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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603802/paediatric-antiepileptic-polytherapy-systematic-review-of-efficacy-and-neurobehavioural-effects-and-a-tertiary-centre-experience
#1
D Plevin, J Jureidini, S Howell, N Smith
AIM: This paper presents the prevalence of antiepileptic polytherapy at a single tertiary institution and systematically reviews the evidence base for its efficacy and neurobehavioural safety in children. METHOD: Prevalence of antiepileptic polypharmacy was determined from pharmacy dispensing records at a paediatric tertiary hospital and neurobehavioural comorbidities quantified through casenote review; comparison is made with studies evaluating the neurobehavioural safety of antiepileptic polytherapy, identified via systematic literature review...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601846/burden-of-caregiving-after-a-child-s-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#2
Kathleen Meert, Beth S Slomine, James R Christensen, Russell Telford, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
OBJECTIVE: To describe caregiver burden among those whose children survive in-hospital cardiac arrest and have high risk of neurologic disability, and explore factors associated with burden during the first year post-arrest. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Paediatric Cardiac Arrest In-Hospital (THAPCA-IH) trial. 329 children who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest, chest compressions for >2 minutes, and mechanical ventilation after return of circulation were recruited to THAPCA-IH...
March 27, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595192/blockade-of-the-swelling-induced-chloride-current-attenuates-the-mouse-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vivo
#3
Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Joseph Wh Leung, Bao-Feng Xu, Fei-Ya Li, Sammen Huang, Nai-Hong Chen, Guan-Lei Wang, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L)...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569083/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-children-exhibit-an-impaired-accommodative-response
#4
Beatriz Redondo, Jesús Vera, Rubén Molina, José Antonio García, Miriam Ouadi, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos, Raimundo Jiménez
PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. METHODS: The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm)...
March 22, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559228/sensory-aspects-of-tourette-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Joanna H Cox, Stefano Seri, Andrea E Cavanna
Motor and vocal tics have long been recognised as the core features of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, patients' first-person accounts have consistently reported that these involuntary motor manifestations have specific sensory correlates. These sensory symptoms are often described as feelings of mounting inner tension ("premonitory urges") and are transiently relieved by tic expression. Multimodal hypersensitivity to external stimuli, perceived as triggers and/or exacerbating factors for specific tic symptoms, is also commonly reported by patients with TS...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549603/low-grade-neuroinflammation-due-to-chronic-sleep-deprivation-results-in-anxiety-and-learning-and-memory-impairments
#6
Shaffi Manchanda, Harpal Singh, Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
Chronic sleep loss/fragmentation prevalent in the current 24/7 society is associated with irreversible consequences on health and overall wellbeing. Various studies have well documented the ill effects of acute sleep loss on cognitive functions of individuals; however, the underlying mechanism behind the chronic sleep loss is yet to be explored. The present study was aimed to investigate whether chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) triggers anxiety-like behaviour and memory decline in male Wistar rats. Rats were sleep deprived by placing them over slowly rotating drum (2 rpm) for 18 h (between 4 pm and 10 am) followed by 6 h of recovery sleep for 21 consecutive days...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524570/calpeptin-is-neuroprotective-against-acrylamide-induced-neuropathy-in-rats
#7
Benyu Su, Qiangdong Guan, Miaomiao Wang, Ning Liu, Xiaomin Wei, Shue Wang, Xiwei Yang, Wenchong Jiang, Mengmeng Xu, Sufang Yu
The aim of this study is to explore the potent neuroprotective effect of calpeptin (CP) on neuron damage induced by acrylamide (ACR) and its mechanism. Behavioural indicators such as hind limb splay, rota-rod performance, and gait analysis were assessed weekly to evaluate neurobehavioural changes after ACR and/or CP administration. The histopathological alterations and the changes of μ-calpain, m-calpain, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and α-tubulin and β-tubulin protein levels in spinal cord were determined...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498298/deconstructing-autism-from-unitary-syndrome-to-contributory-developmental-endophenotypes
#8
John N Constantino
A recent generation of family studies has revealed that autism can be predicted from an array of neurobehavioural susceptibilities that are appreciable before the syndrome is diagnosed, and that each may be traceable to partially-independent sets of genetic variation. Some of these liabilities are not necessarily specific to ASD-those that are non-specific could account for a significant share of the 'missing heritability' of autism, would (by definition) contribute to pleiotropy, and relate to so-called 'co-morbidities', which are inappropriately named if they actually contribute to (or exacerbate) the severity of autism itself...
