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Adaptive motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#1
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#2
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#3
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771918/a-hybrid-q-learning-sine-cosine-based-strategy-for-addressing-the-combinatorial-test-suite-minimization-problem
#4
Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#5
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761788/block-based-robust-control-of-stepping-using-intraspinal-microstimulation
#6
Ehsan Rouhani, Abbas Erfanian
OBJECTIVE: The problem of motor control using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) can be approached at two levels of the motor system: individual muscles (motor pools) and motor primitives. The major challenges of direct ISMS at the level of individual muscle are the number of electrodes that are required to be implanted in order to recruit all muscles involving the motion and the muscle selectivity. One solution to cope with these problems is the control of movement generated by appropriate combination of the movement primitives...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760996/enhancement-of-morphological-and-vascular-features-in-oct-images-using-a-modified-bayesian-residual-transform
#7
Bingyao Tan, Alexander Wong, Kostadinka Bizheva
A novel image processing algorithm based on a modified Bayesian residual transform (MBRT) was developed for the enhancement of morphological and vascular features in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) images. The MBRT algorithm decomposes the original OCT image into multiple residual images, where each image presents information at a unique scale. Scale selective residual adaptation is used subsequently to enhance morphological features of interest, such as blood vessels and tissue layers, and to suppress irrelevant image features such as noise and motion artefacts...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756441/multi-responsive-kinematics-and-robotics-of-surface-patterned-polymer-film
#8
Shumin Liang, Xiaxin Qiu, Jun Yuan, Wei Huang, Xuemin Du, Lidong Zhang
Soft robots, sensors and energy harvesters require materials that are capable of converting external stimuli to visible deformations, and especially shape-programmable deformations are desired. Herein, we develop a polymer film that can reversibly respond to humidity, heating and acetone vapors with generation of shape-programmable large deformations. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film, capable of providing acetone responsiveness, is designed with microchannel patterns on one side by using templates, and the microchannels-patterned side is then treated with hygroscopic 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to give humidity/heating-responsive elements...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756132/comparison-between-five-cad-cam-systems-for-fit-of-zirconia-copings
#9
Syed Rashid Habib, Asim Khaled Al Otaibi, Talal Ali Al Anazi, Samer Mosleh Al Anazi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings fabricated by five CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture) systems. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A typodont mandibular right first molar was prepared according to ideal parameters for a zirconia crown, scanned digitally, and 100 identical resin dies fabricated by 3D printing. Samples were randomly divided into five groups and sent to CAD/CAM systems for zirconia copings (A, Ceramill-Motion 2, Amann Girrbach; B, Weiland, Ivoclar Vivadent; C, Cerec, Ivoclar Vivadent; D, Prettau Zirconia, Zirkonzahn; E, Cad4dent)...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753125/adaptation-of-kinematic-synergy-and-postural-control-to-mechanical-ankle-constraint-on-an-unsteady-stance-surface
#10
Yi-Ying Tsai, Gwo-Ching Chang, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Joint constraint interferes with the coordinative structure in joint movements used to optimize postural stability. This study aimed to investigate changes in postural synergy when the ankle joints were bilaterally braced during a stabilometer stance. Twenty-four young adults stood on a stabilometer plate while wearing a pair of ankle-foot orthoses, which were either unlocked or locked to restrict ankle motion (the ankle constraint (AC) and non-constraint (NC) conditions). Although ankle constraint did not significantly affect the dynamics of the stabilometer movements, the size and regularity of the first principal component (PC1), which explained more than 80% of the variance of joint movements in the lower limb, were increased...
May 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753019/psychophysical-and-neuroimaging-responses-to-moving-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-the-riddoch-phenomenon-due-to-bilateral-visual-cortex-lesions
#11
Michael J Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N Dutton, Melvyn A Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C Culham
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual field perimetry testing with static targets. Nevertheless, she shows a remarkably robust preserved ability to perceive motion, enabling her to navigate through cluttered environments and perform actions like catching moving balls...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752637/robust-path-planning-for-flexible-needle-insertion-using-markov-decision-processes
#12
Xiaoyu Tan, Pengqian Yu, Kah-Bin Lim, Chee-Kong Chui
PURPOSE: Flexible needle has the potential to accurately navigate to a treatment region in the least invasive manner. We propose a new planning method using Markov decision processes (MDPs) for flexible needle navigation that can perform robust path planning and steering under the circumstance of complex tissue-needle interactions. METHODS: This method enhances the robustness of flexible needle steering from three different perspectives. First, the method considers the problem caused by soft tissue deformation...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751070/deep-brain-stimulation-enhances-movement-complexity-during-gait-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Douglas W Powell, Sarah E Blackmore, Melissa Puppa, Deranda Lester, Nicholas G Murray, Rebecca J Reed-Jones, Rui-Ping Xia
