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Adaptive motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729785/evaluation-of-dentinal-defects-during-root-canal-preparation-using-thermomechanically-processed-nickel-titanium-files
#2
Bertan Kesim, Burak Sagsen, Tugrul Aslan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of root cracks after root canal instrumentation with thermomechanically processed nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files with different instrumentation kinematics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 extracted mandibular premolars with mature apices and straight root canals were divided into five groups and used in this study. In Group 1, 30 teeth were prepared using hand K-files and assigned to control group, Group 2 was instrumented using K3XF Rotary files (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA) with continuous rotary motion...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728863/a-mechanistic-force-model-for-simulating-haptics-of-hand-held-bone-burring-operations
#3
Avinash Danda, Mathew A Kuttolamadom, Bruce L Tai
This paper presents a mechanistic model to predict the forces experienced during bone burring with application to haptic feedback for virtual reality surgical simulations. Bone burring is a hand-held operation where the force perceived by the surgeon depends on the cutting tool orientation and motion. The model of this study adapted the concept of specific cutting energy and material removal rate based on machining theory to calculate force distribution on the spherical tool surface in a three-dimensional setting...
July 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728130/superficial-plantar-cutaneous-sensation-does-not-trigger-barefoot-running-adaptations
#4
M A Thompson, K M Hoffman
It has long been proposed that the gait alterations associated with barefoot running are mediated by alterations in sensory feedback, yet there has been no data to support this claim. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of superficial plantar cutaneous feedback in barefoot and shod running. METHODS: 10 healthy active subjects (6 male, 4 female); mass: 65.2+9.7kg; age: 27+7.1years participated in this study. 10 over-ground running trials were completed in each of the following conditions: barefoot (BF), shod (SHOD), anesthetized barefoot (ANEST BF) and anesthetized shod (ANEST SHOD)...
June 27, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726055/an-igrt-margin-concept-for-pelvic-lymph-nodes-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#5
M Groher, P Kopp, M Drerup, H Deutschmann, F Sedlmayer, Frank Wolf
PURPOSE: Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. METHODS: We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate...
July 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725437/towards-evidence-based-strength-training-a-comparison-of-muscle-forces-during-deadlifts-goodmornings-and-split-squats
#6
Florian Schellenberg, William R Taylor, Silvio Lorenzetti
BACKGROUND: To ensure an efficient and targeted adaptation with low injury risk during strength exercises, knowledge of the participant specific internal loading conditions is essential. The goal of this study was to calculate the lower limb muscles forces during the strength exercises deadlifts, goodmornings and splits squats by means of musculoskeletal simulation. METHODS: 11 participants were assessed performing 10 different variations of split squats by varying the step length as well as the maximal frontal tibia angle, and 13 participants were measured performing deadlift and goodmorning exercises...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724784/representing-delayed-force-feedback-as-a-combination-of-current-and-delayed-states
#7
Guy Avraham, Firas Mawase, Amir Karniel, Lior Shmuelof, Opher Donchin, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi, Ilana Nisky
To adapt to deterministic force perturbations that depend on the current state of the hand, internal representations are formed to capture the relationships between forces experienced and motion. However, information from multiple modalities travels at different rates, resulting in intermodal delays that require compensation for these internal representations to develop. To understand how these delays are represented by the brain, we presented participants with delayed velocity-dependent force fields; i.e., forces that depend on hand velocity either 70 or 100 ms beforehand...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724444/adaptation-effects-in-static-postural-control-by-providing-simultaneous-visual-feedback-of-center-of-pressure-and-center-of-gravity
#8
Kenta Takeda, Hiroki Mani, Naoya Hasegawa, Yuki Sato, Shintaro Tanaka, Hiroshi Maejima, Tadayoshi Asaka
