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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917968/innovations-in-food-preservation-in-pastoral-zones
#1
C Jans, D W Mulwa Kaindi, L Meile
Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913413/new-arsenate-reductase-gene-arra-pcr-primers-for-diversity-assessment-and-quantification-in-environmental-samples
#2
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
: The extent of arsenic contamination in drinking water and its potential threat to human health have resulted in considerable research interest in the microbial species responsible for arsenic reduction. The arsenate reductase gene (arrA), an important component of the microbial arsenate reduction system, has been widely used as a biomarker to study arsenate reducing microorganisms. A new primer pair was designed and evaluated for qPCR and high-throughput sequencing of the arrA gene, because currently available PCR primers are not suitable for these applications...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#3
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#4
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898727/biological-markers-for-pulpal-inflammation-a-systematic-review
#5
Dan-Krister Rechenberg, Johnah C Galicia, Ove A Peters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898247/challenges-for-the-maintenance-and-cryopreservation-of-multiple-isolates-of-model-microorganisms-an-example-using-the-marine-diatom-skeletonema-marinoi
#6
John G Day, Simon Tytor, Jenny Egardt, Monica Applegren, Cecilia Rad-Menéndez, Olga Chepurnova, Wim Vyverman, Anna Godhe
Modern genomic and metabolomic tools have provided the possibility of generating and interrogating large datasets that can provide answers to previously imponderable taxonomic, evolutionary, ecological, and physiological questions. However, the curatorial tools needed to provide and maintain the relevant biological resources on which new knowledge can be built have not kept pace with this meteoric rise in scientific capacity, its associated activity, or the huge increase in published science. The availability of biological material of guaranteed identity and quality in Biological Resource Centers is fundamental for scientific research, but it crucially depends on there being adequate preservation/maintenance methods that are capable of ensuring phenotypic, genotypic, and functional security of the biological material(s)...
November 29, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892683/computer-simulation-for-improving-radio-frequency-rf-heating-uniformity-of-food-products-a-review
#7
Zhi Huang, Francesco Marra, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890296/analytic-solutions-for-colloid-transport-with-time-and-depth-dependent-retention-in-porous-media
#8
Feike J Leij, Scott A Bradford, Antonella Sciortino
Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874287/impact-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-metabolites-produced-during-fermentation-on-bread-quality-parameters-a-review
#9
Mareile Heitmann, Emanuele Zannini, Elke Arendt
Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking...
November 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865949/lost-in-translation-the-potential-psychobiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-jb-1-fails-to-modulate-stress-or-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-male-subjects
#10
John R Kelly, Andrew P Allen, Andriy Temko, William Hutch, Paul J Kennedy, Niloufar Farid, Eileen Murphy, Geraldine Boylan, John Bienenstock, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864178/microbial-nursery-production-of-high-quality-biological-soil-crust-biomass-for-restoration-of-degraded-dryland-soils
#11
Sergio Velasco Ayuso, Ana Giraldo Silva, Corey J Nelson, Nichole N Barger, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
: Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are slow growing, phototroph-based microbial assemblages developing on topsoils of drylands. Biocrusts help maintain soil fertility and reduce erosion. Because their loss through human activities has negative ecological and environmental health consequences, biocrust restoration is of interest. Active soil inoculation with biocrust microorganisms can be an important tool in this endeavor. We present a culture-independent, two-step process to grow multispecies biocrusts in open greenhouse nursery facilities, based on inoculation of local soils with local biocrust remnants, and incubation under semi-natural conditions that maintain the essence of the habitat, but lessen its harshness...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863738/presence-of-an-adsorbent-cake-layer-improves-the-performance-of-gravity-driven-membrane-gdm-filtration-system
#12
Senlin Shao, Yijing Feng, Huarong Yu, Jiangyun Li, Guibai Li, Heng Liang
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is a promising decentralized drinking water treatment process. To improve the performance of GDM system, a thin layer of adsorbent was pre-deposited on the membrane surface prior to filtration (adsorbent-laden GDM system). The tested adsorbents include powdered activated carbon (PAC) and anion exchange resin (AER), and an unmodified GDM system and a SiO2-laden GDM system were used as controls. In the adsorbent-laden GDM systems, the adsorption of the PAC and AER increased the removal efficiency of natural organic matter by 7...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862839/frontiers-for-research-on-the-ecology-of-plant-pathogenic-bacteria-fundamentals-for-sustainability
#13
REVIEW
Cindy E Morris, Marie-Anne Barny, Odile Berge, Linda L Kinkel, Christelle Lacroix
Methods to assure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. But in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only the climate but also biodiversity, geographic distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859342/aflatoxins-and-food-pathogens-impact-of-biologically-active-aflatoxins-and-their-control-strategies
#14
REVIEW
S Umesha, H M Manukumar, B Chandrasekhar, P Shivakumara, J Shiva Kumar, Sri Raghava, P Avinash, M Shirin, T R Bharathi, S B Rajini, M Nandhini, G Vinaya Rani, M Shobha, H S Prakash
Globally disease outbreaks are due to consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff is regular primary problem. The foremost elements contributing to contamination are microorganisms particularly fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, with demonstrated toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins contaminate agricultural commodities and may cause sickness or fatality in human and animals. Moreover, the terrible conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control aggravate the main issue within the country...
