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Nelly El-Sakkary, Steven Chen, Michelle R Arkin, Conor R Caffrey, Paula Ribeiro
Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by a flatworm trematode parasite that infects over 240 million people worldwide. Treatment and control of the disease rely on just one drug, praziquantel. The possibility of drug resistance coupled with praziquantel's variable efficacy encourages the identification of new drugs and drug targets. Disruption of neuromuscular homeostasis in parasitic worms is a validated strategy for drug development. However, in schistosomes, much remains to be understood about the organization of the nervous system, its component neurotransmitters and potential for drug discovery...
June 20, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Yuri Campelo, Alicia Ombredane, Andreanne G Vasconcelos, Lucas Albuquerque, Daniel C Moreira, Alexandra Plácido, Jefferson Rocha, Harold Hilarion Fokoue, Lydia Yamaguchi, Ana Mafud, Yvonne P Mascarenhas, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Tatiana Borges, Graziella A Joanitti, Daniel Arcanjo, Massuo J Kato, Selma A S Kuckelhaus, Marcos P N Silva, Josué de Moraes, José Roberto S A Leite
Schistosomiasis, caused by helminth flatworms of the genus Schistosoma , is an infectious disease mainly associated with poverty that affects millions of people worldwide. Since treatment for this disease relies only on the use of praziquantel, there is an urgent need to identify new antischistosomal drugs. Piplartine is an amide alkaloid found in several Piper species (Piperaceae) that exhibits antischistosomal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure⁻function relationship between piplartine and its five synthetic analogues (19A, 1G, 1M, 14B and 6B) against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, as well as its cytotoxicity to mammalian cells using murine fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and BALB/cN macrophage (J774A...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Konika Sharma, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Nancy Merrell
Diphyllobothrium latum ( D. latum ) infection in humans is uncommon in the United States. Although there has been a drastic decline in the report of D. latum infection in this region, physicians should be aware of an uncommon presentation and its clinical relevance. We report a case of 55-year-old female of Ecuadorian/Peruvian origin who presented with an unknown cause of chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 2 months without other particular symptoms. Initial workup revealed evidence of iron deficiency anemia, and stool occult blood test was positive...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Prasarn Tangkawattana
Although any fish-eating mammals could be potential definitive hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini, only a few, especially cats and dogs, are actually known reservoir hosts for this parasite. Both animals usually get infected via consuming raw or undercooked contaminated fish, fish dishes or food remains from households. The infected animals sustain parasite egg spread via open environment defecation. Cats are the most important reservoir with higher prevalence rates of O. viverrini infection than dogs in endemic areas...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Neil D Young, Robin B Gasser
Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease of major proportion, caused by the carcinogenic, Asian liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. This hepatobiliary disease is known to be associated with malignant cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) and affects millions of people in Southeast Asia. No vaccine is available, and only one drug (praziquantel) is routinely employed against the parasite. Despite technological advances, little is known about the molecular biology of the fluke itself and the disease complex that it causes in humans...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Eman Eldeeb, Shereen Fahmy, Kadry Elbakry, Ayman Hyder
Increasing resistance to praziquantel, the only available antischistosomal drug, is always developed by schistosomes. The recent description of stem cell-like neoblasts in schistosomes led to the idea of applying antineoplastic drugs as antischistosomal agents that may inhibit stem cell divisions and retard worm regeneration. Here, we explored the in vitro and in vivo effect of some antineoplastic drugs on S. mansoni worm and the host mouse liver. S. mansoni worms' viability was tested after exposure to either praziquantel or one of the antitumor drugs (hydroxyurea, cisplatin, methotrexate, and colchicine) in vitro for 24 and 48 h...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Naixin Kang, Wenhua Shen, Hongwei Gao, Yulin Feng, Weifeng Zhu, Shilin Yang, Yanli Liu, Qiongming Xu, Di Yu
Background : Schistosomiasis is a major neglected disease for which the current control strategy involves mass treatment with praziquantel, the only available drug. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new antischistosomal compounds. Methods : The antischistosomal activity of hederacolchiside A1 (HSA) were determined by total or female worm burden reductions in mice harboring Schistosoma japonicum or S. mansoni . Pathology parameters were detected on HSA against 1-day-old S. japonicum -harboring mice. Moreover, we confirmed the antischistosomal effect of HSA on newly transformed schistosomula (NTS) of S...
