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E V N Beshay, A A Rady, A F Afifi, A H Mohamed
Despite the seriousness of schistosomiasis, its treatment depends only on praziquantel (PZQ), which has begun to lose its efficacy against the emergent Schistosoma mansoni-resistant strains. Therefore, the discovery of a novel schistosomicidal drug is an urgent priority. This study was designed to evaluate treatment with Cucurbita pepo L. (pumpkin) seed oil (PSO) alone and combined with PZQ against S. mansoni in experimentally infected mice. The study involved five groups: GI was the normal control; GII was the infected control; GIII was treated with an oral dose of PZQ of 500 mg/kg/day for two successive days, starting in the sixth week post infection; GIV was treated with an oral dose of PSO of 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks, starting in the fourth week post infection; and GV was treated with combined PSO-PZQ...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Collins Okoyo, Elses Simiyu, Sammy M Njenga, Charles Mwandawiro
BACKGROUND: Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
E E Christensen, M Taylor, S G Zulu, K Lillebo, S G Gundersen, S Holmen, E Kleppa, B J Vennervald, P D Ndhlovu, E F Kjetland
BACKGROUND: A predominant feature of Schistosoma haematobium infection is urinary egg excretion, and microscopic egg detection remains the accepted standard field diagnostic tool. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, and the World Health Organization recommends that it should be administered to all children >4 years of age living in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. The frequency of mass drug administration depends on the prevalence rate in the community. Urinary schistosome egg output has a day-to-day and hour-to-hour intrasubject variation...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Tiancai Liang, Guobiao Liang, Yang Du, Xin Wang, Yuanliang Wang, Anjian Chen, Zongping Chen, Jiang Du, Hao Li, Lang Yu
RATIONALE: Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Paragonimus in the lungs; it can be divided into intrapulmonary type and extrapulmonary type. Adult patients with scrotal paragnonimus are rarely seen clinically and not widely reported in the literature. Here, we report 2 cases of scrotal paragonimiasis in adults and their treatment process. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two young males sought medical advice because of scrotal masses. Both patients had the previous history of eating uncooked river crabs and presented with palpable quasicircular nodules of about 1...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Takashi Kumagai, Masafumi Yamabe, Akina Hino, Rieko Shimogawara, Hye-Sook Kim, Akira Sato, Koichiro Ichimura, Irene Ayi, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta
Control of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis via chemotherapy largely relies on the drug praziquantel. Repeated therapy with praziquantel has created concerns about the possible selection of resistant worms and necessitated the search for novel drugs to treat schistosomiasis. Here, a murine model was infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with oral 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro [7.11] nonadecane (N-89), which caused a significant reduction in fecundity and egg burden and reduced morbidity when administered at 5-weeks post-infection...
April 1, 2018: Parasitology International
Negin Torabi, Faramarz Dobakhti, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Ali Haniloo
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important zoonoses affecting humans. Benzimidazoles (in particular albendazole) and praziquantel (PZQ) are effective against CE, but poor water solubility of these agents often leads to inadequate results. Here, we evaluate the effects of chitosan-albendazole (ChABZ) and chitosan-praziquantel (ChPZQ) nanoparticles as a new formulation on hydatid cysts both in vitro and in vivo. Developed microcysts in culture were treated with different concentrations of ChABZ and ChPZQ nanoparticles (either alone or in combination), and ABZ + PZQ suspension...
