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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542305/patterns-of-change-and-continuity-in-ochre-use-during-the-late-middle-stone-age-of-the-horn-of-africa-the-porc-epic-cave-record
#1
Daniela Eugenia Rosso, Francesco d'Errico, Alain Queffelec
Ochre is found at numerous Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites and plays a key role in early modern human archaeology. Here we analyse the largest known East African MSA ochre assemblage, comprising 40 kg of ochre, found at Porc-Epic Cave, Ethiopia, spanning a period of at least 4,500 years. Visual characterisation of ochre types, microscopic identification of traces of modification, morphological and morphometric analysis of ochre pieces and modified areas, experimental reproduction of grinding processes, surface texture analysis of archaeological and experimentally ground ochre facets, laser granulometry of ochre powder produced experimentally on different grindstones and by Hamar and Ovahimba women from Ethiopia and Namibia respectively, were, for the first time, combined to explore diachronic shifts in ochre processing technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538994/predictive-feature-remapping-before-saccadic-eye-movements
#2
Dongjun He, Ce Mo, Fang Fang
Saccadic eye movements cause rapid and dramatic displacements of the retinal image of the visual world, yet our conscious perception of the world remains stable and continuous. A popular explanation for this remarkable ability of our visual system to compensate for the displacements is the predictive feature remapping theory. The theory proposes that, before saccades, the representation of a visual stimulus can be predictively transferred from neurons that initially encode the stimulus to neurons whose receptive fields will encompass the stimulus location after the saccade...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530500/sex-specific-links-in-motor-and-sensory-adaptations-to-repetitive-motion-induced-fatigue
#3
Zachary R Weber, Divya Srinivasan, Julie N Côté
The objectives of this study were to assess the sex-specific relationships between motor and sensory adaptations to repetitive arm motion-induced neck/shoulder fatigue, and measure how additional sensory stimulation affected these adaptations. Twenty-three participants performed two sessions of a repetitive pointing task until scoring 8 on the Borg CR10 scale for neck/shoulder exertion or for a maximum of 45min, with and without sensory stimulation (i.e. light touch) applied on the fatiguing shoulder. Just before reaching the task termination criteria, all participants showed changes in mean and variability of arm joint angles and experienced a five-fold increase in anterior deltoid (AD) sensory threshold in the stimulus-present condition...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524203/time-resolved-photoelectron-spectroscopy-of-ir-driven-electron-dynamics-in-a-charge-transfer-model-system
#4
Mirjam Falge, Friedrich Georg Fröbel, Volker Engel, Stefanie Gräfe
If the adiabatic approximation is valid, electrons smoothly adapt to molecular geometry changes. In contrast, as a characteristic of diabatic dynamics, the electron density does not follow the nuclear motion. Recently, we have shown that the asymmetry in time-resolved photoelectron spectra serves as a tool to distinguish between these dynamics [Falge et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 2617]. Here, we investigate the influence of an additional, moderately intense infrared (IR) laser field, as often applied in attosecond time-resolved experiments, on such asymmetries...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524110/infrared-thermography-sensor-for-temperature-and-speed-measurement-of-moving-material
#5
Rubén Usamentiaga, Daniel Fernando García
Infrared thermography offers significant advantages in monitoring the temperature of objects over time, but crucial aspects need to be addressed. Movements between the infrared camera and the inspected material seriously affect the accuracy of the calculated temperature. These movements can be the consequence of solid objects that are moved, molten metal poured, material on a conveyor belt, or just vibrations. This work proposes a solution for monitoring the temperature of material in these scenarios. In this work both real movements and vibrations are treated equally, proposing a unified solution for both problems...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514847/electric-field-assisted-assembly-of-colloidal-particles-into-ordered-non-close-packed-arrays
#6
Jingjing Gong, Ning Wu
Non-close packed colloidal arrays have many potential applications ranging from plasmonic sensors, light trapping for photovoltaics, to transparent electrodes. However, scalable fabrication of those structures remains a challenge. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of an electric-field assisted approach systematically. A monolayer of non-close packed crystalline array is first created under a low-frequency alternating-current electric field in solution. We then apply a sequence of direct current pulses to fix the particle array onto the substrate so that it remains intact even after both field removal and solvent evaporation...
