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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#1
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#2
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340168/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-neurocranium-problems-of-the-premandibular-domain-and-the%C3%A2-origin-of-the%C3%A2-trabecula
#3
REVIEW
Shigeru Kuratani, Per E Ahlberg
The subdivision of the gnathostome neurocranium into an anterior neural crest-derived moiety and a posterior mesodermal moiety has attracted the interest of researchers for nearly two centuries. We present a synthetic scenario for the evolution of this structure, uniting developmental data from living cyclostomes and gnathostomes with morphological data from fossil stem gnathostomes in a common phylogenetic framework. Ancestrally, vertebrates had an anteroposteriorly short forebrain, and the neurocranium was essentially mesodermal; skeletal structures derived from premandibular ectomesenchyme were mostly anterior to the brain and formed part of the visceral arch skeleton...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335774/genomic-trade-offs-are-autism-and-schizophrenia-the-steep-price-of-the-human-brain
#4
J M Sikela, V B Searles Quick
Evolution often deals in genomic trade-offs: changes in the genome that are beneficial overall persist even though they also produce disease in a subset of individuals. Here, we explore the possibility that such trade-offs have occurred as part of the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we provide support for the possibility that the same key genes that have been major contributors to the rapid evolutionary expansion of the human brain and its exceptional cognitive capacity also, in different combinations, are significant contributors to autism and schizophrenia...
January 15, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#5
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334837/more-expertise-for-a-better-perspective-task-and-strategy-driven-adaptive-neurofunctional-reorganization-for-word-production-in-high-performing-older-adults
#6
Ikram Methqal, Yannick Marsolais, Maximiliano A Wilson, Oury Monchi, Yves Joanette
The suggestion that neurofunctional reorganization may contribute to preserved language abilities is still emerging in aging studies. Some of these abilities, such as verbal fluency (VF), are not unitary but instead rely on different strategic processes that are differentially changed with age. Younger (n = 13) and older adults (n = 13) carried out an overt self-paced semantic and orthographic VF tasks within mixed fMRI design. Our results suggest that patterns of brain activation sustaining equivalent performances could be underpinned by different strategies facing brain changes during healthy aging...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#7
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330587/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-spinal-cord-involvement-pres-sci-as-a-rare-complication-of-severe-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Jianfei Nao, Han Zhang, Si Wu, Xiaotian Zhang, Dongming Zheng
INTRODUCTION: In addition to diffuse brain oedema, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can lead to ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, extrapontine myelinolysis, and sinovenous thrombosis. However, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and spinal cord oedema are rarely reported in patients with DKA. METHODS: We present a case of a 17-year-old-girl who developed headache, blurred vision, and paraplegia after her DKA was controlled. Sequential magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain and spinal cord were performed...
January 12, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#9
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#10
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327284/treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-relapses-with-high-dose-methylprednisolone-reduces-the-evolution-of-contrast-enhancing-lesions-into-persistent-black-holes
#11
Maria Di Gregorio, Lorenzo Gaetani, Paolo Eusebi, Piero Floridi, Antonella Picchioni, Giovanni Rosi, Andrea Mancini, Chiara Floridi, Francesca Baschieri, Lucia Gentili, Paola Sarchielli, Paolo Calabresi, Massimiliano Di Filippo
INTRODUCTION: The MRI evidence of persistent black holes (pBHs) on T1-weighted images reflects brain tissue loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). The evolution of contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) into pBHs probably depends on the degree and persistence of focal brain inflammation. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of a single cycle of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP), as for MS relapse treatment, on the risk of CELs' evolution into pBHs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected 57 patients with CELs on the baseline MRI scan...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#12
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322500/seizure-onset-predicts-its-type
#13
