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Adaptive motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325010/step-length-and-width-variability-while-walking-on-a-motion-simulator-mounted-treadmill
#1
Timothy Boerger, Jacob Van Dehy, Tanya Onushko, Brian Schmit, Allison Hyngstrom
While devices which allow scientists to perturb normal walking are becoming increasingly common, postural adaptations to these perturbations have not been fully quantified. One way to quantify postural responses to perturbations are through the assessment of variability of step length and width. In the present study we determined variability of both step length and width while subjects walked under perturbations of varying amplitude in roll, pitch, yaw, anteroposterior, lateral, and combined roll, pitch, yaw directions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324977/a-novel-method-to-assess-angle-sensor-performance-for-wearable-exoskeletal-joint-kinematics
#2
Nicholas B Bolus, Geza F Kogler, Omer T Inan
Full range of motion (ROM) at a joint is necessary for efficient and adaptive movement; as such, it is an essential clinical evaluation measure for assessing an individual's motor function, which can be affected by any number of musculoskeletal injuries and neuropathies. Measurement of joint ROM in the clinic has classically been accomplished statically through the use of a manual goniometer. More recent efforts in the fields of prosthetics and orthotics have demonstrated the potential utility of wearable systems (e...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315347/foveal-motion-standstill
#3
Derek H Arnold, Kirstie Petrie, Alan Johnston
Visual analyses of movement are disproportionately reliant on luminance contrast, as opposed to colour differences. One consequence is that if a moving pattern is defined solely by changes in colour (is equiluminant), people can report having no sensation of movement, despite still being able to 'see' the pattern. This is called motion standstill. To date there have been no formal reports of foveal motion standstill. Here we investigate whether this is because the conditions necessary for inducing motion standstill are particular to peripheral vision and therefore absent at the fovea...
March 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314869/-operative-treatment-of-terrible-triad-injury-of-the-elbow-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation
#4
R Babst, C Schraner, F J P Beeres
AIM OF SURGERY: Reconstruction of the most important ligamentous and osseus structures of the elbow after terrible triad injury via the radial head to the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCL) and if necessary beginning at the coronoid process. The aim is a stable concentrically guided elbow with early functional follow-up treatment. The approach depends on the intraoperatively tested stability. INDICATIONS: Osteoligamentous terrible triad injury pattern with or without subluxation position following reduction and temporary immobilization...
March 17, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299643/retention-of-the-first-trial-effect-in-gait-slip-among-community-living-older-adults
#5
Xuan Liu, Tanvi Bhatt, Shuaijie Wang, Feng Yang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
"First-trial effect" characterizes the rapid adaptive behavior that changes the performance outcome (from fall to non-fall) after merely a single exposure to postural disturbance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how long the first-trial effect could last. Seventy-five (≥ 65 years) community-dwelling older adults, who were protected by an overhead full body harness system, were retested for a single slip 6-12 months after their initial exposure to a single gait-slip. Subjects' body kinematics that was used to compute their proactive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control of stability was recorded by an eight-camera motion analysis system...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297308/investigation-of-the-optimum-location-of-external-markers-for-patient-setup-accuracy-enhancement-at-external-beam-radiotherapy
#6
Payam Samadi Miandoab, Ahmad Esmaili Torshabi, Saber Nankali
In external beam radiotherapy, one of the most common and reliable methods for patient geometrical setup and/or predicting the tumor location is use of external markers. In this study, the main challenging issue is increasing the accuracy of patient setup by investigating external markers location. Since the location of each external marker may yield different patient setup accuracy, it is important to assess different locations of external markers using appropriate selective algorithms. To do this, two commercially available algorithms entitled a) canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and b) principal component analysis (PCA) were proposed as input selection algorithms...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297292/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-adaptive-daily-planning-for-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy
#7
Rebecca Meerschaert, Adrian Nalichowski, Jay Burmeister, Arun Paul, Steven Miller, Zhenghui Hu, Ling Zhuang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295027/improved-shear-wave-motion-detection-using-coded-excitation-for-transient-elastography
#8
Xiao-Nian He, Xian-Fen Diao, Hao-Ming Lin, Xin-Yu Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Shen, Si-Ping Chen, Zheng-Di Qin, Xin Chen
Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292667/minds-in-motion-in-memory-enhanced-spatial-memory-driven-by-the-perceived-animacy-of-simple-shapes
#9
Benjamin van Buren, Brian J Scholl
Even simple geometric shapes are seen as animate and goal-directed when they move in certain ways. Previous research has revealed a great deal about the cues that elicit such percepts, but much less about the consequences for other aspects of perception and cognition. Here we explored whether simple shapes that are perceived as animate and goal-directed are prioritized in memory. We investigated this by asking whether subjects better remember the locations of displays that are seen as animate vs. inanimate, controlling for lower-level factors...