April 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Derick Nii Mensah Osakunor, Takafira Mduluza, Nicholas Midzi, Margo Chase-Topping, Masceline Jenipher Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Theresa Chimponda, Enwono Eyoh, Tariro Mduluza, Lorraine Tsitsi Pfavayi, Welcome Mkululi Wami, Seth Appiah Amanfo, Janice Murray, Clement Tshuma, Mark Edward John Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi
Background: Recent research has shown that in schistosome-endemic areas preschool-aged children (PSAC), that is, ≤5 years, are at risk of infection. However, there exists a knowledge gap on the dynamics of infection and morbidity in this age group. In this study, we determined the incidence and dynamics of the first urogenital schistosome infections, morbidity and treatment in PSAC. Methods: Children (6 months to 5 years) were recruited and followed up for 12 months...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Abdel J Njouendou, Fanny F Fombad, Maeghan O'Neill, Denis Zofou, Chuck Nutting, Patrick C Ndongmo, Arnaud J Kengne-Ouafo, Timothy G Geary, Charles D Mackenzie, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with loiasis remains a potential problem in control programs targeting filarial infections. The effects of many anti-parasitic drugs often administered to Loa loa infected people are not well documented. This study compared the in vitro activity of several of these drugs on the viability of L. loa microfilariae (mf). METHODS: Human strain L. loa mf were isolated from baboon blood using iso-osmotic Percoll gradient, and cultured in RPMI 1640/10% FBS with antimalarial drugs (mefloquine, amodiaquine, artesunate, chloroquine and quinine), anthelmintics (ivermectin, praziquantel, flubendazole and its reduced and hydrolyzed metabolites), two potential trypanocidal agents (fexinidazole and Scynexis-7158) and the anticancer drug imatinib...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laura Braun, Jack E T Grimes, Michael R Templeton
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most disabling neglected tropical diseases, ranking second in terms of years lived with disability. While treatment with the drug praziquantel can have immediate beneficial effects, reinfection can occur rapidly if people are in contact with cercaria-infested water. Water treatment for schistosomiasis control seeks to eliminate viable cercariae from water, thereby providing safe alternative water supplies for recreational and domestic activities including laundry and bathing...
April 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eric M Ndombi, Bernard Abudho, Nupur Kittur, Jennifer M Carter, Harrison Korir, Diana K Riner, Horace Ochanda, Yeuk-Mui Lee, W Evan Secor, Diana M Karanja, Daniel G Colley
AIM: This study evaluated potential changes in anti-schistosome immune responses in children from schools that received four rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel (PZQ). METHODS: In a repeated cross-sectional study design, 210 schistosome egg-positive children were recruited at baseline from schools in western Kenya (baseline group). Another 251 children of the same age range were recruited from the same schools and diagnosed for schistosome infection by microscopy (post-MDA group)...
March 31, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Chele N Lathroum, Linda Shell, Kathleen Neuville, Jennifer K Ketzis
Treatments for Platynosomum fastosum -the liver fluke of cats-have been developed based on fecal egg counts. Post mortem fluke counts are required to understand true efficacy. In this study, two praziquantel treatment regimens were evaluated using post mortem fluke counts: a high-dose treatment (HT) of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) administered intramuscularly (IM) once a day for three consecutive days and a low-dose treatment (LT) of 5 mg/kg BW administered once (IM) and repeated 14 days later. A continual enrolment study design was used with 16 naturally infected cats randomly allocated in blocks of four to the HT (eight cats) or LT (eight cats) group...
March 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Siriporn Kamsa-ard, Supot Kamsa-ard, Vor Luvira, Krittika Suwanrungruang, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Surapon Wiangnon
Background and objective: Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While many of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether they are the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. Methods: Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest Science Direct, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Ž Vienažindienė, D E Joekel, R Schaper, P Deplazes, M Šarkūnas
The efficacy of anthelmintic treatment at 1, 3, and 6 month intervals was evaluated in a prospective controlled field study with naturally exposed Lithuanian village dogs by monthly coproscopy during 1 year. A placebo-treated control group (C) (n = 202) and groups treated with two broad-spectrum anthelmintics, febantel/pyrantel-embonate/praziquantel (Drontal® Plus, Bayer) (D1, D3, D6; n = 113-117) and emodepside/praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer) (P1, P3, P6; n = 114-119), were included. At the beginning of the study, eggs of Toxocara canis (4...
