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Microorganism quality

Hoa Van Ba, Hyun-Woo Seo, Seong Pil-Nam, Yoon-Seok Kim, Beom Young Park, Sung-Sil Moon, Se-Ju Kang, Yong-Min Choi, Jin-Hyoung Kim
As an attempt to control bacterial cross-contamination of beef carcasses, in the present investigation acetic acid and lactic acid (3% v/v) were used for bacterial decontamination. For the decontamination, cows were sprayed with each above acid at two different stages; (i) on live animal's hides, (ii) on carcass surfaces immediately after slaughter. Microbiological samples were taken on different hide areas of animals before spraying and on carcass surfaces at 24h after spraying. Meat quality traits were also analyzed on the sprayed animals...
November 6, 2017: Meat Science
Dong-Heon Song, Hyun-Wook Kim, Ko-Eun Hwang, Yong-Jae Kim, Youn-Kyung Ham, Yun-Sang Choi, Dong-Jin Shin, Tae-Kyung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Cheon-Jei Kim, Hyun-Dong Paik
This study was performed to investigate the impacts of irradiation sources on quality attributes of low-salt sausage during refrigerated storage. Control sausage was prepared with 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), whereas low-salt sausage was formulated with 0.75% NaCl (a 50% reduction; L-control). Sausage samples were vacuum-packaged, and low-sausages were irradiated with gamma-ray, electron-beam and X-ray at 5 kGy, respectively. The samples were stored at 4°C for 28 d to determine changes in quality attributes...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
Inês C Santos, Misty S Martin, Michelle L Reyes, Doug D Carlton, Paula Stigler-Granados, Melissa A Valerio, Kristina W Whitworth, Zacariah L Hildenbrand, Kevin A Schug
Bacterial communities in groundwater are very important as they maintain a balanced biogeochemical environment. When subjected to stressful environments, for example, due to anthropogenic contamination, bacterial communities and their dynamics change. Studying the responses of the groundwater microbiome in the face of environmental changes can add to our growing knowledge of microbial ecology, which can be utilized for the development of novel bioremediation strategies. High-throughput and simpler techniques that allow the real-time study of different microbiomes and their dynamics are necessary, especially when examining larger data sets...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M Oteng-Peprah, N K de Vries, M A Acheampong
The quantity and quality of combined greywater from houses with in-house water supply and houses that rely on external sources of a peri-urban area in a developing country were determined. Data for quantity of greywater was collected from 36 households while 180 samples of greywater were collected from 60 households between December 2016 and February 2017. The results indicate that, average water consumption from households with in-house access was 82.51 ± 12.21 Lc(-1)d(-1) while households which rely on external sources was 36...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Carolina Montoya-Pachongo, Isabel Douterelo, Catherine Noakes, Miller Alonso Camargo-Valero, Andrew Sleigh, Juan-Carlos Escobar-Rivera, Patricia Torres-Lozada
Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
F Valeriani, C Cianfanelli, G Gianfranceschi, S Santucci, V Romano Spica, N Mucci
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in libraries is influenced by the presence of specific factors which can impact on both paper storage as well as people health. Microclimatic conditions induce and support a biodiversity pattern involving environmental and anthropic microorganisms. We used a multidisciplinary monitoring model to characterize microflora biodiversity by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Biodiversity indexes were adapted to evaluate anthropic vs environmental pollution by combining Shannon mean index (H), species representativeness (EH), human/environmental pollution ratio (SA) to better characterize the NGS output and acquire synthetic information on Indoor Air Microbial Biodiversity (IAMB)...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Song-Tao Zhang, Xiao-Ning Song, Ning Li, Ke Zhang, Guo-Shun Liu, Xue-Dong Li, Zhi-Zhong Wang, Xiao-Bing He, Guo-Feng Wang, Hui-Fang Shao
Soil microorganisms play a crucial role in cycling soil nutrients and providing organic nutrients for plant growth and development. Fertilisation balances soil fertility and quality, and affects soil microbial communities. Fertilisation is a frontier subject in agricultural and environmental sciences. Here we showed that the application of high-carbon basal fertiliser treatment could improve the tobacco yield and quality when compared to chemical fertiliser, high-carbon basal fertiliser and mixed high-carbon chemical fertiliser...
November 7, 2017: Research in Microbiology
Javier Alonso-Del-Real, Alba Contreras-Ruiz, Gabriel L Castiglioni, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widespread microorganism responsible for wine alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, the wine industry is currently facing new challenges, some of them associate with climate change, which have a negative effect on ethanol content and wine quality. Numerous and varied strategies have been carried out to overcome these concerns. From a biotechnological point of view, the use of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeasts, yielding lower ethanol concentrations and sometimes giving rise to new and interesting aroma, is one of the trendiest approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kai Blin, Hyun Uk Kim, Marnix H Medema, Tilmann Weber
Many drugs are derived from small molecules produced by microorganisms and plants, so-called natural products. Natural products have diverse chemical structures, but the biosynthetic pathways producing those compounds are often organized as biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and follow a highly conserved biosynthetic logic. This allows for the identification of core biosynthetic enzymes using genome mining strategies that are based on the sequence similarity of the involved enzymes/genes. However, mining for a variety of BGCs quickly approaches a complexity level where manual analyses are no longer possible and require the use of automated genome mining pipelines, such as the antiSMASH software...