March 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291516/a-practical-solution-to-reduce-soft-tissue-artifact-error-at-the-knee-using-adaptive-kinematic-constraints
#10
Brigitte M Potvin, Mohammad S Shourijeh, Kenneth B Smale, Daniel L Benoit
Musculoskeletal modeling and simulations have vast potential in clinical and research fields, but face various challenges in representing the complexities of the human body. Soft tissue artifact from skin-mounted markers may lead to non-physiological representation of joint motions being used as inputs to models in simulations. To address this, we have developed adaptive joint constraints on five of the six degree of freedom of the knee joint based on in vivo tibiofemoral joint motions recorded during walking, hopping and cutting motions from subjects instrumented with intra-cortical pins inserted into their tibia and femur...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290067/expert-system-classifier-for-adaptive-radiation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer
#11
Gabriele Guidi, Nicola Maffei, Claudio Vecchi, Giovanni Gottardi, Alberto Ciarmatori, Grazia Maria Mistretta, Ercole Mazzeo, Patrizia Giacobazzi, Frank Lohr, Tiziana Costi
A classifier-based expert system was developed to compare delivered and planned radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients. Its aim is to automatically identify patients that can benefit from an adaptive treatment strategy. The study predominantly addresses dosimetric uncertainties and critical issues caused by motion of hollow organs. 1200 MVCT images of 38 prostate adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed. An automatic daily re-contouring of structures (i.e. rectum, bladder and femoral heads), rigid/deformable registration and dose warping was carried out to simulate dose and volume variations during therapy...
March 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288001/programmable-snapping-composites-with-bio-inspired-architecture
#12
Jascha U Schmied, Hortense Le Ferrand, Paolo Ermanni, André R Studart, Andres F Arrieta
The development of programmable self-shaping materials enables the onset of new and innovative functionalities in many application fields. Commonly, shape adaptation is achieved by exploiting diffusion-driven swelling or nano-scale phase transition, limiting the change of shape to slow motion predominantly determined by the environmental conditions and/or the materials specificity. To address these shortcomings, we report shape adaptable programmable shells that undergo morphing via a snap-through mechanism inspired by the Dionaea muscipula leaf, known as the Venus fly trap...
March 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287998/design-and-validation-of-a-virtual-player-for-studying-interpersonal-coordination-in-the-mirror-game
#13
Chao Zhai, Francesco Alderisio, Piotr Slowinski, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Mario di Bernardo
The mirror game has been recently proposed as a simple, yet powerful paradigm for studying interpersonal interactions. It has been suggested that a virtual partner able to play the game with human subjects can be an effective tool to affect the underlying neural processes needed to establish the necessary connections between the players, and also to provide new clinical interventions for rehabilitation of patients suffering from social disorders. Inspired by the motor processes of the central nervous system (CNS) and the musculoskeletal system in the human body, in this paper we develop a novel interactive cognitive architecture based on nonlinear control theory to drive a virtual player (VP) to play the mirror game with a human player (HP) in different configurations...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287978/on-the-adaptation-of-pelvic-motion-by-applying-3-dimensional-guidance-forces-using-tpad
#14
Jiyeon Kang, Vineet Vashista, Sunil Agrawal
Pelvic movement is important to human locomotion as the center of mass is located near the center of pelvis. Lateral pelvic motion plays a crucial role to shift the center of mass on the stance leg while swinging the other leg and keeping the body balanced. In addition, vertical pelvic movement helps to reduce metabolic energy expenditure by exchanging potential and kinetic energy during the gait cycle. However, patient groups with cerebral palsy or stroke have excessive pelvic motion that leads to high energy expenditure...