March 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
Muhammad A Alsherbiny, Shymaa A El Badawy, Hesham Elbedewy, Shahira M Ezzat, Fatma S Elsakhawy, Mostafa A Abdel-Kawy
Schistosomiasis is the most noteworthy parasitic disease after malaria. Furthermore, the significant activity of the genus Solanum against Schistosoma worms and its intermediate host snails reinforced the study of Solanum seaforthianum Andr. (SS) and Solanum macrocarpon L. (SM) for their molluscicidal and schistosomicidal potentiality. In this study, different extracts, fractions and isolated compounds of both Solanum species are evaluated for the molluscicidal and schistosomicidal potentialities. The niclosamide was used as positive molluscicide control against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
L Thijs, P Messiaen, J van der Hilst, V Madoe, C Melis, P Van Eyken, I Vanmoerkerke, F Janssens
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma species. Intestinal and hepatic schistosomiases are the most common forms of chronic disease. We describe a case of a 26-year old patient from Eritrea who was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was made by liver biopsy and the patient was treated with praziquantel. Hepatic schistosomiasis is characterised by deposition of schistosomal eggs in the liver which results in a host cell immune response and leads to granuloma formation and neoangiogenesis...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Asim Shuja, Jian Guan, Ciel Harris, Ahmad Alkhasawneh, Miguel Malespin, Silvio De Melo
Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for outpatient visits. Although intestinal schistosomiasis is extremely rare in US, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for those patients with risk factors such as international traveling history. This case report illustrates a unique case of intestinal schistosomiasis, which presented with an eight-week history of nonspecific abdominal pain and weight loss. Her colonoscopy revealed a 10 mm polyp in the colon. Endoscopic mucosal resection confirmed the diagnosis of schistosomiasis...
January 18, 2018: Curēus
Xiaoniu Tang, Wei Hu, Yechao Lv, Wenqi Zhang, Tian Sun, Yuxin Jiang, Xiaodong Zhan, Shulin Zhou
BACKGROUND Polysaccharides from bivalves have multiple bioactivities in various aspects of biology. However, the role of a polysaccharide derived from Amusium pleuronectes on potential hepatoprotective effects remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Amusium pleuronectes (APS-1) using ultrasound-assisted hot-water extraction. The molecular weight of APS-1 was approximately 11.7 kDa and was determined by calibration with dextran. APS-1 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and mainly consisted of a uniform glucose polymer...
March 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ajibola I Abioye, Sangshin Park, Kelsey Ripp, Emily A McDonald, Jonathan D Kurtis, Hannah Wu, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Surendra Sharma, Jan Ernerudh, Palmera Baltazar, Luz P Acosta, Remigio M Olveda, Veronica Tallo, Jennifer F Friedman
Background: To our knowledge, no studies have addressed whether maternal anemia of inflammation (AI) affects newborn iron status, and few have addressed risk factors for specific etiologies of maternal anemia. Objectives: The study aims were to evaluate 1) the contribution of AI and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) to newborn iron endowment, 2) hepcidin as a biomarker to distinguish AI from IDA among pregnant women, and 3) risk factors for specific etiologies of maternal anemia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Hu He-Hua, Zhang Xia, Zhang Chun-Bin, Yao Yi-Bin, Cui Cai-Xia, Li Xia, Wen Xiao-Hong, Liu Jun, Xiao Chuan-Yun, Liu Xiong, Cao Chun-Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of serum anti-schistosome antibody titers in schistosomiasis japonica patients after treatment, in order to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis surveillance program in marshland and lake regions. METHODS: Upon prospective cohort study, the stool examination positive schistosomiasis patients and blood examination positive suspected patients (the titer was more than 1:80, including 1:80) were selected as the research objects in Jiangling County in 2014, and they received the 2-day praziquantel therapy...
January 15, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Bernard O Abudho, Eric M Ndombi, Bernard Guya, Jennifer M Carter, Diana K Riner, Nupur Kittur, Diana M S Karanja, W Evan Secor, Daniel G Colley
Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. The World Health Organization recommends preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) to control morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Morbidity is considered linked to intensity of infection, which along with prevalence is used to determine the frequency of mass drug administration (MDA) to school-age children. We determined the impact of annual school-based MDA on children across all primary and high school years using a repeated cross-sectional study design in five schools near Lake Victoria in western Kenya, an area endemic for Schistosoma mansoni ...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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