BACKGROUND: The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721492/peristaltic-like-motion-of-the-human-fetal-right-ventricle-and-its-effects-on-fluid-dynamics-and-energy-dynamics
#9
Hadi Wiputra, Guat Ling Lim, Khong Chun Chua, R Nivetha, Sanah Merchant Soomar, Arijit Biwas, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Hwa Liang Leo, Choon Hwai Yap
In both adult human and canine, the cardiac right ventricle (RV) is known to exhibit a peristaltic-like motion, where RV sinus (inflow region) contracts first and the infundibulum (outflow region) later, in a wave-like contraction motion. The delay in contraction between the sinus and infundibulum averaged at 15% of the cardiac cycle and was estimated to produce an intra-ventricular pressure difference of 15 mmHg. However, whether such a contractile motion occurs in human fetuses as well, its effects on hemodynamics remains unknown, and are the subject of the current study...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719549/long-term-follow-up-of-neonatal-brachial-plexopathy-psychological-and-physical-function-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#10
Lesley Butler, Janith Mills, Heather M Richard, Russell Riddle, Marybeth Ezaki, Scott Oishi
PURPOSE: The prevalence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has been increasing since the early 1980s. No known studies have examined long-term psychological health and quality of life (QOL) in young adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial and intellectual aspects of NBPP during adolescence into young adulthood. METHODS: A total of 31 patients were enrolled in the adolescent group (16 to 18 y) and 25 in the young adult group (23 to 28 y)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717573/in-vivo-digital-wavefront-sensing-using-swept-source-oct
#11
Abhishek Kumar, Lara M Wurster, Matthias Salas, Laurin Ginner, Wolfgang Drexler, Rainer A Leitgeb
Sub-aperture based digital adaptive optics is demonstrated in a fiber based point scanning optical coherence tomography system using a 1060 nm swept source laser. To detect optical aberrations in-vivo, a small lateral field of view of ~[Formula: see text] is scanned on the sample at a high volume rate of 17 Hz (~1.3 kHz B-scan rate) to avoid any significant lateral and axial motion of the sample, and is used as a "guide star" for the sub-aperture based DAO. The proof of principle is demonstrated using a micro-beads phantom sample, wherein a significant root mean square wavefront error (RMS WFE) of 1...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717555/adaptive-nonparametric-kinematic-modeling-of-concentric-tube-robots
#12
Georgios Fagogenis, Christos Bergeles, Pierre E Dupont
Concentric tube robots comprise telescopic precurved elastic tubes. The robot's tip and shape are controlled via relative tube motions, i.e. tube rotations and translations. Non-linear interactions between the tubes, e.g. friction and torsion, as well as uncertainty in the physical properties of the tubes themselves, e.g. the Young's modulus, curvature, or stiffness, hinder accurate kinematic modelling. In this paper, we present a machine-learning-based methodology for kinematic modelling of concentric tube robots and in situ model adaptation...
October 2016: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716820/complex-object-motion-represented-by-context-dependent-correlated-activity-of-visual-interneurones
#13
Paul C Dick, Nicole L Michel, John R Gray
Accurate and adaptive encoding of complex, dynamic visual information is critical for the survival of many animals. Studies across a range of taxa have investigated behavioral and neuronal responses to objects that represent a threat, such as a looming object approaching along a direct collision course. By investigating neural mechanisms of avoidance behaviors through recording multineuronal activity, it is possible to better understand how complex visual information is represented in circuits that ultimately drive behaviors...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716512/results-of-the-dubert-procedure-for-chronic-painful-fracture-dislocations-of-the-fifth-carpometacarpal-joint-a-report-of-6-cases
#14
N Meraghni, G Bacle, E Marteau, Y Bouju, J Laulan
Carpometacarpal (CMC) fracture-dislocations of the fifth ray are common. For chronic injuries, Dubert proposed combining resection arthroplasty of the base of the fifth metacarpal (M5) with synostosis with the fourth metacarpal (M4). Our aim was to evaluate the results of this procedure. Between 1994 and 2014, 7 men and 1 woman with an average age of 36 years (range, 27 to 45) were operated on. The right hand was involved in 6 of the 8 cases. All patients had symptomatic osteoarthritis secondary to isolated articular malunion and subluxation of the 5th CMC joint...
