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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728046/advanced-morphological-neuroimaging-study-in-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-multicentric-study
#1
Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Francesca Bisulli, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Alfredo D'Aniello, Jacopo C Difrancesco, Laura Canafoglia, Marina Casazza, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (lTLE) is a rare condition characterized by auditory auras or receptive aphasia, negative MRI, and relatively benign evolution. With the low number of cases in the world, our objective was to analyze a cohort of sporadic cases with lTLE (slTLE), in order to investigate possible cerebral morphological alterations. Forty patients with lTLE (34.93±12.08years of age) and 38 healthy controls (CTRL, 34.55±9.08years of age) were enrolled from four tertiary Italian epilepsy centers, which provided brain MRI T1-weighted images following a standard protocol for patients with epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725982/analysis-of-risk-factors-influencing-the-outcome-of-the-epley-maneuver
#2
E Domínguez-Durán, E Domènech-Vadillo, M G Álvarez-Morujo de Sande, R González-Aguado, G Guerra-Jiménez, Á Ramos-Macías, C Morales-Angulo, A J Martín-Mateos, E Figuerola-Massana, H Galera-Ruiz
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent type of vertigo. The treatment of canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal consists in performing a particle-repositioning maneuver, such as the Epley maneuver (EM). However, the EM is not effective in all cases. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors, which predict the EM failure, among the clinical variables recorded in anamnesis and patient examination. This is an observational prospective multicentric study. All patients presenting with BPPV were recruited and applied the EM and appointed for a follow-up visit 7 days later...
July 19, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#3
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725032/remora-cranial-vein-morphology-and-its-functional-implications-for-attachment
#4
Brooke E Flammang
Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724581/mri-evidence-of-acute-inflammation-in-leukocortical-lesions-of-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Josefina Maranzano, David A Rudko, Kunio Nakamura, Stuart Cook, Diego Cadavid, Leo Wolansky, Douglas L Arnold, Sridar Narayanan
OBJECTIVE: To identify gadolinium-enhancing lesions affecting the cortex of patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the frequency and evolution of these lesions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, longitudinal analysis of MRI scans collected as part of the Betaseron vs Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3T MRI Endpoints (BECOME) study. Seventy-five patients with early-stage MS were scanned monthly, over a period of 12-24 months, using 3T MRI after administration of triple-dose gadolinium...
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723299/support-for-disease-only-genotypes-and-excess-of-homozygosity-at-the-cyth4-primate-specific-gttt-repeat-in-schizophrenia
#6
Ehteram Khademi, Elham Alehabib, Ehsan Esmaili Shandiz, Azadeh Ahmadifard, Monavvar Andarva, Javad Jamshidi, Simin Rahimi-Aliabadi, Ramin Pouriran, Farhad Ramezani Nejad, Nader Mansoori, Neda Shahmohammadibeni, Shaghyegh Taghavi, Parasto Shokraeian, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki, Coro Paisán-Ruiz, Hossein Darvish, Mina Ohadi
OBJECTIVE: The role of short tandem repeats (STRs) in the control of gene expression among species is being increasingly understood following the identification of several instances in which certain STRs occur identically, or expand differentially, in primates versus nonprimates. These STRs may regulate genes that participate in characteristics that have diverged primates from other species (e.g., brain higher order functions). The CYTH4 gene contains the longest tetranucleotide STR in its core promoter, at 7-repeats, and links to the evolution of human and nonhuman primates...
July 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#7
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717391/transcriptional-mechanisms-underlying-life-history-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#8
Sin-Yeon Kim, Maria M Costa, Anna Esteve-Codina, Alberto Velando
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to express different phenotypes depending on the environment, provides an important mechanism by which an animal population can persist under rapid climate change. We experimentally tested both life-history and transcriptional responses of an ecological model species, the three-spined stickleback, to warm acclimation at the southern edge of its European range. We explored cross-environment genetic correlations of key life-history traits in male sticklebacks exposed to long-term temperature changes to examine whether the plasticity pattern was variable among genotypes by using a character-state approach...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714584/oscillations-during-observations-dynamic-oscillatory-networks-serving-visuospatial-attention
#9
Alex I Wiesman, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Amy L Proskovec, Timothy J McDermott, Tony W Wilson
The dynamic allocation of neural resources to discrete features within a visual scene enables us to react quickly and accurately to salient environmental circumstances. A network of bilateral cortical regions is known to subserve such visuospatial attention functions; however the oscillatory and functional connectivity dynamics of information coding within this network are not fully understood. Particularly, the coding of information within prototypical attention-network hubs and the subsecond functional connections formed between these hubs have not been adequately characterized...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714429/structural-brain-correlations-of-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Nuria Bargallo, Carme Uribe, Anna Campabadal, Alexandra Abos, Carme Junque
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. METHODS: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710771/detailed-longitudinal-sampling-of-glioma-stem-cells-in-situ-reveals-chr7-gain-and-chr10-loss-as-repeated-events-in-primary-tumor-formation-and-recurrence
#11
Mehmet Baysan, Kevin Woolard, Margaret C Cam, Wei Zhang, Hua Song, Svetlana Kotliarova, Demosthenes Balamatsias, Amanda Linkous, Susie Ahn, Jennifer Walling, Galina I Belova, Howard A Fine
