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brain evolution

Clarissa J Whitmire, Garrett B Stanley
Adaptation is fundamental to life. All organisms adapt over timescales that span from evolution to generations and lifetimes to moment-by-moment interactions. The nervous system is particularly adept at rapidly adapting to change, and this in fact may be one of its fundamental principles of organization and function. Rapid forms of sensory adaptation have been well documented across all sensory modalities in a wide range of organisms, yet we do not have a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive cellular mechanisms that ultimately give rise to the corresponding percepts, due in part to the complexity of the circuitry...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Samuele Maramai, Sandra Gemma, Simone Brogi, Giuseppe Campiani, Stefania Butini, Holger Stark, Margherita Brindisi
D3 receptors represent a major focus of current drug design and development of therapeutics for dopamine-related pathological states. Their close homology with the D2 receptor subtype makes the development of D3 selective antagonists a challenging task. In this review, we explore the relevance and therapeutic utility of D3 antagonists or partial agonists endowed with multireceptor affinity profile in the field of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse. In fact, the peculiar distribution and low brain abundance of D3 receptors make them a valuable target for the development of drugs devoid of motor side effects classically elicited by D2 antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nobuhiro Yada, Hideo Onishi, Masahiro Miyai, Kentarou Ozasa, Masuo Haramoto, Yasushi Yamamoto, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Hajime Kitagaki
PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the resolution recovery for each collimator in the brain perfusion image. METHOD: To verify the effect of the resolution recovery for each collimator, we evaluated via the three-dimensional brain phantom (phantom) and the normal brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. These data were reconstructed using the three-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization method (3D-OSEM) (Evolution for bone(TM)) that was performed with scatter correction, attenuation correction, and resolution recovery (RR)...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Hyejung Won, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Neelroop N Parikshak, Jerry Huang, Carli K Opland, Michael J Gandal, Gavin J Sutton, Farhad Hormozdiari, Daning Lu, Changhoon Lee, Eleazar Eskin, Irina Voineagu, Jason Ernst, Daniel H Geschwind
Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Tilman Schubert, Yijing Wu, Kevin M Johnson, Oliver Wieben, Jane Maksimovic, Charles Mistretta, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVES: Time-of-arrival (TOA) maps can be derived from high-resolution 4-dimensional (4D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets to provide a quantitative description of contrast material arrival time in each voxel. This information can further be processed to create a compressed time evolution curve that virtually shortens the contrast bolus (virtual bolus [VB]). The purpose of this project was to determine whether TOA-enhanced 4D MRA and/or VB imaging improve the display of contrast kinetics in patients with vascular disease...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Jürgen Bohlender, Jürg Nussberger, Beate Bohlender
OBJECTIVE: In elderly hypertensive patients, systolic blood pressure (sBP) goals recommended by US and European guidelines (ESH) for the initiation of treatment are more liberal than in younger patients because of an increased risk of treatment-associated side-effects and hypotension. Carotid stenosis increases with age and poses a risk of brain ischemia if hypotension occurs. Its relevance for the routine care of elderly hypertensives, however, remains unclear. We analyzed data on precerebral artery morphology and BP evolution from a survey of aged hospitalized patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Masahito Tsuboi, Adam Chee Ooi Lim, Boon Leong Ooi, Mei Yee Yip, Ving Ching Chong, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm
Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Mohsen Yousefnezhad, Morteza Fotouhi, Kaveh Vejdani, Padideh Kamali-Zare
We present a universal model of brain tissue microstructure that dynamically links osmosis and diffusion with geometrical parameters of brain extracellular space (ECS). Our model robustly describes and predicts the nonlinear time dependency of tortuosity (λ=sqrt[D/D^{*}]) changes with very high precision in various media with uniform and nonuniform osmolarity distribution, as demonstrated by previously published experimental data (D = free diffusion coefficient, D^{*} = effective diffusion coefficient). To construct this model, we first developed a multiscale technique for computationally effective modeling of osmolarity in the brain tissue...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, N Terrier, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To review epidemiologic data's and medical results of deceased donation in renal transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "brain death; cardiac arrest; deceased donation; organ procurement; transplantation". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
October 7, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Alex E Roher, Chera L Maarouf, Tyler A Kokjohn, Christine Belden, Geidy Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
INTRODUCTION: Based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a series of clinical trials involving immunotherapies have been undertaken including infusion with the IgG1 monoclonal anti-Aβ antibody solanezumab directed against the middle of the soluble Aβ peptide. In this report, we give an account of the clinical history, psychometric testing, gross and microscopic neuropathology as well as immunochemical quantitation of soluble and insoluble Aβ peptides and other proteins of interest related to AD pathophysiology in a patient treated with solanezumab...
2016: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Morag K Mansley, Jessica R Ivy, Matthew A Bailey
Hypertension is known as the "silent killer," driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: KI Rep
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alain Goriely, Johannes Weickenmeier, Ellen Kuhl
When a swelling soft solid is rigidly constrained on all sides except for a circular opening, it will bulge out to expand as observed during decompressive craniectomy, a surgical procedure used to reduce stresses in swollen brains. While the elastic energy of the solid decreases throughout this process, large stresses develop close to the opening. At the point of contact, the stresses exhibit a singularity similar to the ones found in the classic punch indentation problem. Here, we study the stresses generated by swelling and the evolution of the bulging shape associated with this process...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Wei Yin, Zong-Ji Wang, Qi-Ye Li, Jin-Ming Lian, Yang Zhou, Bing-Zheng Lu, Li-Jun Jin, Peng-Xin Qiu, Pei Zhang, Wen-Bo Zhu, Bo Wen, Yi-Jun Huang, Zhi-Long Lin, Bi-Tao Qiu, Xing-Wen Su, Huan-Ming Yang, Guo-Jie Zhang, Guang-Mei Yan, Qi Zhou
Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes. We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements (TEs), developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Atahualpa Castillo-Morales, Jimena Monzón-Sandoval, Alexandra A de Sousa, Araxi O Urrutia, Humberto Gutierrez
Increased brain size is thought to have played an important role in the evolution of mammals and is a highly variable trait across lineages. Variations in brain size are closely linked to corresponding variations in the size of the neocortex, a distinct mammalian evolutionary innovation. The genomic features that explain and/or accompany variations in the relative size of the neocortex remain unknown. By comparing the genomes of 28 mammalian species, we show that neocortical expansion relative to the rest of the brain is associated with variations in gene family size (GFS) of gene families that are significantly enriched in biological functions associated with chemotaxis, cell-cell signalling and immune response...
October 2016: Open Biology
Petra Bonova, Miroslava Nemethova, Milina Matiasova, Martin Bona, Miroslav Gottlieb
Ischemic tolerance (IT) has gained attention as an attractive strategy for improving stroke outcome. Recently, it was shown that signal responsible for rapid IT induction (tolerance induction factor- TIF) is transmitted via circulating blood. In the present paper, we have hypothesized about the role of the blood cell compartment in TIF production. We used hind limb ischemia to generate TIF as a rapid preconditioning against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The essential properties of protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cycloheximide were utilized to obtain the following results: 1...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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