June 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Angela Romero-Alegria, Javier Pardo-Lledías, Montserrat Alonso-Sardón, Amparo Lopez-Bernus, Jose Quiñones Sampedro, Luis Muñoz Bellvis, Alicia Iglesias Gomez, Antonio Muro, Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido, Manuel Iglesias-Iglesias, Marcelo Fernando Jimenez Lopez, Moncef Belhassen-García
Background: Management options for cystic echinococcosis (CE) remain a serious problem. The main aim of this study was to examine the selection and complications of treatment applied in patients with CE. The second aim was to evaluate the mortality rate and causative factors. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with CE between 1998 and 2015 was conducted, according to ICD-9 (code 122·0 to 122·9) criteria in the Complejo Asistencial Universitario of Salamanca, Spain...
June 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anita D Sircar, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Isaac O Onkanga, Ryan E Wiegand, Susan P Montgomery, W Evan Secor
Schistosomiasis control programs are designed to reduce morbidity by providing mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to at-risk populations. We compared morbidity markers between two cohorts of Kenyan schoolchildren that initially had high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. One cohort ( N = 416 at year 1) received four rounds of annual MDA in a community-wide treatment (CWT) strategy. The other cohort ( N = 386 at year 1) received school-based treatment (SBT) every other year over the 4-year period...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arif J Siddiqui, Adebayo J Molehin, Weidong Zhang, Pramodh K Ganapathy, Eunjee Kim, Juan U Rojo, Whitni K Redman, Souad R Sennoune, Justin Sudduth, Jasmin Freeborn, Derick Hunter, Kameswara R Kottapalli, Pratibha Kottapalli, Ruwanthi Wettashinghe, Govert J van Dam, Paul L A M Corstjens, James F Papin, David Carey, Workineh Torben, Gul Ahmad, Afzal A Siddiqui
Sm-p80-based vaccine efficacy for Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated in a baboon model of infection and disease. The study was designed to replicate a human vaccine implementation scenario for endemic regions in which vaccine would be administered following drug treatment of infected individuals. In our study, the Sm-p80-based vaccine reduced principal pathology producing hepatic egg burdens by 38.0% and egg load in small and large intestines by 72.2% and 49.4%, respectively, in baboons. Notably, hatching rates of eggs recovered from liver and small and large intestine of vaccinated animals were significantly reduced, by 60...
June 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jordana C A Assis, Nelson R S Martins, Hudson A Pinto
The trematodes of the genus Philophthalmus are eye flukes that cause damage to ocular structures of animals and humans. Despite the increasing number of cases reported in birds, studies related to the diagnosis of subclinical philophthalmosis are lacking, and there are no effective therapeutic regimens available. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnosis and treatment of philophthalmosis in specific pathogen-free chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) experimentally infected with Philophthalmus gralli. Four chickens were inoculated with metacercariae of P...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Qing Yu, Hui Liu, Ning Xiao
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become useful tools to extend human abilities and capacities. Currently UAVs are being used for the surveillance of environmental factors related to the transmission of infectious diseases. They have also been used for delivering therapeutic drugs and life-saving supplies to patients or isolated persons in extreme conditions. There have been very few applications of UAVs for disease surveillance, control and prevention to date. However, we foresee many uses for these machines in the fight against zoonotic disease...
June 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jana Kovač, Isabel Meister, Anna Neodo, Gordana Panic, Jean T Coulibaly, Christine Falcoz, Jennifer Keiser
There is a growing consensus to include preschool-aged children in preventive chemotherapy programs with praziquantel, aiming to control schistosomiasis. However, pharmacokinetic data, crucial to establish safe and effective dose for this age group, are sparse. The objective of this study was to establish and compare pharmacokinetic parameters of praziquantel in schistosomiasis infected preschool- and school-aged children.Two pharmacokinetic trials in school- and preschool-aged children infected with S. mansoni or S...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yoshinori Mitsui, Kentaro Kato
The possible emergence of praziquantel (PZQ)-tolerant and/or resistant schistosomes urgently necessitates the study and development of new antischistosomal drugs as alternatives to PZQ. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of three dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and trypan blue (TB), for the assessment of the in vitro antischistosomal effect of antimalarial drugs on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. S. mansoni adult worms were incubated in a medium alone for control or supplemented with 10 μg/ml primaquine (PQ), artesunate (AR) and amodiaquine (AQ) for five days...
