keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

brain evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768649/selection-for-associative-learning-of-colour-stimuli-reveals-correlated-evolution-of-this-learning-ability-across-multiple-stimuli-and-rewards
#1
Maartje Liefting, Katja M Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M Smid, Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with a host reward, the ability to learn visual associations was enhanced within 10 generations of selection...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#2
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762743/lipidome-evolution-in-mammalian-tissues
#3
Ekaterina Khrameeva, Ilia Kurochkin, Katarzyna Bozek, Patrick Giavalisco, Philipp Khaitovich
Lipids are essential structural and functional components of cells. Little is known, however, about the evolution of lipid composition in different tissues. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the lipidome evolution in six tissues of 32 species representing primates, rodents and bats. While changes in genes' sequence and expression accumulate proportionally to the phylogenetic distances, less than two percent of the lipidome evolves this way. Yet, lipids constituting this two percent cluster in specific functions shared among all tissues...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762503/comparison-of-the-incorporation-of-dha-in-circulatory-and-neural-tissue-when-provided-as-triacylglycerol-tag-monoacylglycerol-mag-or-phospholipids-pl-provides-new-insight-into-fatty-acid-bioavailability
#4
Frédéric Destaillats, Manuel Oliveira, Viktoria Bastic Schmid, Isabelle Masserey-Elmelegy, Francesca Giuffrida, Sagar K Thakkar, Lénaïck Dupuis, Maria Laura Gosoniu, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez
Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760738/dental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-and-their-exosomes
#5
REVIEW
Peter Stanko, Ursula Altanerova, Jana Jakubechova, Vanda Repiska, Cestmir Altaner
Stem cells derived from human dental pulp tissue (DP-MSC) differ from the other mesenchymal stem cells prepared from bone marrow or adipose tissue due to their embryonic origin from the neural crest and are of special interest because of their neurotropic character. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of DP-MSCs is realized through paracrine action of extracellularly released components, for which exosomes play an important role. In this review, we intend to explore the properties of these cells with an emphasis on exosomes...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760079/selection-and-environmental-adaptation-along-a-path-to-speciation-in-the-tibetan-frog-nanorana-parkeri
#6
Guo-Dong Wang, Bao-Lin Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhou, Yong-Xin Li, Jie-Qiong Jin, Yong Shao, He-Chuan Yang, Yan-Hu Liu, Fang Yan, Hong-Man Chen, Li Jin, Feng Gao, Yaoguang Zhang, Haipeng Li, Bingyu Mao, Robert W Murphy, David B Wake, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Che
Tibetan frogs, Nanorana parkeri , are differentiated genetically but not morphologically along geographical and elevational gradients in a challenging environment, presenting a unique opportunity to investigate processes leading to speciation. Analyses of whole genomes of 63 frogs reveal population structuring and historical demography, characterized by highly restricted gene flow in a narrow geographic zone lying between matrilines West (W) and East (E). A population found only along a single tributary of the Yalu Zangbu River has the mitogenome only of E, whereas nuclear genes of W comprise 89-95% of the nuclear genome...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760068/endocast-morphology-of-homo-naledi-from-the-dinaledi-chamber-south-africa
#7
Ralph L Holloway, Shawn D Hurst, Heather M Garvin, P Thomas Schoenemann, William B Vanti, Lee R Berger, John Hawks
Hominin cranial remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, represent multiple individuals of the species Homo naledi This species exhibits a small endocranial volume comparable to Australopithecus , combined with several aspects of external cranial anatomy similar to larger-brained species of Homo such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus Here, we describe the endocast anatomy of this recently discovered species. Despite the small size of the H. naledi endocasts, they share several aspects of structure in common with other species of Homo , not found in other hominins or great apes, notably in the organization of the inferior frontal and lateral orbital gyri...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758636/emergent-explosive-synchronization-in-adaptive-complex-networks
#8
Vanesa Avalos-Gaytán, Juan A Almendral, I Leyva, F Battiston, V Nicosia, V Latora, S Boccaletti
Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#9
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751068/multidimensional-brain-activity-dictated-by-winner-take-all-mechanisms
#10
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
A novel demon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate brain functions such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. Starting from the topological concepts of invariance and persistence, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, demons that recognize short straight-line segments, curved lines and scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. Low-level representations of objects can be mapped to higher-level views (our mental interpretations): a series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern in a visual scene, without affecting its invariant properties...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746398/dystonia-as-a-network-disorder-a-concept-in-evolution
#11
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This survey takes into consideration the most recent advances in both human degenerative ataxias, disorders with a well established cerebellar origin, and discoveries from dystonia rodent models aimed at discussing the pathogenesis of dystonia. RECENT FINDINGS: One common recurrent term that emerges when describing dystonia is heterogeneity. Indeed, dystonia encompasses a wide group of 'hyperkinetic' movement disorders, with heterogeneous causes, classification, anatomical and physiological substrates...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744802/the-role-of-the-insula-in-intuitive-expert-bug-detection-in-computer-code-an-fmri-study
#12
Joao Castelhano, Isabel C Duarte, Carlos Ferreira, Joao Duraes, Henrique Madeira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Software programming is a complex and relatively recent human activity, involving the integration of mathematical, recursive thinking and language processing. The neural correlates of this recent human activity are still poorly understood. Error monitoring during this type of task, requiring the integration of language, logical symbol manipulation and other mathematical skills, is particularly challenging. We therefore aimed to investigate the neural correlates of decision-making during source code understanding and mental manipulation in professional participants with high expertise...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743632/a-double-helical-motif-in-ociad2-is-essential-for-its-localization-interactions-and-stat3-activation