Cristian Donos, Mihai Dragos Maliia, Matthias Dümpelmann, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by transient alterations in brain synchronization resulting in seizures with a wide spectrum of manifestations. Seizure severity and risks for patients depend on the evolution and spread of the hypersynchronous discharges. With standard visual inspection and pattern classification, this evolution could not be predicted early on. It is still unclear to what degree the seizure onset zone determines seizure severity. Such information would improve our understanding of ictal epileptic activity and the existing electroencephalogram (EEG)-based warning and intervention systems, providing specific reactions to upcoming seizure types...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#14
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320687/microtubule-polymerization-and-cross-link-dynamics-explain-axonal-stiffness-and-damage
#15
Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Axonal damage is a critical indicator for traumatic effects of physical impact to the brain. However, the precise mechanisms of axonal damage are still unclear. Here, we establish a mechanistic and highly dynamic model of the axon to explore the evolution of damage in response to physical forces. Our axon model consists of a bundle of dynamically polymerizing and depolymerizing microtubules connected by dynamically detaching and reattaching cross-links. Although the probability of cross-link attachment depends exclusively on thermal fluctuations, the probability of detachment increases in the presence of physical forces...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320509/dynamics-of-co-authorship-and-productivity-across-different-fields-of-scientific-research
#16
Austin J Parish, Kevin W Boyack, John P A Ioannidis
We aimed to assess which factors correlate with collaborative behavior and whether such behavior associates with scientific impact (citations and becoming a principal investigator). We used the R index which is defined for each author as log(Np)/log(I1), where I1 is the number of co-authors who appear in at least I1 papers written by that author and Np are his/her total papers. Higher R means lower collaborative behavior, i.e. not working much with others, or not collaborating repeatedly with the same co-authors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319231/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-insulin-like-peptide-insl5a-and-insl5b-paralog-genes-during-the-embryogenesis-of-danio-rerio
#17
Massimo Venditti, Aldo Donizetti, Marcella Fiengo, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Relaxin (RLN) and insulin (INSL)-like peptides are member of the INSL/RLN superfamily, which are encoded by seven genes in humans and can activate the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP 1-4. These peptides evolved from a common ancestor, RLN3-like gene. Two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in early vertebrate evolution, together with an additional WGD in the teleost lineage, caused an expansion of RLN genes set in the genome of Danio rerio. In particular, six RLN genes are present: a single copy of rln and insl3 genes, and two paralogs for the rln3 gene (rln3a and rln3b), and the insl5 gene (insl5a and insl5b)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317064/comparison-of-geographic-distributions-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-fail-to-support-common-evolutionary-roots-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-are-not-related-by-evolution
#18
Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311648/auditory-opportunity-and-visual-constraint-enabled-the-evolution-of-echolocation-in-bats
#19
Jeneni Thiagavel, Clément Cechetto, Sharlene E Santana, Lasse Jakobsen, Eric J Warrant, John M Ratcliffe
Substantial evidence now supports the hypothesis that the common ancestor of bats was nocturnal and capable of both powered flight and laryngeal echolocation. This scenario entails a parallel sensory and biomechanical transition from a nonvolant, vision-reliant mammal to one capable of sonar and flight. Here we consider anatomical constraints and opportunities that led to a sonar rather than vision-based solution. We show that bats' common ancestor had eyes too small to allow for successful aerial hawking of flying insects at night, but an auditory brain design sufficient to afford echolocation...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310506/neuronal-activity-organization-features-in-human-consciousness-summary-of-introductory-remarks-in-a-dialogue-with-neurological-surgery-residents
#20
Cristian L Vera, Sunil J Patel, Fraser C Henderson, Donna R Roberts, Vibhor Krishna
Agreeing with Damasio's statement defining the "process" of consciousness, we propose the self as created by mind-based knowledge and a combination of images of an organism's intentional motor responses interacting with its environment. The lemniscal system, with plastic capabilities, manages gravity in voluntary movement. The spinal segment motor reflex represents the schema of gravity-managing neuronal activity, and it can become "nested" in cortical areas participating in consciousness-building, allowing consideration of the brain as a hyper-evolved nervous system segment harboring atavic spinal organization...
January 9, 2018: Neurocase
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