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is associated with substantial improvements in motor symptoms of PD. Emerging evidence has suggested that nonlinear measures of complexity may provide greater insight into the efficacy of anti-PD treatments. This study investigated sample entropy and complexity index values in individuals with PD when DBS was OFF compared to ON. Five individuals with PD using DBS performed a four-minute treadmill walking task while 3D kinematics were collected over two periods of 30 seconds. Participants were tested in the DBS-ON and DBS-OFF conditions...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751069/extrafoveally-applied-flashing-light-affects-contrast-thresholds-of-achromatic-and-s-cone-isolating-but-not-l-m-cone-modulated-stimuli
#14
A Őze, A Puszta, P Buzás, P Kóbor, G Braunitzer, A Nagy
Flashing light stimulation is often used to investigate the visual system. However, the magnitude of the effect of this stimulus on the various subcortical pathways is not well investigated. The signals of conscious vision are conveyed by the magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Parvocellular and koniocellular pathways (or more precisely, the L-M opponent and S-cone isolating channels) can be accessed by isoluminant red-green (L-M) and S-cone isolating stimuli, respectively. The main goal of the present study was to explore how costimulation with strong white extrafoveal light flashes alters the perception of stimuli specific to these pathways...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750818/accurate-face-alignment-and-adaptive-patch-selection-for-heart-rate-estimation-from-videos-under-realistic-scenarios
#15
Zhiwei Wang, Xin Yang, Kwang-Ting Cheng
Non-contact heart rate (HR) measurement from facial videos has attracted high interests due to its convenience and cost effectiveness. However, accurate and robust HR estimation under various realistic scenarios remain a very challenging problem. In this paper, we develop a novel system which can achieve a robust and accurate HR estimation under those challenging scenarios. First, to minimize tracking-artifacts arising from large head motions and facial expressions, we propose a joint face detection and alignment method which can produce alignment-friendly facial bounding boxes with reliable initial facial shapes, facilitating accurate and robust face alignment even in the presence of large pose variations and expressions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742410/motor-like-properties-of-nonmotor-enzymes
#16
David R Slochower, Michael K Gilson
Molecular motors are thought to generate force and directional motion via nonequilibrium switching between energy surfaces. Because all enzymes can undergo such switching, we hypothesized that the ability to generate rotary motion and torque is not unique to highly adapted biological motor proteins but is instead a common feature of enzymes. We used molecular dynamics simulations to compute energy surfaces for hundreds of torsions in three enzymes-adenosine kinase, protein kinase A, and HIV-1 protease-and used these energy surfaces within a kinetic model that accounts for intersurface switching and intrasurface probability flows...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740585/current-limitations-of-surgical-robotics-in-reconstructive-plastic-microsurgery
#17
Youri P A Tan, Philippe Liverneaux, Jason K F Wong
Surgical robots have the potential to provide surgeons with increased capabilities, such as removing physiologic tremor, scaling motion and increasing manual dexterity. Several surgical specialties have subsequently integrated robotic surgery into common clinical practice. Plastic and reconstructive microsurgical procedures have not yet  benefitted significantly from technical developments observed over the last two decades. Several studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of utilising surgical robots in plastic surgery procedures, yet limited work has been done to identify and analyse current barriers that have prevented wide-scale adaptation of surgical robots for microsurgery...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737840/tyr51-key-determinant-of-the-low-thermostability-of-colwellia-psychrerythraea-cold-shock-protein
#18
Yeongjoon Lee, Chulhee Kwak, Ki-Woong Jeong, Prasannavenkatesh Durai, Kyoung-Seok Ryu, Eun-Hee Kim, Chaejoon Cheong, Hee-Chul Ahn, Hak Jun Kim, Yangmee Kim
Cold shock proteins (Csps) are expressed at lower-than-optimum temperatures, and they function as RNA chaperones; however, no structural studies on psychrophilic Csps have been reported. Here, we aimed to investigate the structure and dynamics of the Csp of the psychrophile Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, ( Cp-Csp). Although Cp-Csp shares sequence homology, common folding patterns, and motifs-including a five β-stranded barrel-with its thermophilic counterparts, its thermostability (37 °C) was markedly lower than those of other Csps...
May 8, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737003/chemical-light-powered-hybrid-micromotors-with-on-the-fly-optical-brakes
#19
Chuanrui Chen, Songsong Tang, Hazhir Teymourian, Emil Karshalev, Fangyu Zhang, Jinxing Li, Fangzhi Mou, Yuyan Liang, Jianguo Guan, Joseph Wang
Hybrid micromotors capable of both chemically-powered propulsion and fuel-free light-driven actuation and offering built-in optical brakes for chemical propulsion are described. The new hybrid micromotors are designed by combining photocatalytic TiO2 and catalytic Pt surfaces into a Janus microparticle. The chemical reactions on the different surfaces of the Janus particle hybrid micromotor can be tailored by using chemical or light stimuli that generate counteracting propulsion forces on the catalytic Pt and photocatalytic TiO2 sides, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734124/ankle-joint-function-during-walking-in-tophaceous-gout-a-biomechanical-gait-analysis-study
#20
Matthew Carroll, Mark Boocock, Nicola Dalbeth, Sarah Stewart, Christopher Frampton, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle are frequently affected in tophaceous gout, yet kinematic and kinetic changes in this region during gait are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate ankle biomechanical characteristics in people with tophaceous gout using three-dimensional gait analysis. METHODS: Twenty-four participants with tophaceous gout were compared with 24 age-and sex-matched control participants. A 9-camera motion analysis system and two floor-mounted force plates were used to calculate kinematic and kinetic parameters...
April 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
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