March 2, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483352/assessing-the-continuum-between-temperament-and-affective-illness-psychiatric-and-mathematical-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
William Sulis
Temperament of healthy people and mental illnesses, particularly affective disorders, have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation. Understanding the nature of this continuum may better inform the construction of taxonomies for both categories of behaviour. Both temperament and mental illness refer to patterns of behaviour that manifest over long time scales (weeks to years) and they appear to share many underlying neuroregulatory systems. This continuum is discussed from the perspectives of nonlinear dynamical systems theory, neurobiology and psychiatry as applied to understanding such multiscale time-series behaviour...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482596/baden-prevention-and-reduction-of-incidence-of-postoperative-delirium-trial-pride-a-phase-iv-multicenter-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial-of-ketamine-versus-haloperidol-for-prevention-of-postoperative-delirium
#10
Harriet Riegger, Alexa Hollinger, Burkhardt Seifert, Katharina Toft, Andrea Blum, Tatjana Zehnder, Martin Siegemund
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a neurobehavioural syndrome that frequently develops in the postoperative setting. The incidence of elderly patients who develop delirium during hospital stay ranges from 10 to 80% (Schonauer et al., J Pept Sci. 2017). Delirium was first described more than half a century ago in the cardiac surgery population (Blachy and Starr, Am J Psychiatry 121:371-5, 1964), where it was already discovered as a state that might be accompanied by serious complications such as prolonged ICU and hospital stay, reduced quality of life and increased mortality...
February 26, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467469/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-on-the-brain-and-behaviour
#11
REVIEW
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462110/strain-differences-in-the-susceptibility-to-the-gut-brain-axis-and-neurobehavioural-alterations-induced-by-maternal-immune-activation-in-mice
#12
Livia H Morais, Daniela Felice, Anna V Golubeva, Gerard Moloney, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realization that the severity of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying such comorbidities remain unknown. Several genetic and environmental factors have been linked to a higher susceptibility to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is a valuable tool for elucidating the basis of this interaction. We induced MIA with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) at gestational day 12...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436856/chondroitinase-abc-for-neurological-recovery-after-acute-brain-injury-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-preclinical-studies
#13
Chan Hee Koh, Savva Pronin, Mark Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Damage to critical brain regions causes deficits in important neurological functions. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and may ameliorate neurological deficits caused by disease or trauma. This systematic review identifies and evaluates preclinical studies of ChABC as a treatment for acute brain injury. METHODS: Four databases were searched for studies relating to ChABC and brain or brain injuries. Controlled studies in mammals with acute brain injuries treated with ChABC were included in meta-analyses of neurobehavioural outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431110/the-personal-genome-project-canada-findings-from-whole-genome-sequences-of-the-inaugural-56-participants
#14
Miriam S Reuter, Susan Walker, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Joe Whitney, Iris Cohn, Neal Sondheimer, Ryan K C Yuen, Brett Trost, Tara A Paton, Sergio L Pereira, Jo-Anne Herbrick, Richard F Wintle, Daniele Merico, Jennifer Howe, Jeffrey R MacDonald, Chao Lu, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Wilson W L Sung, Zhuozhi Wang, Rohan V Patel, Giovanna Pellecchia, John Wei, Lisa J Strug, Sherilyn Bell, Barbara Kellam, Melanie M Mahtani, Anne S Bassett, Yvonne Bombard, Rosanna Weksberg, Cheryl Shuman, Ronald D Cohn, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Sarah Bowdin, Matthew R Hildebrandt, Wei Wei, Asli Romm, Peter Pasceri, James Ellis, Peter Ray, M Stephen Meyn, Nasim Monfared, S Mohsen Hosseini, Ann M Joseph-George, Fred W Keeley, Ryan A Cook, Marc Fiume, Hin C Lee, Christian R Marshall, Jill Davies, Allison Hazell, Janet A Buchanan, Michael J Szego, Stephen W Scherer
BACKGROUND: The Personal Genome Project Canada is a comprehensive public data resource that integrates whole genome sequencing data and health information. We describe genomic variation identified in the initial recruitment cohort of 56 volunteers. METHODS: Volunteers were screened for eligibility and provided informed consent for open data sharing. Using blood DNA, we performed whole genome sequencing and identified all possible classes of DNA variants. A genetic counsellor explained the implication of the results to each participant...