#13
Saloni Sinha, Venkata Anudeep Bheemsetty, Maneesha S Inamdar
The Ovarian Carcinoma Immunoreactive Antigen domain (OCIAD) - containing proteins OCIAD1/Asrij and OCIAD2, are implicated in several cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. While Asrij has a conserved role in facilitating STAT3 activation for JAK/STAT signaling, the expression and function of OCIAD2 in non-cancerous contexts remains unknown. Here, we report that ociad2 neighbors ociad1/asrij in most vertebrate genomes, and the two genes likely arose by tandem gene duplication, probably somewhere between the Ordovician and Silurian eras...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740480/estimating-the-intra-taxa-diversity-population-genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-pathways-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii
#14
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Juan D Ramírez
Members of the Cryptococcus complex, includes Cryptococcus neoformans (most common fungal infection of the brain) and Cryptococcus gattii (high-impact emerging pathogen worldwide). Currently, the fungal multilocus sequence typing database (Fungal MLST Database) constitutes a valuable data repository of the genes used for molecular typing of these pathogens. We analyzed the data available in the Fungal MLST Database for seven housekeeping genes, with the aim to evaluate its contribution in the description of intra-taxa diversity, population genetic structure, and evolutionary patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740329/mechanisms-underlying-the-risk-to-develop-drug-addiction-insights-from-studies-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
REVIEW
Julia Ryvkin, Assa Bentzur, Shir Zer-Krispil, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The ability to adapt to environmental changes is an essential feature of biological systems, achieved in animals by a coordinated crosstalk between neuronal and hormonal programs that allow rapid and integrated organismal responses. Reward systems play a key role in mediating this adaptation by reinforcing behaviors that enhance immediate survival, such as eating or drinking, or those that ensure long-term survival, such as sexual behavior or caring for offspring. Drugs of abuse co-opt neuronal and molecular pathways that mediate natural rewards, which under certain circumstances can lead to addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735558/statistics-of-natural-communication-signals-observed-in-the-wild-identify-important-yet-neglected-stimulus-regimes-in-weakly-electric-fish
#16
Jörg Henninger, Rüdiger Krahe, Frank Kirschbaum, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda
Sensory systems evolve in the ecological niches each species is occupying. Accordingly, encoding of natural stimuli by sensory neurons is expected to be adapted to the statistics of these stimuli. For a direct quantification of sensory scenes we tracked natural communication behavior of male and female weakly electric fish, Apteronotus rostratus , in their Neotropical rainforest habitat with high spatio-temporal resolution over several days. In the context of courtship we observed large quantities of electrocommunication signals...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730527/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-carnitine-and-choline-acyltransferases-suggests-distinct-evolution-of-cpt2-versus-cpt1-and-related-variants
#17
Marjanne D van der Hoek, Ole Madsen, Jaap Keijer, Feike R van der Leij
Carnitine/choline acyltransferases play diverse roles in energy metabolism and neuronal signalling. Our knowledge of their evolutionary relationships, important for functional understanding, is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to determine the evolutionary relationships of these eukaryotic transferases. We performed extensive phylogenetic and intron position analyses. We found that mammalian intramitochondrial CPT2 is most closely related to cytosolic yeast carnitine transferases (Sc-YAT1 and 2), whereas the other members of the family are related to intraorganellar yeast Sc-CAT2...
May 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730038/the-neurobiology-of-human-allomaternal-care-implications-for-fathering-coparenting-and-children-s-social-development
#18
Eyal Abraham, Ruth Feldman
Allomothering, the caregiving to offspring by adults other than the biological mother including fathers and other group members, has characterized human societies throughout hominin evolution. Allomothering is common across the animal kingdom and carries long-term fitness benefits to offspring. Guided by our biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we present research from our lab and others addressing the behavioral, hormonal, and neural systems that underpin human allomaternal care by fathers and studies on the coparental bond...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728368/-in-vivo-expansion-of-functionally-integrated-gabaergic-interneurons-by-targeted-increase-in-neural-progenitors
#19
Rachel E Shaw, Benjamin Kottler, Zoe N Ludlow, Edgar Buhl, Dongwook Kim, Sara Morais da Silva, Alina Miedzik, Antoine Coum, James Jl Hodge, Frank Hirth, Rita Sousa-Nunes
A central hypothesis for brain evolution is that it might occur via expansion of progenitor cells and subsequent lineage-dependent formation of neural circuits. Here, we report in vivo amplification and functional integration of lineage-specific circuitry in Drosophila Levels of the cell fate determinant Prospero were attenuated in specific brain lineages within a range that expanded not only progenitors but also neuronal progeny, without tumor formation. Resulting supernumerary neural stem cells underwent normal functional transitions, progressed through the temporal patterning cascade, and generated progeny with molecular signatures matching source lineages...
May 4, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725535/defects-in-homologous-recombination-repair-genes-are-associated-with-good-prognosis-and-clinical-sensitivity-to-dna-damaging-agents-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-case-report
#20
Amir Sonnenblick, Aviad Zick, Myriam Maoz, Sherri Cohen, Luna Kadouri, Tamar Peretz, Ayala Hubert
Tumor genome sequencing is important for increasing our understanding of the development of cancer, which may be affected by different therapies. In the present study, genomic evolution was investigated in a patient with stage IV pancreatic cancer bearing a germline breast cancer 2 ( BRCA2 ) mutation. The patient received cisplatin, a DNA cross-linking agent, which led to a long-lasting complete response. Eventually the patient developed brain metastasis, suggesting the acquisition of resistance to cisplatin...
May 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
keyword
keyword
96834
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"