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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433624/temporal-slice-registration-and-robust-diffusion-tensor-reconstruction-for-improved-fetal-brain-structural-connectivity-analysis
#1
Bahram Marami, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Onur Afacan, Benoit Scherrer, Caitlin K Rollins, Edward Yang, Judy A Estroff, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, or DWI, is one of the most promising tools for the analysis of neural microstructure and the structural connectome of the human brain. The application of DWI to map early development of the human connectome in-utero, however, is challenged by intermittent fetal and maternal motion that disrupts the spatial correspondence of data acquired in the relatively long DWI acquisitions. Fetuses move continuously during DWI scans. Reliable and accurate analysis of the fetal brain structural connectome requires careful compensation of motion effects and robust reconstruction to avoid introducing bias based on the degree of fetal motion...
April 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429597/is-capsule-colonoscopy-the-solution-for-incomplete-conventional-colonoscopy
#2
Miguel Mascarenhas-Saraiva
The era of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) started in 2007. Few years later second-generation CCE (CCE-2) (Medtronic, Minneapolis, USA) was launched, featuring an improved optical system allowing for nearly 360° coverage via two 172° angle cameras, and adaptive frame rate function (ranging from 4 to 35 images per second depending on capsule motion). At present the main clinical indications for CCE are: a) completion of incomplete colonoscopy; b) polyp detection; and c) investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
April 21, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427411/tendon-motion-tracking-in-an-ultrasound-image-sequence-using-optical-flow-based-block-matching
#3
Bo-I Chuang, Jian-Han Hsu, Li-Chieh Kuo, I-Ming Jou, Fong-Chin Su, Yung-Nien Sun
BACKGROUND: Tendon motion, which is commonly observed using ultrasound imaging, is one of the most important features used in tendinopathy diagnosis. However, speckle noise and out-of-plane issues make the tracking process difficult. Manual tracking is usually time consuming and often yields inconsistent results between users. METHODS: To automatically track tendon motion in ultrasound images, we developed a new method that combines the advantages of optical flow and multi-kernel block matching...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427305/neuromechanical-adaptations-during-a-robotic-powered-exoskeleton-assisted-walking-session
#4
Arvind Ramanujam, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Erica Garbarini, Pierre Asselin, Rakesh Pilkar, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. DESIGN: Single-session. SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#5
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422684/visual-analysis-of-inclusion-dynamics-in-two-phase-flow
#6
Grzegorz Karch, Fabian Beck, Moritz Ertl, Christian Meister, Kathrin Schulte, Bernhard Weigand, Thomas Ertl, Filip Sadlo
In single-phase flow visualization, research focuses on the analysis of vector field properties. In two-phase flow, in contrast, analysis of the phase components is typically of major interest. So far, visualization research of two-phase flow concentrated on proper interface reconstruction and the analysis thereof. In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique that enables the investigation of complex two-phase flow phenomena with respect to the physics of breakup and coalescence of inclusions. On the one hand, we adapt dimensionless quantities for a localized analysis of phase instability and breakup, and provide detailed inspection of breakup dynamics with emphasis on oscillation and its interplay with rotational motion...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422683/progressive-dictionary-learning-with-hierarchical-predictive-structure-for-scalable-video-coding
#7
Wenrui Dai, Yangmei Shen, Hongkai Xiong, Xiaoqian Jiang, Junni Zou, David Taubman
Dictionary learning has emerged as a promising alternative to the conventional hybrid coding framework. However, the rigid structure of sequential training and prediction degrades its performance in scalable video coding. This paper proposes a progressive dictionary learning framework with hierarchical predictive structure for scalable video coding, especially in low bitrate region. For pyramidal layers, sparse representation based on spatio-temporal dictionary is adopted to improve the coding efficiency of enhancement layers (ELs) with a guarantee of reconstruction performance...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421082/insights-into-the-structure-function-and-ion-mediated-signaling-pathways-transduced-by-plant-integrin-linked-kinases
#8
Sorina C Popescu, Elizabeth K Brauer, Gizem Dimlioglu, George V Popescu
Kinases facilitate detection of extracellular signals and set in motion cellular responses for plant adaptation and survival. Some of the energy utilized for kinase signal processing is produced through the activity of ion transporters. Additionally, the synergy between cellular ions and signal transduction influences plant response to pathogens, and their growth and development. In plants, the signaling elements that connect cell wall and membrane sensors with ion homeostasis and transport-mediated processes are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420194/multiple-objects-fusion-tracker-using-a-matching-network-for-adaptively-represented-instance-pairs