May 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506273/inertial-measurement-systems-for-segments-and-joints-kinematics-assessment-towards-an-understanding-of-the-variations-in-sensors-accuracy
#7
Karina Lebel, Patrick Boissy, Hung Nguyen, Christian Duval
BACKGROUND: Joints kinematics assessment based on inertial measurement systems, which include attitude and heading reference system (AHRS), are quickly gaining in popularity for research and clinical applications. The variety of the tasks and contexts they are used in require a deep understanding of the AHRS accuracy for optimal data interpretation. However, published accuracy studies on AHRS are mostly limited to a single task measured on a limited number of segments and participants...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505961/effects-of-dual-task-conditions-on-cervical-spine-movement-variability
#8
Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Johanna Vogel, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501732/asymmetrical-stabilization-and-mobilization-exploited-during-static-single-leg-stance-and-goal-directed-kicking
#9
Adam C King, Zheng Wang
The motor control properties of the right and left legs are dependent on the stabilization and mobilization features of the motor tasks. The current investigation examined the right and left leg control differences - interlateral asymmetries - during static single leg stance and dynamic goal directed kicking with an emphasis of the asymmetrical stabilization and mobilization components of movements. Ten young, healthy, right-leg preferred individuals with minimal kicking experience completed both tests on each limb...
May 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500714/sensory-rhodopsin-i-and-sensory-rhodopsin-ii-form-trimers-of-dimers-in-complex-with-their-cognate-transducers
#10
Philipp Orekhov, Arne Bothe, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Konstantin V Shaitan, Stefan Raunser, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Ramona Schlesinger, Johann P Klare, Martin Engelhard
Archaeal photoreceptors consist of sensory rhodopsins in complex with their cognate transducers. After light excitation, a two-component signaling chain is activated, which is homologous to the chemotactic signaling cascades in enterobacteria. The latter system has been studied in detail. From structural and functional studies, a picture emerges which includes stable signaling complexes, which assemble to receptor arrays displaying hexagonal structural elements. At this higher order structural level, signal amplification and sensory adaptation occur...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500004/generic-content-based-retrieval-of-marker-based-motion-capture-data
#11
Na Lv, Zifei Jiang, Yan Huang, Xiangxu Meng, Gopi M, Jingliang Peng
In this work, we propose an original scheme for generic content-based retrieval of marker-based motion capture data. It works on motion capture data of arbitrary subject types and arbitrary marker attachment and labelling conventions. Specifically, we propose a novel motion signature to statistically describe both the high-level and the low-level morphological and kinematic characteristics of a motion capture sequence, and conduct the content-based retrieval by computing and ordering the motion signature distance between the query and every item in the database...
May 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492374/a-miniaturized-wall-climbing-segment-robot-inspired-by-caterpillar-locomotion
#12
Il Whan Han, Hoon Yi, Chang-Woo Song, Hoon-Eui Jeong, Seung-Yop Lee
Caterpillars are very successful soft-bodied climbers that navigate in complex environments. This paper develops a multi-segmented robot climbing on vertical surfaces using dry adhesive pads, inspired by caterpillar locomotion. The miniaturized robot consists of four segments, and each segment uses a solenoid actuator with a permanent magnet plunger. The head and body segments adapt a novel mechanism and Scott-Russell linkages to generate a bi-directional plane motion using one solenoid actuator, resulting to reliable attaching and peeling motions of gecko pads...
May 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490985/imaged-guided-liver-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-using-vmat-and-real-time-adaptive-tumor-gating-concerns-about-technique-and-preliminary-clinical-results
#13
Carmen Llacer-Moscardo, Olivier Riou, David Azria, Ludovic Bedos, Norbert Ailleres, Francois Quenet, Philippe Rouanet, Marc Ychou, Pascal Fenoglietto
BACKGROUND: Motion management is a major challenge in abdominal SBRT. We present our study of SBRT for liver tumors using intrafraction motion review (IMR) allowing simultaneous KV information and MV delivery to synchronize the beam during gated RapidArc treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2012 and March 2015, 41 patients were treated by liver SBRT using gated RapidArc technique in a Varian Novalis Truebeam STx linear accelerator. PTV was created by expanding 5 mm from the ITV...
March 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489001/noradrenaline-blockade-specifically-enhances-metacognitive-performance
#14
Tobias U Hauser, Micah Allen, Nina Purg, Michael Moutoussis, Geraint Rees, Raymond J Dolan
Impairments in metacognition, the ability to accurately report one's performance, are common in patients with psychiatric disorders, where a putative neuromodulatory dysregulation provides the rationale for pharmacological interventions. Previously, we have shown how unexpected arousal modulates metacognition (Allen et al., 2016). Here, we report a double-blind, placebo-controlled, study that examined specific effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on both metacognition and perceptual decision making. Signal theoretic analysis of a global motion discrimination task with adaptive performance staircasing revealed that noradrenergic blockade (40 mg propranolol) significantly increased metacognitive performance (type-II area under the curve, AUROC2), but had no impact on perceptual decision making performance...