May 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jose Manuel Del Moral Sanchez, Isabel Gonzalez Alvarez, Aaron Cerda Revert, Marta Gonzalez Alvarez, Andres Navarro Ruiz, Gordon L Amidon, Marival Bermejo Sanz
AIMS: Unavailability and lack of appropriate, effective and safe formulations are common problems in paediatric therapeutics. Key factors such as swallowing abilities, organoleptic preferences and dosage requirements determine the need of for optimization of formulations. The provisional Biopharmaceutics Classification System can be used in paediatric formulation design as a risk analysis and optimization tool. The objective of this study was to classify six neglected tropical diseases drugs following a provisional paediatric BCS (pBCS) classification adapted to three paediatric subpopulations (neonates, infants and children)...
May 30, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mohamed H Hegab, Somia H Abd-Allah, Maha S Badawey, Ayman A Saleh, Ashraf S Metwally, Ghada M Fathy, Soad M Nada, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Amira A Saleh, Amal Fawzy, Mohammed Abu El-Magd
Some reports have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy could ameliorate chemically-induced hepatic fibrosis. This research assesses the therapeutic action of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on chronic diseased liver in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. All infected female mice divided into three groups, one group (15 mice) treated with oral praziquantel (PZQ), second group (15 mice) received intravenous injection of BM-MSCs and third group (15 mice) treated with both MSCs + PZQ...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Samia E Etewa, Ghada M Fathy, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Dalia Abd El-Khalik, Mohamed H Sarhan, Maha S Badawey
Trichinosis is a sharable parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spp., the disease occurred on eating inappropriate cooked pork infected by the parasite encysted larvae. This study aimed to evaluate experimentally the impact of treatment by thiabendazole, praziquantel (PZQ) and prednisone on T. spiralis induced parasitological, serological and apoptotic changes. Forty albino rats were infected orally each by ± 1000 larvae, divided into four groups each of 10 rats, group (A) infected control, group (B) thiabendazole tested, group (C) PZQ tested and group (D) prednisone tested...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Theresa Bayer, Alokta Chakrabarti, Julien Lancelot, Tajith B Shaik, Kristin Hausmann, Jelena Melesina, Karin Schmidtkunz, Martin Marek, Frank Erdmann, Matthias Schmidt, Dina Robaa, Christophe Romier, Raymond J Pierce, Manfred Jung, Wolfgang Sippl
Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects more than 265 million people worldwide and for which the control strategy relies on mass treatment with only one drug, praziquantel. Based on the 3-chlorobenzothiophene-2-hydroxamic acid J1075, a series of hydroxamic acids with different scaffolds was prepared as potential inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (SmHDAC8). The crystal structures of SmHDAC8 with four inhibitors provided insights into the binding mode and orientation of molecules in the binding pocket as well as the orientation of its flexible amino acid residues...
May 27, 2018: ChemMedChem
Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of schistosomiasis, the second most common parasitic disease of humans after malaria. Calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated signalling pathways are of particular interest in this species. The drug of choice for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel, disrupts the regulation of calcium uptake and there is interest in exploiting calcium-mediated processes for future drug discovery. Calmodulin is a calcium sensing protein, present in most eukaryotes. It is a critical regulator of processes as diverse as muscle contraction, cell division and, partly through interaction with voltage-gated calcium channels, intra-cellular calcium concentrations...
May 17, 2018: Cell Calcium
Andrea Lothe, Nqobile Zulu, Arne Olav Øyhus, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland, Myra Taylor
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasites that infest open water sources such as rivers and dams may increase susceptibility to HIV. Mass-treatment with praziquantel tablets, recommended by the World Health Organization reduces the prevalence of schistosomiasis. The goal in endemic areas is 75% treatment participation in every treatment round (e.g. yearly). However, in rural Ugu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South-Africa there was low participation among pupils in a Department of Health Mass-Treatment Campaign for schistosomiasis...
May 25, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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