#9
Sang-Il Oh, Hang-Bong Kang
Multiple-object tracking is affected by various sources of distortion, such as occlusion, illumination variations and motion changes. Overcoming these distortions by tracking on RGB frames, such as shifting, has limitations because of material distortions caused by RGB frames. To overcome these distortions, we propose a multiple-object fusion tracker (MOFT), which uses a combination of 3D point clouds and corresponding RGB frames. The MOFT uses a matching function initialized on large-scale external sequences to determine which candidates in the current frame match with the target object in the previous frame...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420175/a-new-input-device-for-spastics-based-on-strain-gauge
#10
Niels Buchhold, Christian Baumgartner
This article presents a new sensor for use by people with spastic disorders and similar conditions and enables them to steer and control medical devices such as electric powered wheelchairs. As spastic patients often suffer from cramping of their extremities, which can then no longer be controlled, using a standard joystick while operating a powered wheelchair can lead to dangerous situations. To prevent this, we designed a sensor based on strain gauges, which is shaped like a flat disc that can be operated using any body part...
April 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417834/adaptive-changes-in-the-perception-of-fast-and-slow-movement-at-different-head-positions
#11
Roberto Panichi, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Mario Faralli, Marco Lucertini, Vito E Pettorossi
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. METHODS: Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417600/a-bioinspired-mineral-hydrogel-as-a-self-healable-mechanically-adaptable-ionic-skin-for-highly-sensitive-pressure-sensing
#12
Zhouyue Lei, Quankang Wang, Shengtong Sun, Wencheng Zhu, Peiyi Wu
In the past two decades, artificial skin-like materials have received increasing research interests for their broad applications in artificial intelligence, wearable devices, and soft robotics. However, profound challenges remain in terms of imitating human skin because of its unique combination of mechanical and sensory properties. In this work, a bioinspired mineral hydrogel is developed to fabricate a novel type of mechanically adaptable ionic skin sensor. Due to its unique viscoelastic properties, the hydrogel-based capacitive sensor is compliant, self-healable, and can sense subtle pressure changes, such as a gentle finger touch, human motion, or even small water droplets...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416253/mechanical-stability-of-the-taper-connection-of-large-metal-femoral-heads-with-adapter-sleeves-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-analyzed-using-explicit-finite-element-simulations
#13
Danny Vogel, Adrian Falkenberg, Sarah Bierbaum, Christian Schulze, Rainer Bader, Daniel Kluess
BACKGROUND: Large diameter heads (LDHs) of metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty provide increased range of motion and reduced dislocation rates. However, major concerns grew over high wear rates from the modular connection between femoral stem and head, especially in combination with adapter sleeves. METHODS: A computational study on the taper connection stability of LDH (50 mm) with adapter sleeves of different lengths (S, M, L, and XL) compared with a standard femoral head (32 mm) without adapter sleeves was conducted using explicit finite element analyses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415335/effectively-explore-metastable-states-of-proteins-by-adaptive-nonequilibrium-driving-simulations
#14
Biao Wan, Shun Xu, Xin Zhou
Nonequilibrium drivings applied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can efficiently extend the visiting range of protein conformations, but might compel systems to go far away from equilibrium and thus mainly explore irrelevant conformations. Here we propose a general method, called adaptive nonequilibrium simulation (ANES), to automatically adjust the external driving on the fly, based on the feedback of the short-time average response of system. Thus, the ANES approximately keeps the local equilibrium but efficiently accelerates the global motion...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412713/investigation-of-feet-functions-of-large-ruminants-with-a-decoupled-model-of-equivalent-mechanism
#15
Qun Zhang, Kun Xu, Xilun Ding
Cloven hooves of ruminants adapt to diverse terrain, provide propulsive force and support the whole body during movement in natural environments. To reveal how the feet ensure terrain adaptability by choosing the proper configurations and terrain conditions, we model the feet of ruminants as an equivalent mechanism with flexion-extension and lateral movement decoupled. The upper part of the equivalent mechanism can flex and extend, while the lower part performs the lateral movement. Combination of the two parts can adapt to longitudinal slope (anterior-posterior) and transverse slope (medial-lateral), respectively...