Intratumoral heterogeneity at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic and morphologic levels is a commonly observed phenomenon in many aggressive cancer types. Clonal evolution during tumor formation as well as in response to therapeutic intervention, can be predicted utilizing reverse engineering approaches on detailed genomic snapshots of heterogeneous patient tumor samples. In this study, we developed an extensive dataset for a GBM case via the generation of polyclonal and monoclonal glioma stem cell lines from initial diagnosis, as well as from multiple sections of distant tumor locations of the deceased patient's brain following tumor recurrence...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710373/a-method-for-validating-rent-s-rule-for-technological-and-biological-networks
#12
Fernando Alcalde Cuesta, Pablo González Sequeiros, Álvaro Lozano Rojo
Rent's rule is empirical power law introduced in an effort to describe and optimize the wiring complexity of computer logic graphs. It is known that brain and neuronal networks also obey Rent's rule, which is consistent with the idea that wiring costs play a fundamental role in brain evolution and development. Here we propose a method to validate this power law for a certain range of network partitions. This method is based on the bifurcation phenomenon that appears when the network is subjected to random alterations preserving its degree distribution...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710326/cortical-influences-drive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Andrew Eisen, Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici, Roger Lemon, Albert C Ludolph, Matthew C Kiernan
The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710037/rna-editing-independently-occurs-at-three-mir-376a-1-sites-and-may-compromise-the-stability-of-the-microrna-hairpin
#14
Alicia Gallego, Diego A Hartasánchez, Marina Brasó-Vives, Eva Garcia-Ramallo, Maria Lopez-Valenzuela, Neus Baena, Miriam Guitart, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Ivanela Kondova, Ronald Bontrop, Yukio Kawahara, Yolanda Espinosa-Parrilla
RNA editing is being recognized as an important post-transcriptional mechanism that may have crucial roles in introducing genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Despite microRNA editing recurrence, defining its biological relevance is still under extended debate. To better understand microRNA editing function and regulation we performed an exhaustive characterization of the A-to-I site-specific patterns in mir-376a-1, a mammalian microRNA which RNA editing is involved in the regulation of development and in disease...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708995/evolution-of-the-human-nervous-system-function-structure-and-development
#15
REVIEW
André M M Sousa, Kyle A Meyer, Gabriel Santpere, Forrest O Gulden, Nenad Sestan
The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706307/effect-of-shock-induced-cavitation-bubble-collapse-on-the-damage-in-the-simulated-perineuronal-net-of-the-brain
#16
Yuan-Ting Wu, Ashfaq Adnan
The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704398/temporal-dynamics-of-neurogenomic-plasticity-in-response-to-social-interactions-in-male-threespined-sticklebacks
#17
Syed Abbas Bukhari, Michael C Saul, Christopher H Seward, Huimin Zhang, Miles Bensky, Noelle James, Sihai Dave Zhao, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Lisa Stubbs, Alison M Bell
Animals exhibit dramatic immediate behavioral plasticity in response to social interactions, and brief social interactions can shape the future social landscape. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to behavioral plasticity are unclear. Here, we show that the genome dynamically responds to social interactions with multiple waves of transcription associated with distinct molecular functions in the brain of male threespined sticklebacks, a species famous for its behavioral repertoire and evolution. Some biological functions (e...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701939/behavioral-and-cortical-effects-during-attention-driven-brain-computer-interface-operations-in-spatial-neglect-a-feasibility-case-study
#18
Luca Tonin, Marco Pitteri, Robert Leeb, Huaijian Zhang, Emanuele Menegatti, Francesco Piccione, José Del R Millán
During the last years, several studies have suggested that Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) can play a critical role in the field of motor rehabilitation. In this case report, we aim to investigate the feasibility of a covert visuospatial attention (CVSA) driven BCI in three patients with left spatial neglect (SN). We hypothesize that such a BCI is able to detect attention task-specific brain patterns in SN patients and can induce significant changes in their abnormal cortical activity (α-power modulation, feature recruitment, and connectivity)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701910/the-impact-of-ecological-niche-on-adaptive-flexibility-of-sensory-circuitry
#19
REVIEW
Sarah L Pallas
Evolution and development are interdependent, particularly with regard to the construction of the nervous system and its position as the machine that produces behavior. On the one hand, the processes directing development and plasticity of the brain provide avenues through which natural selection can sculpt neural cell fate and connectivity, and on the other hand, they are themselves subject to selection pressure. For example, mutations that produce heritable perturbations in neuronal birth and death rates, transcription factor expression, or availability of axon guidance factors within sensory pathways can markedly affect the development of form and thus the function of stimulus decoding circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697557/comparison-of-different-hypotheses-regarding-the-spread-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-markov-random-fields-and-multimodal-imaging
#20
Martin Dyrba, Michel J Grothe, Abdolreza Mohammadi, Harald Binder, Thomas Kirste, Stefan J Teipel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a cascade of pathological processes that can be assessed in vivo using different neuroimaging methods. Recent research suggests a systematic sequence of pathogenic events on a global biomarker level, but little is known about the associations and dependencies of distinct lesion patterns on a regional level. Markov random fields are a probabilistic graphical modeling approach that represent the interaction between individual random variables by an undirected graph...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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