November 3, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Arslan Arshad, Paula Dalcin Martins, Jeroen Frank, Mike S M Jetten, Huub J M Op den Camp, Cornelia U Welte
Microorganisms are main drivers of the sulfur, nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles. These element cycles are interconnected by the activity of different guilds in e.g. sediments or wastewater treatment systems. Here, we investigated a nitrate-reducing microbial community in a laboratory-scale bioreactor model that closely mimicked estuary or brackish sediment conditions. The bioreactor simultaneously consumed sulfide, methane and ammonium at the expense of nitrate. Ammonium oxidation occurred solely by the activity of anammox bacteria identified as Candidatus Scalindua brodae and Ca...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Yongjun Choi, Jongsu Rim, Youngjun Na, Sang Rak Lee
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods: Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum. Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8 ± 0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: 1) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), 2) 10% level of SCG, 3) 10% level of fermented SCG (FSCG), and 4) 20% level of FSCG in 4 × 4 Latin square design...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
M Socorro Medina Lara, Roberto Quintero Lizaola, David Espinosa Victoria, Alejandro Alarcón, Jorge D Etchevers Barra, Antonio Trinidad Santos, F Víctor Conde Martínez
Composting was performed using a mixture of ovine manure and straw. Inoculum was extracted at five different phases of the composting process (18, 23, 28, 33 and 38 days after the start of the composting process) and its effect on reducing biotransformation time was evaluated in the composted ovine manure. The samples were preserved in a deep freezer, then lyophilized to obtain the inoculum, 50g of which was added to each treatment in the second experimental phase. Six treatments were established; C=straw (P)+ovine manure (E), T1=P+ E+inoculum 18 days after the start of the composting process (I18), T2=P+E+I23, T3=P+E+I28, T4=P+E+I33, T5=P+E+I38, with three replications...
October 26, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Lu Yao, Chengrong Chen, Guihua Liu, Wenzhi Liu
Decline of submerged vegetation is one of the most serious ecological problems in eutrophic lakes worldwide. Although restoration of submerged vegetation is widely assumed to enhance ecological functions (e.g., nitrogen removal) and aquatic biodiversity, the evidence for this assumption is very limited. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of sediment potential nitrification, unamended denitrification and N2O production rates along a vegetation gradient in the Lake Honghu, where submerged vegetation was largely restored by prohibiting net-pen aquaculture...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
J C Ribeiro Júnior, A M de Oliveira, F de G Silva, R Tamanini, A L M de Oliveira, V Beloti
Refrigerated raw milk may contain psychrotrophic microorganisms that produce thermoresistant exoproteases and lipases, which may compromise the quality of processed fluid milk and dairy products during storage. The aim of this work was to quantify and identify the deteriorating psychrotrophic microbiota in Brazilian refrigerated raw milk using genetic diversity analysis. The mean psychrotrophic count was 1.1 × 10(4) cfu/mL. Of the total isolates, 47.8 and 29.8% showed deteriorating activity at 35°C within 48 h and 7°C within 10 d, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Dongming Xie
As one of the major biofuels to replace fossil fuel, biodiesel has now attracted more and more attention due to its advantages in higher energy density and overall less greenhouse gas generation. Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is produced by chemically or enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of lipids from microbial cells, microalgae, oil crops, or animal fats. Currently, plant oils or waste cooking oils/fats remain the major source for biodiesel production via enzymatic route, but the production capacity is limited either by the uncertain supplement of plant oils or by the low or inconsistent quality of waste oils/fats...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Zhong Yao Xie, Guo Fang Huang, Hui Gao, Yu Qing Chi, Yan Xia Wang, Yu Pang, Jing Ping Wang
Nosocomial infections (NIs) are a critical issue affecting the quality of healthcare. In this study, we performed a retrospective study to explore the incidence rates, mortality rates, and microbial spectrum of NIs in Beijing Chest Hospital, a tuberculosis (TB) specialized hospital in China. Our data demonstrate that the overall incidence rate of inpatients with NIs slightly decreased from 2012 to 2016, which may be associated with the implementation of hand hygiene measures, while the mortality rates associated with NI did not significantly change...
September 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Sangdon Ryu, Mi Ri Park, Brighton E Maburutse, Su Jin Lee, Woong Ji Lee, Soohyun Cho, Inho Hwang, Sangnam Oh, Younghoon Kim
Beef was dry aged for 40 to 60 days under controlled environmental conditions in a refrigerated room with a relative humidity of 75% to 80 % and air-flow. To date, there is little information on the microbial diversity and characteristics of dry aged beef. Here, we explored the effect of change in meat microorganisms on dry aged beef. Initially, total bacteria and LAB were significantly increased for 50 days during all dry aging periods. There was absence of representative foodborne pathogens as well as coliforms...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Helene Lunde Robertsen, Tilmann Weber, Hyun Uk Kim, Sang Yup Lee
Streptomycetes are known for their inherent ability to produce pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. Discovery of medically useful, yet novel compounds has become a great challenge due to frequent rediscovery of known compounds and a consequent decline in the number of relevant clinical trials in the last decades. A paradigm shift took place when the first whole genome sequences of streptomycetes became available, from which silent or "cryptic" biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were discovered. Cryptic BGCs reveal a so far untapped potential of the microorganisms for the production of novel compounds, which has spurred new efforts in understanding the complex regulation between primary and secondary metabolism...
October 27, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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