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Adaptive motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351336/chemotactic-drift-speed-for-bacterial-motility-pattern-with-two-alternating-turning-events
#1
Evgeniya V Pankratova, Alena I Kalyakulina, Mikhail I Krivonosov, Sergei V Denisov, Katja M Taute, Vasily Yu Zaburdaev
Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the most extensively studied adaptive responses in cells. Many bacteria are able to bias their apparently random motion to produce a drift in the direction of the increasing chemoattractant concentration. It has been recognized that the particular motility pattern employed by moving bacteria has a direct impact on the efficiency of chemotaxis. The linear theory of chemotaxis pioneered by de Gennes allows for calculation of the drift velocity in small gradients for bacteria with basic motility patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346029/unifying-visual-space-across-the-left-and-right-hemifields
#2
Zhimin Chen, Anna Kosovicheva, Benjamin Wolfe, Patrick Cavanagh, Andrei Gorea, David Whitney
Visual space is perceived as continuous and stable even though visual inputs from the left and right visual fields are initially processed separately within the two cortical hemispheres. In the research reported here, we examined whether the visual system utilizes a dynamic recalibration mechanism to integrate these representations and to maintain alignment across the visual fields. Subjects adapted to randomly oriented moving lines that straddled the vertical meridian; these lines were vertically offset between the left and right hemifields...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345312/phylogenetic-patterns-of-trait-and-trait-plasticity-evolution-insights-from-amphibian-embryos
#3
Rick A Relyea, Patrick R Stephens, Lisa N Barrow, Andrew R Blaustein, Paul W Bradley, Julia C Buck, Ann Chang, James P Collins, Brian Crother, Julia Earl, Stephanie S Gervasi, Jason T Hoverman, Oliver Hyman, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas M Luhring, Moses Michelson, Chris Murray, Steven Price, Raymond D Semlitsch, Andrew Sih, Aaron B Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John I Hammond
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues, crushed-egg cues, and predatory crayfish cues...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344797/annular-dynamics-of-memo3d-annuloplasty-ring-evaluated-by-3d-transesophageal-echocardiography
#4
Hiroyuki Nishi, Koichi Toda, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yasushi Yoshikawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Daisuke Yoshioka, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: We assessed the mitral annular motion after mitral valve repair with the Sorin Memo 3D® (Sorin Group Italia S.r.L., Saluggia, Italy), which is a unique complete semirigid annuloplasty ring intended to restore the systolic profile of the mitral annulus while adapting to the physiologic dynamism of the annulus, using transesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. METHODS: 17 patients (12 male; mean age 60.4 ± 14.9 years) who underwent mitral annuloplasty using the Memo 3D ring were investigated...
January 17, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343459/differing-structural-properties-of-foods-affect-the-development-of-mandibular-control-and-muscle-coordination-in-infants-and-young-children
#5
Meg Simione, Chrystel Loret, Benjamin Le Révérend, Brian Richburg, Mirna Del Valle, Marc Adler, Mireille Moser, Jordan R Green
The development of chewing is an essential motor skill that is continually refined throughout early childhood. From a motor control perspective, the advancement of textures is dependent upon the fit between a child's oral anatomic and motor system and food properties. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify age-related changes in chewing motor coordination and control and to determine if these changes are associated with the differing structural properties of solid foods, as well as to explore the role of explanatory variables such as the emergence of teeth and bite force...
