Cindy Catteau, Nelly Ginestet, Laurent Tiers, Aleksandra Maceski, Sophie Navucet, Claire Paquet, Julien Dumurgier, Eugeen Vanmechelen, Hugo Vanderstichele, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (Aβ peptides and tau proteins) improved the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in research and clinical settings. We previously described the PLM-scale (Paris-Lille-Montpellier study), which combines Aβ42, tau, and phosphorylated ptau(181) biomarkers in an easy to use and clinically relevant way. The purpose of this work is to evaluate an optimized PLMR- scale (PLM ratio scale) that now includes the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio to detect AD versus non-AD (NAD) participants in clinical routine of memory centers...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jiahuan Qiu, Qunxiong Zheng, Lei Fang, Yanbo Wang, Min Min, Chen Shen, Zaizai Tong, Chunhua Xiong
This study aimed to investigate the optimum preparation condition of casein- carrageenan conjugate by ultrasonic Maillard dry treatment. The stable microcapsule was self-assembly prepared by the conjugates applied to protect red pigment from paprika. The optimum substrate ratio of Cas-Ca is 1:2, the reaction time and temperature were 24 h and 60 °C. Finally, the optimal degree of grafting reached 78.05%. Conjugation with carrageenan could further enhance solubility and emulsifying properties of casein...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Susanne Brakemeier, Anja Pfau, Bianca Zukunft, Klemens Budde, Peter Nickel
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection diagnosed in immunocompromized patients. After solid organ transplantation, early infection has decreased as a result of effective prophylaxis, but late infections and even outbreaks caused by interpatient transmission of pneumocystis by air are present in the SOT community. Different risk factors for PJP have been described and several indications for PJP prophylaxis have to be considered by clinicians in patients even years after transplantation...
June 8, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jelle L G Haitsma Mulier, Sander Rozemeijer, Jantine G Röttgering, Angelique M E Spoelstra-de Man, Paul W G Elbers, Pieter Roel Tuinman, Monique C de Waard, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates shock. Diagnosis is based on rising creatinine, a late phenomenon. Intrarenal vasoconstriction occurs earlier. Measuring flow resistance in the renal circulation, Renal Resistive Index (RRI), could become part of vital organ function assessment using Doppler ultrasound. Our aim was to determine whether RRI on ICU admission is an early predictor and discriminator of AKI developed within the first week. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of mixed ICU patients with and without shock, RRI was measured <24-h of admission...
2018: PloS One
Erin T Carey, Janelle K Moulder
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are a multimodal approach to optimize the surgical experience. Intraoperative and postoperative pain management is essential because the stress of surgery results in significant neurohormonal and metabolic shifts that can influence patient analgesia. Enhanced recovery after surgery programs address the physiologic and psychological factors that contribute to pain outcomes and overall satisfaction scores. A multimodal approach to recovery throughout the perioperative surgical experience is representative of successful pathways...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gretchen A Casazza, Ashley P Tovar, Christine E Richardson, Angela N Cortez, Brian A Davis
Endurance athletes use nutritional guidelines and supplements to improve exercise performance and recovery. However, use is not always based on scientific evidence of improved performance, which type of athlete would benefit most, or the optimal dose and timing of a particular supplement. Health professionals that give advice to athletes need to target their recommendations on the energy systems and muscle fiber types used for the athlete's sporting event, the goal of the training block, the time of the competitive season, and the characteristics and food preferences of the individual athlete...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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