May 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483145/changes-in-relative-work-of-the-lower-extremity-joints-and-distal-foot-with-walking-speed
#15
Anahid Ebrahimi, Saryn R Goldberg, Steven J Stanhope
The modulation of walking speed results in adaptations to the lower limbs which can be quantified using mechanical work. A 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) power analysis, which includes additional translations as compared to the 3 DOF (all rotational) approach, is a comprehensive approach for quantifying lower limb work during gait. The purpose of this study was to quantify the speed-related 6 DOF joint and distal foot work adaptations of all the lower extremity limb constituents (hip, knee, ankle, and distal foot) in healthy individuals...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481891/the-decay-of-motor-adaptation-to-novel-movement-dynamics-reveals-an-asymmetry-in-the-stability-of-motion-state-dependent-learning
#16
Eghbal A Hosseini, Katrina P Nguyen, Wilsaan M Joiner
Motor adaptation paradigms provide a quantitative method to study short-term modification of motor commands. Despite the growing understanding of the role motion states (e.g., velocity) play in this form of motor learning, there is little information on the relative stability of memories based on these movement characteristics, especially in comparison to the initial adaptation. Here, we trained subjects to make reaching movements perturbed by force patterns dependent upon either limb position or velocity. Following training, subjects were exposed to a series of error-clamp trials to measure the temporal characteristics of the feedforward motor output during the decay of learning...
May 8, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480432/whole-body-vibration-exercise-improves-functional-parameters-in-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-a-systematic-review-with-a-suitable-approach
#17
Danubia C Sá-Caputo, Carla da F Dionello, Éric Heleno F F Frederico, Laisa L Paineiras-Domingos, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Danielle S Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Marianne Unger, Mario Bernardo-Filho
BACKGROUND: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been reported in strength, motion, gait, balance, posture and bone density in several osteopenic individuals, as in post-menopausal women or children with disabling conditions, as patients with OI...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475145/real-time-motion-tracking-for-mobile-augmented-virtual-reality-using-adaptive-visual-inertial-fusion
#18
Wei Fang, Lianyu Zheng, Huanjun Deng, Hongbo Zhang
In mobile augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR), real-time 6-Degree of Freedom (DoF) motion tracking is essential for the registration between virtual scenes and the real world. However, due to the limited computational capacity of mobile terminals today, the latency between consecutive arriving poses would damage the user experience in mobile AR/VR. Thus, a visual-inertial based real-time motion tracking for mobile AR/VR is proposed in this paper. By means of high frequency and passive outputs from the inertial sensor, the real-time performance of arriving poses for mobile AR/VR is achieved...
May 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470462/-connecting-adapter-for-coupling-exoprostheses-to-endoshafts-demands-on-orthopedic-technicians-with-respect-to-planning-and-application
#19
H Grundei, A Timmermann
INTRODUCTION: Transcutaneous, bone anchored prostheses have proved to be an alternative for amputees. In addition to the safe osseointegration of the implant, the correct prosthetic alignment is also important. Therefore, the interaction between prosthesis components and the prosthesis wearer is significant and the role of the certified prosthetist should not be underestimated. AIM: The aim of treatment is the best possible compensation of disability after limb loss with increase of physical abilities and comfort of the prosthesis wearer by means of bone anchored prosthesis...
May 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466155/dosimetric-implications-of-inter-and-intrafractional-prostate-positioning-errors-during-tomotherapy-comparison-of-gold-marker-based-registrations-with-native-mvct
#20
Peter Wust, Marc Joswig, Reinhold Graf, Dirk Böhmer, Marcus Beck, Thomasz Barelkowski, Volker Budach, Pirus Ghadjar
INTRODUCTION: For high-dose radiation therapy (RT) of prostate cancer, image-guided (IGRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) approaches are standard. Less is known regarding comparisons of different IGRT techniques and the resulting residual errors, as well as regarding their influences on dose distributions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 58 patients who received tomotherapy-based RT up to 84 Gy for high-risk prostate cancer underwent IGRT based either on daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) alone (n = 43) or the additional use of gold markers (n = 15) under routine conditions...
May 2, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
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