November 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859189/species-sorting-along-a-subsidy-gradient-alters-bacterial-community-stability
#15
Mario E Muscarella, Stuart E Jones, Jay T Lennon
The movement of resources between terrestrial and aquatic habitats has strong effects on ecological processes in recipient ecosystems. Allochthonous inputs modify the quality and quantity of the available resource pool in ways that may alter the composition and stability of recipient communities. Inputs of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) into aquatic ecosystems represent a large influx of resources that has the potential to affect local communities, especially microorganisms. To evaluate the effects of terrestrial inputs on aquatic bacterial community composition and stability, we manipulated the supply rate of tDOC to a set of experimental ponds...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858148/enhanced-aphid-abundance-in-spring-desynchronizes-predator-prey-and-plant-microorganism-interactions
#16
Benjamin Fuchs, Tatjana Breuer, Simone Findling, Markus Krischke, Martin J Mueller, Andrea Holzschuh, Jochen Krauss
Climate change leads to phenology shifts of many species. However, not all species shift in parallel, which can desynchronize interspecific interactions. Within trophic cascades, herbivores can be top-down controlled by predators or bottom-up controlled by host plant quality and host symbionts, such as plant-associated micro-organisms. Synchronization of trophic levels is required to prevent insect herbivore (pest) outbreaks. In a common garden experiment, we simulated an earlier arrival time (~2 weeks) of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi on its host grass Lolium perenne by enhancing the aphid abundance during the colonization period...
November 17, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853706/infrared-drying-as-a-potential-alternative-to-convective-drying-for-biltong-production
#17
Kipchumba Cherono, Gikuru Mwithiga, Stefan Schmidt
Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m(2) with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852162/dissolved-air-flotation-as-a-potential-treatment-process-to-remove-giardia-cysts-from-anaerobically-treated-sewage
#18
Priscila Ribeiro Dos Santos, Luiz Antonio Daniel
Controlling Giardia cysts in sewage is an essential barrier for public health protection, reducing possible routes of protozoa transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of dissolved air flotation (DAF), on a bench scale, to remove Giardia cysts from anaerobic effluent. Moreover, removals of indicator microorganisms and physical variables were also investigated. Flocculation conditions were studied, associating different flocculation times with different mean velocity gradients. DAF treatment achieved mean log removals in the range of 2...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849596/genome-wide-screen-identifies-host-colonization-determinants-in-a-bacterial-gut-symbiont
#19
J Elijah Powell, Sean P Leonard, Waldan K Kwong, Philipp Engel, Nancy A Moran
Animal guts are often colonized by host-specialized bacterial species to the exclusion of other transient microorganisms, but the genetic basis of colonization ability is largely unknown. The bacterium Snodgrassella alvi is a dominant gut symbiont in honey bees, specialized in colonizing the hindgut epithelium. We developed methods for transposon-based mutagenesis in S. alvi and, using high-throughput DNA sequencing, screened genome-wide transposon insertion (Tn-seq) and transcriptome (RNA-seq) libraries to characterize both the essential genome and the genes facilitating host colonization...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847499/abundance-and-distribution-of-enteric-bacteria-and-viruses-in-coastal-and-estuarine-sediments-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Francis Hassard, Ceri L Gwyther, Kata Farkas, Anthony Andrews, Vera Jones, Brian Cox, Howard Brett, Davey L Jones, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham
The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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