January 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335569/apparent-shift-in-long-range-motion-trajectory-by-local-pattern-orientation
#6
Ryohei Nakayama, Daisuke Harada, Miyuki G Kamachi, Isamu Motoyoshi
The present study shows that the apparent direction of a moving pattern is systematically affected by its orientation. We found that the perceived direction of motion of a single Gabor grating changing position in discrete steps interleaved by blank inter-stimulus interval (ISI) is biased toward the orientation of the grating. This orientation-induced motion shift peaks for grating orientations ~±15 deg away from the physical motion trajectory and was profound for relatively short distances. Orientation adaptation revealed that the directional shift is determined by the apparent -not the physical -orientation of the grating, and a subsequent experiment demonstrated that directional shift is also influenced by the orientation of the contrast-defined stimulus envelope...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334862/the-effects-of-an-unanticipated-side-cut-on-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-during-a-drop-landing
#7
Jae P Yom, Tane Owens, Scott Arnett, Justin Beebe, Veronica Son
Unanticipated direction to cut after landing may alter the lower extremity landing biomechanics when performing landing motions. These alterations may potentially increase the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unanticipated side-cut affects lower extremity landing biomechanics in females. Eighteen recreational female athletes participated in two blocks of testing: the first block of testing consisted of three acceptable trials of anticipated dominant limb and non-dominant limb 45-degree diagonal cutting after landing, which were performed in a counterbalanced order...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334846/scapular-motion-adaptations-in-junior-overhead-athletes-a-three-dimensional-kinematic-analysis-in-tennis-players-and-non-overhead-athletes
#8
Elif Turgut, Filiz Fatma Colakoglu, Gul Baltaci
Adult overhead athletes without a history of shoulder injury show scapular adaptations. There is a lack of detailed assessment of scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. This study aims to investigate three-dimensional scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. We recruited a total of 20 junior tennis players and 20 healthy children without participation in any overhead sports in this study. Bilateral scapular kinematic data were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking device for scapular plane glenohumeral elevation...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333946/does-inside-passing-contribute-to-the-high-incidence-of-groin-injuries-in-soccer-a-biomechanical-analysis
#9
Thomas Dupré, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kristian R L Mortensen, Filip Gertz Lysdal, Markus Braun, Hartmut Krahl, Wolfgang Potthast
Groin injuries are common in soccer and often cause time-loss from training. While groin injuries have been linked to full effort kicking, the role of inside passing is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate hip joint kinematics and muscle force, stress and contraction velocity for adductor longus and gracilis during inside passing. 3D kinematics of ten soccer players (23.4 yrs; 77.5 kg; 1.81 m) were captured with a motion capture system inside a Footbonaut. Muscle force and contraction velocity were determined with AnyBody Modelling System...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331137/molecular-dynamics-based-enhanced-sampling-of-collective-variables-with-very-large-time-steps
#10
Pei-Yang Chen, Mark E Tuckerman
Enhanced sampling techniques that target a set of collective variables and that use molecular dynamics as the driving engine have seen widespread application in the computational molecular sciences as a means to explore the free-energy landscapes of complex systems. The use of molecular dynamics as the fundamental driver of the sampling requires the introduction of a time step whose magnitude is limited by the fastest motions in a system. While standard multiple time-stepping methods allow larger time steps to be employed for the slower and computationally more expensive forces, the maximum achievable increase in time step is limited by resonance phenomena, which inextricably couple fast and slow motions...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329053/long-term-safety-area-tracking-lt-sat-with-online-failure-detection-and-recovery-for-robotic-minimally-invasive-surgery
#11
Veronica Penza, Xiaofei Du, Danail Stoyanov, Antonello Forgione, Leonardo S Mattos, Elena De Momi
Despite the benefits introduced by robotic systems in abdominal Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), major complications can still affect the outcome of the procedure, such as intra-operative bleeding. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins by the surgical tools, and some of the possible risk factors are related to the lack of sub-surface visibilty. Assistive tools guiding the surgical gestures to prevent these kind of injuries would represent a relevant step towards safer clinical procedures...
December 22, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328181/super-resolution-image-de-fencing-using-a-nonlocal-nonconvex-prior
#12
Sankaraganesh Jonna, Sukla Satapathy, Rajiv R Sahay
Today's smartphones/phablets/tablets are equipped with cameras that have enabled people to capture their favorite moments. However, images or videos taken at public places using inexpensive low-resolution cameras are often degraded by the presence of occlusions such as fences/barricades. In order to reconstruct a fence-free high-resolution image, we use a video of a scene captured by panning a hand-held camera and model the effects of various degradations. Initially, we obtain the spatial locations of fences by semantic segmentation and subsequently estimate the subpixel motion between the degraded low-resolution frames...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325901/dynamic-structure-of-lower-limb-joint-angles-during-walking-post-stroke
#13
Kelley Kempski, Louis N Awad, Thomas S Buchanan, Jill S Higginson, Brian A Knarr
BACKGROUND: Variability in joint kinematics is necessary for adaptability and response to everyday perturbations; however, intrinsic neuromotor changes secondary to stroke often cause abnormal movement patterns. How these abnormal movement patterns relate to joint kinematic variability and its influence on post-stroke walking impairments is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the movement variability at the individual joint level in the paretic and non-paretic limbs of individuals post-stroke...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324407/head-motion-and-head-gesture-based-robot-control-a-usability-study
#14
Anja Jackowski, Marion Gebhard, Roland Thietje
The assistive robot system adaptive head motion control for user-friendly support (AMiCUS) has been developed to increase the autonomy of motion impaired people. The six degrees of freedom robot arm with gripper is controlled with head motion and head gestures only, so especially tetraplegics benefit from collaboration with AMiCUS. In this paper, a usability study with a total number of 30 subjects was conducted to validate the AMiCUS interaction technology and design. 24 able-bodied subjects of demographically diverse groups and 6 tetraplegics participated in this paper...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320399/on-farm-evaluation-of-a-novel-mechanical-cervical-dislocation-device-for-poultry
#15
Jessica E Martin, Victoria Sandilands, Julian Sparrey, Laurence Baker, Dorothy E F McKeegan
Urgent development of alternative on-farm killing methods for poultry is required following the number restrictions placed on the use of traditional manual cervical dislocation by European Legislation (EU 1099/2009). Alternatives must be proven to be humane and, crucially, practical in commercial settings with multiple users. We assessed the performance and reliability of a novel mechanical cervical dislocation device (NMCD) compared to the traditional manual cervical dislocation (MCD) method. NMCD was based on a novel device consisting of a thin supportive glove and two moveable metal finger inserts designed to aid the twisting motion of cervical dislocation...
