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Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
David U Olveda, Marianette Inobaya, Donald P McManus, Remigio M Olveda, Marilyn L Vinluan, Shu-Kay Ng, Donald A Harn, Yuesheng Li, Jerric R Guevarra, Alfred K Lam, Allen G P Ross
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of annual versus biennial praziquantel treatment regimens on the prevalence, intensity of infection, and liver fibrosis dynamics of Asiatic schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma japonicum) among individuals residing in 18 endemic barangays in Northern Samar, Philippines. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-five subjects who reported symptoms of gastrointestinal illness and/or were believed to have clinical morbidity based on physical examination were selected for cohort follow-up...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Arminder Deol, Joanne P Webster, Martin Walker, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Antonio Montresor, Michael D French
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether schistosomiasis control programmes are on course to control morbidity and potentially switch towards elimination interventions would benefit from user-friendly quantitative tools that facilitate analysis of progress and highlight areas not responding to treatment. This study aimed to develop and evaluate such a tool using large datasets collected during Schistosomiasis Control Initiative-supported control programmes. METHODS: A discrete-time Markov model was developed using transition probability matrices parameterized with control programme longitudinal data on Schistosoma mansoni obtained from Uganda and Mali...
October 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Shin-Ichi Nureki, Koji Ishii, Hideaki Fujisaki, Masataka Torigoe, Keisuke Maeshima, Hirotaka Shibata, Eishi Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi Kadota
A 42-year-old woman presented with an intermittent fever and chest and back pain, and an abnormal chest shadow was detected. She was diagnosed with paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani. Praziquantel therapy improved the abnormal chest shadow, but did not relieve her symptoms. She was also diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and colchicine therapy resolved her symptoms. She subsequently developed arthralgia and morning stiffness in her hands. We also diagnosed the patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and corticosteroid and salazosulfapyridine therapy improved her symptoms...
2016: Internal Medicine
A S Andrade Neto, A R Secchi, M B Souza, A G Barreto
An adaptive nonlinear model predictive control of a simulated moving bed unit for the enantioseparation of praziquantel is presented. A first principle model was applied at the proposed purity control scheme. The main concern about this kind of model in a control framework is in regard to the computational effort to solve it; however, a fast enough solution was achieved. In order to evaluate the controller's performance, several cases were simulated, including external pumps and switching valve malfunctions...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Biniam Mathewos Tebeje, Marina Harvie, Hong You, Alex Loukas, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, caused mainly by S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum, continues to be a serious tropical disease and public health problem resulting in an unacceptably high level of morbidity in countries where it is endemic. Praziquantel, the only drug currently available for treatment, is unable to kill developing schistosomes, it does not prevent re-infection and its continued extensive use may result in the future emergence of drug-resistant parasites. This scenario provides impetus for the development and deployment of anti-schistosome vaccines to be used as part of an integrated approach for the prevention, control and eventual elimination of schistosomiasis...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Priscilla Masamba, Abiola Fatimah Adenowo, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Abidemi Paul Kappo
In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ylenia Pennacchi, Sho Shirakashi, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish...
October 1, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anna Leonidova, Mireille Vargas, Jörg Huwyler, Jennifer Keiser
One of the major neglected tropical diseases, schistosomiasis, is currently treated and controlled with a single drug, praziquantel. The quest for an alternative drug is fueled by its lack of activity against juvenile Schistosoma and the fear of emerging resistance. The synthetic ozonide OZ418 has shown high activity against Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum in vivo, but its drug disposition remains unknown. To bridge this gap, our study determined the basic pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of a single oral dose (400 mg/kg) of OZ418 in uninfected mice...
October 3, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Uffe Christian Braae, Pascal Magnussen, Wendy Harrison, Benedict Ndawi, Faustin Lekule, Maria Vang Johansen
Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania...
September 2016: Parasite Epidemiol Control
M Bagayan, D Zongo, A Oueda, H Sorgho, B Savadogo, F Drabo, A Ouedraogo, J N Poda, B G Kabre, Y Zhang
To determine the current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among schoolchildren after 10 years of mass treatment with praziquantel. Parasitological surveys were conducted in 2013 in 22 primary schools located in 11 regions of Burkina Faso. Urine filtration methods and Kato-Katz techniques for stool were used to detect the eggs of Schistosoma hæmatobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and STH. 3514 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 11 (1.415 ± 9) years participated in the study. The prevalence of S...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Abdul Qavi, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Amita Jain, Neeraj Kumar, Kiran Preet Malhotra, Pradeep Kumar Srivastava, Rajesh Verma, Praveen Kumar Sharma
In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India.Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mrinalini Das, Katerina Doleckova, Rahul Shenoy, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, K Rekha Devi, Tongmeth Konyak, Homa Mansoor, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. OBJECTIVE: To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA...
2016: Global Health Action
Rocio Karina S A A Cabello, Lilian C N H Beck, Cristiano L Massara, Felipe L G Murta, Ricardo J P S Guimarães, Otávio S Pieri, Virginia T Schall, Tereza C Favre
As a signatory to World Health Assembly Resolution WHA65.21 on eliminating schistosomiasis, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) recommends early identification and timely treatment of the infection carriers for morbidity control, plus complementary preventive measures, such as health education, for transmission control. This study reports infection and awareness of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren before the implementation of school-based educational actions in an endemic municipality with persisting moderate prevalence levels despite successive control campaigns since the late 1990s...
September 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
Sutheera Intajarurnsan, Narong Khuntikeo, Nittaya Chamadol, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Supannee Promthet
BACKGROUND: The population in northeast Thailand continues to present with hepatobiliary abnormalities, particularly periductal fibrosis (PDF) which is the result of chronic infection with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverini; OV) and may lead to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although the prevalence of OV infection has been decreased due to a liver fluke control program over decades, the prevalence of PDF remains high. This study aimed to investigate demographic factors associated with PDF risk based on ultrasonography (US) screening...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Beatrice Barda, Jean T Coulibaly, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis affects millions of people, yet treatment options are limited. The antimalarial Synriam (piperaquine 150 mg/arterolane 750 mg) and the anthelminthic moxidectin revealed promising antischistosomal properties in preclinical or clinical studies. METHODOLOGY: We conducted two single-blind, randomized exploratory Phase 2 trials in Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium-infected adolescents in northern and central Côte d'Ivoire. Our primary endpoints were cure rates (CRs) and egg reduction rates (ERRs) based on geometric mean and safety...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ernest Cudjoe Opoku, Annette Olsen, Edmund Browne, Abraham Hodgson, John K Awoonor-Williams, Lawrence Yelifari, John Williams, Pascal Magnussen
BACKGROUND: The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren...
2016: Global Health Action
Welcome M Wami, Norman Nausch, Nicholas Midzi, Reggis Gwisai, Takafira Mduluza, Mark E J Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa. However, it is only recently that its burden has become recognised as a significant component impacting on the health and development of preschool-aged children. A longitudinal study was conducted in Zimbabwean children to determine the effect of single praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity markers: microhaematuria, proteinuria, and albuminuria. Changes in these indicators were compared in 1-5 years versus 6-10 years age groups to determine if treatment outcomes differed by age...
2016: BioMed Research International
Vijaya, Arun K Yadav
A large number of medicinal plants are used as herbal remedy for the treatment of helminthic diseases in the developing countries, however, far too little attention has been paid to assess the anthelmintic potentials of chemical compounds that are present in these plants. This study was carried out to assess the in vitro anthelmintic effects of biochanin A, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol which are the major phytochemicals of Trifolium repens, Houttuynia cordata and Lasia spinosa, the traditionally used anthelmintic plants of Northeast India...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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