February 5, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419423/neurobehavioural-symptoms-and-acute-pesticide-poisoning-a-cross-sectional-study-among-male-pesticide-applicators-selected-from-three-commercial-farming-systems-in-ethiopia
#15
Beyene Negatu, Roel Vermeulen, Yalemtshay Mekonnen, Hans Kromhout
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) and its association with neurobehavioural symptoms in Ethiopian pesticide applicators. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey among 256 pesticide applicators from small-scale irrigated farms, a large-scale open farm and large-scale greenhouses. APP was ascertained using a modified WHO case definition, and neurobehavioural symptoms were collected with a standardised questionnaire (Q16). Exposure to pesticides was estimated using detailed exposure algorithms specifically developed for Ethiopian farms...
February 1, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402402/effects-of-strategic-early-morning-caffeine-gum-administration-on-association-between-salivary-alpha-amylase-and-neurobehavioural-performance-during-50%C3%A2-h-of-sleep-deprivation
#16
Maja Pajcin, Jason M White, Siobhan Banks, Jill Dorrian, Gemma M Paech, Crystal L Grant, Kayla Johnson, Katie Tooley, Eugene Aidman, Justin Fidock, Gary H Kamimori, Chris B Della Vedova
Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400374/the-role-of-4d-us-in-evaluation-of-fetal-movements-and-facial-expressions-and-their-relationship-with-fetal-neurobehaviour
#17
REVIEW
Mihaela Grigore, Dumitru Gafitanu, Demetra Socolov, AnaMaria Grigore, Georgiana Nemeti, Romeo Micu
The introduction of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography (US) allows the study of fetal movements and facial expressions in real time. The possibility of evaluating fetal movements has led to the study of fetal neurobehaviour, which has been for a long period of time a mystery for physicians. The study of fetal activity in utero could differentiate between normal and abnormal behavioural patterns, thus making possible the early recognition of fetal brain impairment. Facial expressions observed with 4D US represent a marker for neurobehaviour and at the same time could enhance fetal-maternal bonding...
February 4, 2018: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396173/the-neuropsychology-of-basal-ganglia
#18
REVIEW
Daria Riva, Matilde Taddei, Sara Bulgheroni
Basal ganglia are subcortical structures specialized at very early age, functionally different according to the right or left side. They are part of complex distributed network composed by parallel segregated loops where specific information are processed and open loops where different information are integrated. These loops are connected to specialized cortical areas thus entering into distributed processing of higher order cognitive functions and behaviours. Lesion or malfunction of basal ganglia nuclei cause deficits in different neuropsychological functions and neurobehavioural diseases, such Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette syndrome, etc...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382895/incubation-temperature-affects-the-expression-of-young-precocial-birds-fear-related-behaviours-and-neuroendocrine-correlates
#19
Aline Bertin, Ludovic Calandreau, Maryse Meurisse, Marion Georgelin, Rupert Palme, Sophie Lumineau, Cécilia Houdelier, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel, Violaine Colson, Fabien Cornilleau, Christophe Rat, Joel Delaveau, Cécile Arnould
The influence of embryonic microclimate on the behavioural development of birds remains unexplored. In this study, we experimentally tested whether chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures engendered plasticity in the expression of fear-related behaviours and in the expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor in the brains of domestic chicks (Gallus g. domesticus). We compared the neurobehavioural phenotypes of a control group of chicks incubated in an optimal thermal environment (37.8 °C) with those of a group of experimental chicks exposed chronically in ovo to suboptimal temperatures (27...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366823/data-driven-modelling-of-social-forces-and-collective-behaviour-in-zebrafish
#20
Adam K Zienkiewicz, Fabrizio Ladu, David A W Barton, Maurizio Porfiri, Mario Di Bernardo
Zebrafish are rapidly emerging as a powerful model organism in hypothesis-driven studies targeting a number of functional and dysfunctional processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour can inform the design of experiments, through the unprecedented ability to perform pilot trials on a computer. At the same time, in-silico experiments could help refining the analysis of real data, by enabling the systematic investigation of key neurobehavioural factors. Here, we establish a data-driven model of zebrafish social interaction...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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