March 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287484/time-of-travel-methods-for-measuring-optical-flow-on-board-a-micro-flying-robot
#15
Erik Vanhoutte, Stefano Mafrica, Franck Ruffier, Reinoud J Bootsma, Julien Serres
For use in autonomous micro air vehicles, visual sensors must not only be small, lightweight and insensitive to light variations; on-board autopilots also require fast and accurate optical flow measurements over a wide range of speeds. Using an auto-adaptive bio-inspired Michaelis-Menten Auto-adaptive Pixel (M 2 APix) analog silicon retina, in this article, we present comparative tests of two optical flow calculation algorithms operating under lighting conditions from 6 × 10 - 7 to 1 . 6 × 10 - 2 W·cm - 2 (i...
March 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287399/a-novel-adaptive-needle-insertion-sequencing-for-robotic-single-needle-mr-guided-high-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy
#16
Maxence Borot de Battisti, Baudouin de Senneville, Gilion Hautvast, Dirk Binnekamp, Jan Lagendijk, Metha Maenhout, Marinus Moerland
MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has gained increasing interest as a treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer because of the superior value of MRI for tumor and surrounding tissues localization. To enable needle insertion into the prostate with the patient in the MR bore, a single needle MR-compatible robotic system involving needle-by-needle dose delivery has been developed at our institution. Throughout the intervention, dose delivery may be impaired by: (1) sub-optimal needle positioning caused by e...
March 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284668/a-lagrange-based-generalised-formulation-for-the-equations-of-motion-of-simple-walking-models
#17
Michael McGrath, David Howard, Richard Baker
Simple 2D models of walking often approximate the human body to multi-link dynamic systems, where body segments are represented by rigid links connected by frictionless hinge joints. Performing forward dynamics on the equations of motion (EOM) of these systems can be used to simulate their movement. However, deriving these equations can be time consuming. Using Lagrangian mechanics, a generalised formulation for the EOM of n-link open-loop chains is derived. This can be used for single support walking models...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282797/relief-of-knee-flexion-contracture-and-gait-improvement-following-adaptive-training-for-an-assist-device-in-a-transtibial-amputee-a-case-study
#18
Sol-Bi Kim, Chang-Yong Ko, Jinho Son, Sungjae Kang, Jeicheong Ryu, Museong Mun
BACKGROUND: Management of a knee contracture is important for regaining gait ability in transtibial amputees. However, there has been little study of prosthesis training for enhancing mobility and improving range of motion in cases of restricted knee extension. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adaptive training for an assist device (ATAD) for a transtibial amputee with a knee flexion contracture (KFC). A male transtibial amputee with KFC performed 4 months of ATAD with a multidisciplinary team...
2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279882/detection-of-an-invisible-needle-in-ultrasound-using-a-probabilistic-svm-and-time-domain-features
#19
Parmida Beigi, Robert Rohling, Tim Salcudean, Victoria A Lessoway, Gary C Ng
We propose a novel learning-based approach to detect an imperceptible hand-held needle in ultrasound images using the natural tremor motion. The minute tremor induced on the needle however is also transferred to the tissue in contact with the needle, making the accurate needle detection a challenging task. The proposed learning-based framework is based on temporal analysis of the phase variations of pixels to classify them according to the motion characteristics. In addition to the classification, we also obtain a probability map of the segmented pixels by cross-validation...
February 16, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278760/computational-characterization-of-residue-couplings-and-micropolymorphism-induced-changes-in-the-dynamics-of-two-differentially-disease-associated-human-mhc-class-i-alleles
#20
Onur Serçinoğlu, Pemra Ozbek
Human major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) - or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) - proteins present intracellularly processed peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response to pathogens. A high level of polymorphism in human MHC I proteins defines the peptide-binding specificity of thousands of different MHC alleles. However, polymorphism as well as the peptide ligand can also affect the global dynamics of the complex. In this study, we conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations of two HLA alleles, the ankylosing spondylitis (AS) associated/tapasin-dependent HLA-B*27:05 and nondisease-associated/tapasin-independent HLA-B*27:09, both in peptide-free forms as well as complex with four different peptides ligands...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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