July 14, 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711164/on-estimating-intraventricular-hemodynamic-forces-from-endocardial-dynamics-a-comparative-study-with-4d-flow-mri
#15
Gianni Pedrizzetti, Per M Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Rasmus Borgquist, Federico Domenichini, Håkan Arheden, Einar Heiberg
Intraventricular pressure gradients or hemodynamic forces, which are their global measure integrated over the left ventricular volume, have a fundamental importance in ventricular function. They may help revealing a sub-optimal cardiac function that is not evident in terms of tissue motion, which is naturally heterogeneous and variable, and can influence cardiac adaptation. However, hemodynamic forces are not utilized in clinical cardiology due to the unavailability of simple non-invasive measurement tools...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709261/growth-dependent-behavioral-difference-in-bacterial-chemotaxis
#16
Chi Zhang, Rongjing Zhang, Junhua Yuan
Cells can adjust to their growth environments and regulate their behavior accordingly. To study how cells accomplish this growth-dependent adjustment from the molecular to the behavioral level, we used bacterial chemotaxis as a model system to explore the behavioral difference for bacteria grown in nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor media. We found that bacteria grown in a nutrient-poor medium exhibit faster chemotaxis adaptation, and this enables them to respond more rapidly to a changing environment and increases their ability to localize to a nutrient concentration peak...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708989/sex-specific-hip-osteoarthritis-associated-gait-abnormalities-alterations-in-dynamic-hip-abductor-function-differ-in-men-and-women
#17
Kharma C Foucher
BACKGROUND: Hip osteoarthritis results in abnormal gait mechanics, but it is not known whether abnormalities are the same in men and women. The hypothesis tested was that gait abnormalities are different in men and women with hip osteoarthritis vs. sex-specific asymptomatic groups. METHODS: 150 subjects with mild through severe radiographic hip osteoarthritis and 159 asymptomatic subjects were identified from an Institutional Review Board-approved motion analysis data repository...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692281/structural-and-biophysical-characterization-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-rv0577-a-protein-associated-with-neutral-red-staining-of-virulent-tuberculosis-strains-and-homolog-of-the-streptomyces-coelicolor-protein-kbpa
#18
Garry W Buchko, Nathanial Echols, E Megan Flynn, Ho Ng, Sam Stephenson, Heung-Bok Kim, Peter J Myler, Thomas C Terwilliger, Tom Alber, Chang-Yub Kim
The 261-residue Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv0577 is a prominent antigen in tuberculosis patients, the responsible component for neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, a putative component in a methylglyoxal detoxification pathway, and an agonist of toll-like receptor 2. It also has 36% amino acid sequence identity to Streptomyces coelicolor AfsK-binding protein A (KbpA), a component in the complex secondary metabolite pathways in the Streptomycetes genus from which many commercial antibiotics are derived...
July 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689830/is-bipolar-latissimus-dorsi-transfer-a-reliable-option-to-restore-elbow-flexion-in-children-with-arthrogryposis-a-review-of-13-tendon-transfers
#19
Ramin Zargarbashi, Mohammad Hossein Nabian, Jean-David Werthel, Philippe Valenti
BACKGROUND: Scant data are published about different available therapeutic options for restoration of active elbow flexion in arthrogryposis with varying degrees of improvement. In this retrospective study we evaluated medium-term effects of bipolar latissimus dorsi transfer in patients with arthrogryposis. METHODS: Pedicled latissimus dorsi bipolar muscle transfer was used to restore elbow flexion in 11 patients (13 limbs) with arthrogryposis. Elbow and shoulder range of motions and strength of elbow flexion were measured preoperatively and at the last follow-up...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689721/studying-the-evolutionary-significance-of-thermal-adaptation-in-ectotherms-the-diversification-of-amphibians-energetics
#20
Roberto F Nespolo, Julio Figueroa, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran
A fundamental problem in evolutionary biology is the understanding of the factors that promote or constrain adaptive evolution, and assessing the role of natural selection in this process. Here, comparative phylogenetics, that is, using phylogenetic information and traits to infer evolutionary processes has been a major paradigm . In this study, we discuss Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models (OU) in the context of thermal adaptation in ectotherms. We specifically applied this approach to study amphibians's evolution and energy metabolism...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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