April 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411474/prior-expectations-modulate-unconscious-evidence-accumulation
#16
Leonardo S Barbosa, Alexandra Vlassova, Sid Kouider
Unconscious processes have been shown to affect both perception and behaviour. However, the flexibility of such processes remains unknown. Here we investigate whether unconscious decisional processes can adapt to the utility of sensory information. To this end, we had participants gradually accumulate information from noisy motion stimuli, until a decision was reached. We titrated conscious awareness of these stimuli by simultaneously presenting a dynamic dichoptic mask. Crucially, we manipulated the likelihood that the suppressed portion of each presentation would contain useful information...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405382/perceived-duration-of-brief-visual-events-is-mediated-by-timing-mechanisms-at-the-global-stages-of-visual-processing
#17
Lee Beattie, William Curran, Christopher P Benton, Julie M Harris, Paul B Hibbard
There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of modality-specific timing mechanisms for encoding sub-second durations. For example, the duration compression effect describes how prior adaptation to a dynamic visual stimulus results in participants underestimating the duration of a sub-second test stimulus when it is presented at the adapted location. There is substantial evidence for the existence of both cortical and pre-cortical visual timing mechanisms; however, little is known about where in the processing hierarchy the cortical mechanisms are likely to be located...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405377/modulation-of-leg-joint-function-to-produce-emulated-acceleration-during-walking-and-running-in-humans
#18
Dominic James Farris, Brent J Raiteri
Understanding how humans adapt gait mechanics for a wide variety of locomotor tasks is important for inspiring the design of robotic, prosthetic and wearable assistive devices. We aimed to elicit the mechanical adjustments made to leg joint functions that are required to generate accelerative walking and running, using metrics with direct relevance to device design. Twelve healthy male participants completed constant speed (CS) walking and running and emulated acceleration (ACC) trials on an instrumented treadmill...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404828/interaction-of-compass-sensing-and-object-motion-detection-in-the-locust-central-complex
#19
Tobias Bockhorst, Uwe Homberg
Goal-directed behavior is often complicated by unpredictable events, such as the appearance of a predator during directed locomotion. This situation requires adaptive responses like evasive maneuvers followed by subsequent reorientation and course correction. Here we study the possible neural underpinnings of such a situation in an insect, the desert locust. As in other insects, its sense of spatial orientation strongly relies on the central complex, a group of midline brain neuropils. The central complex houses sky compass cells that signal the polarization plane of skylight and thus indicate the animal's steering direction relative to the sun...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399930/radiographic-damage-in-hands-and-wrists-of-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-after-29%C3%A2-years-of-disease-duration
#20
Anne M Selvaag, Eva Kirkhus, Lena Törnqvist, Vibke Lilleby, Hanne A Aulie, Berit Flatø
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on radiographic outcome after long-term disease duration in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We wanted to evaluate 29-year radiographic outcome in hands/wrists and predictors of damage in patients with long-term active JIA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed from 1980 to 1985, who had active disease at 15-, 23- or 29-year follow-up and arthritis in the wrists during the disease course, were reexamined with radiographs of hands/wrists...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
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