January 10, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316273/pilot-project-physiologic-responses-to-a-high-intensity-active-video-game-with-copd-patients-tools-for-home-rehabilitation
#16
Andrée-Anne Parent, Vincent Gosselin-Boucher, Marilyn Houle-Peloquin, Claude Poirier, Alain-Steve Comtois
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition that causes a significant deterioration of the quality of life. However, exercise can improve the quality of life for COPD patients and it is for this reason previous study observed the effects of active video games to increase exercise. Using motion capture devices with short bursts of exercise never been tried with COPD patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to observe the feasibility of using this device safely and easily with COPD patients...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315667/collision-free-poisson-motion-planning-in-ultra-high-dimensional-molecular-conformation-spaces
#17
Rasmus Fonseca, Dominik Budday, Henry van den Bedem
The function of protein, RNA, and DNA is modulated by fast, dynamic exchanges between three-dimensional conformations. Conformational sampling of biomolecules with exact and nullspace inverse kinematics, using rotatable bonds as revolute joints and noncovalent interactions as holonomic constraints, can accurately characterize these native ensembles. However, sampling biomolecules remains challenging owing to their ultra-high dimensional configuration spaces, and the requirement to avoid (self-) collisions, which results in low acceptance rates...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315083/capture-consistently-acquired-projections-for-tuned-and-robust-estimation-a-self-navigated-respiratory-motion-correction-approach
#18
Cihat Eldeniz, Tyler Fraum, Amber Salter, Yasheng Chen, H Michael Gach, Parag J Parikh, Kathryn J Fowler, Hongyu An
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we present a fully automated and robust self-navigated approach to obtain 4-dimensional (4-D) motion-resolved images during free breathing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method, Consistently Acquired Projections for Tuned and Robust Estimation (CAPTURE), is a variant of the stack-of-stars gradient-echo sequence. A 1-D navigator was consistently acquired at a fixed azimuthal angle for all stacks of spokes to reduce nonphysiological signal contamination due to system imperfections...
January 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314783/controlling-the-error-on-target-motion-through-real-time-mesh-adaptation-applications-to-deep-brain-stimulation
#19
Huu Phuoc Bui, Satyendra Tomar, Hadrien Courtecuisse, Michel Audette, Stéphane Cotin, Stéphane P A Bordas
An error-controlled mesh refinement procedure for needle insertion simulations is presented. As an example, the procedure is applied for simulations of electrode implantation for Deep Brain Stimulation. We take into account the brain shift phenomena occurring when a craniotomy is performed. We observe that the error in the computation of the displacement and stress fields is localised around the needle tip and the needle shaft during needle insertion simulation. By suitably and adaptively refining the mesh in this region, our approach enables to control, and thus to reduce, the error whilst maintaining a coarser mesh in other parts of the domain...
January 5, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306299/enhanced-configurational-sampling-with-hybrid-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics-monte-carlo-propagator
#20
Donghyuk Suh, Brian K Radak, Christophe Chipot, Benoît Roux
Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories based on classical equations of motion can be used to sample the configurational space of complex molecular systems. However, brute-force MD often converges slowly due to the ruggedness of the underlying potential energy surface. Several schemes have been proposed to address this problem by effectively smoothing the potential energy surface. However, in order to recover the proper Boltzmann equilibrium probability distribution, these approaches must then rely on statistical reweighting techniques or generate the simulations within a Hamiltonian tempering replica-exchange scheme...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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