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Cardiac output measurement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937241/preejection-period-as-a-sympathetic-activity-index-a-role-of-confounding-factors
#1
J Krohova, B Czippelova, Z Turianikova, Z Lazarova, I Tonhajzerova, M Javorka
In previous studies, one of the systolic time intervals - preejection period (PEP) - was used as an index of sympathetic activity reflecting the cardiac contractility. However, PEP could be also influenced by several other cardiovascular variables including preload, afterload and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of the PEP together with other potentially confounding cardiovascular system characteristics in healthy humans during mental and orthostatic stress (head-up tilt test - HUT)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934895/high-early-fluid-input-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-combined-report-of-association-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-and-feasibility-of-cardiac-output-guided-fluid-restriction
#2
Leonie J M Vergouw, Mohamud Egal, Bas Bergmans, Diederik W J Dippel, Hester F Lingsma, Mervyn D I Vergouwen, Peter W A Willems, Annemarie W Oldenbeuving, Jan Bakker, Mathieu van der Jagt
BACKGROUND: Guidelines on the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) recommend euvolemia, whereas hypervolemia may cause harm. We investigated whether high early fluid input is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and if fluid input can be safely decreased using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPT). METHODS: We retrospectively included aSAH patients treated at an academic intensive care unit (2007-2011; cohort 1) or managed with TPT (2011-2013; cohort 2)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931367/changes-in-radial-artery-pulse-pressure-during-a-fluid-challenge-cannot-assess-fluid-responsiveness-in-patients-with-septic-shock
#3
Victor De la Puente-Diaz de Leon, Valente de Jesus Jaramillo-Rocha, Jean-Louis Teboul, Sofia Garcia-Miranda, Bernardo A Martinez-Guerra, Guillermo Dominguez-Cherit
BACKGROUND: Arterial blood pressure is the most common variable used to assess the response to a fluid challenge in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the change in the radial artery pulse pressure (rPP) to detect the change in cardiac output after a fluid challenge in patients with septic shock. METHODS: Prospective observational study including 35 patients with septic shock in which rPP and cardiac output were measured before and after a fluid challenge with 400 mL of crystalloid solution...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928674/the-gly-16-allele-of-the-g16r-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-augments-the-glycemic-response-to-adrenaline-in-humans
#4
Kim Z Rokamp, Jonatan M Staalsø, Morten Zaar, Peter Rasmussen, Lonnie G Petersen, Rikke V Nielsen, Niels H Secher, Niels V Olsen, Henning B Nielsen
Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption may be driven by a β2-adrenergic mechanism. This study tested whether the 46G > A (G16R) single nucleotide polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) influences the metabolic and cerebrovascular responses to administration of adrenaline. Forty healthy Caucasian men were included from a group of genotyped individuals. Cardio- and cerebrovascular variables at baseline and during a 60-min adrenaline infusion (0.06 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) were measured by Model flow, near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler sonography...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928568/role-of-methylene-blue-in-the-maintenance-of-postinduction-hemodynamic-status-in-patients-with-perforation-peritonitis-a-pilot-study
#5
Muthapillai Senthilnathan, Anusha Cherian, Hemavathi Balachander, Nanda Kishore Maroju
CONTEXT: Methylene blue is an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and hence prevents vasoplegia mediated by nitric oxide in patients with sepsis. AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the effect of methylene blue on blood pressure maintenance following induction of anesthesia in patients presenting with peritonitis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients diagnosed to have perforation peritonitis were randomized into two groups (Group MB, Group NS). Patients in Group MB were given injection methylene blue 2 mg/kg over 20 min and patients in Group NS were given 50 ml of normal saline over 20 min, before induction...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927232/association-between-intradialytic-central-venous-oxygen-saturation-and-ultrafiltration-volume-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Hanjie Zhang, Lili Chan, Anna Meyring-Wösten, Israel Campos, Priscila Preciado, Jeroen P Kooman, Frank M van der Sande, Doris Fuertinger, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
Background: Cardiac disease is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Decreased tissue perfusion, including cardiac, due to high ultrafiltration volumes (UFVs) is considered to be one of the drivers of cardiac dysfunction. While central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 ) is frequently used as an indicator of cardiac output in non-uremic populations, the relationship of ScvO 2 and UFV in HD patients remains unclear. Our aim was to determine how intradialytic ScvO 2 changes associate with UFV...
September 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925529/cerebrovascular-response-to-the-cold-pressor-test-the-critical-role-of-carbon-dioxide
#7
Michael M Tymko, Thijs P Kerstens, Kevin W Wildfong, Philip N Ainslie
In addition to increasing sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure, and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cold pressor test (CPT) stimulates pain receptors, which may increase ventilation above metabolic demand; this response likely reduces the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET CO2 ), and will attenuate elevations in CBF. We hypothesized: (1) CPT would elicit hyperventilation, effectively lowering PET CO2 ; (2) the CBF response will be elevated during an isocapnic (controlled PET CO2 ), compared to a poikilocapnic CPT (uncontrolled PET CO2 ); (3) In response to CPT, the common carotid artery (CCA) will vasodilatate, while the internal carotid artery (ICA) will remain unchanged to help regulate CBF...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921674/decline-in-effort-capacity-with-age-echocardiographic-stress-analysis-in-the-elderly
#8
Anat Milman, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess the underlying mechanism of decline in effort capacity seen with aging. METHODS: We analyzed 250 healthy senior patients (≥65 years) with an ejection fraction ≥60% who underwent a stress echocardiogram test. The seniors (aged 65-94) were divided into 3 equal age groups (groups 1, 2, and 3), and their echo characteristics at rest and peak exercise (measured and calculated) were compared. RESULTS: Diastolic function at rest declined significantly (E lateral, E septal, E/E', A) with age, while other rest parameters were similar...
September 17, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916637/effect-of-increases-in-cardiac-contractility-on-cerebral-blood-flow-in-humans
#9
Shigehiko Ogoh, Gilbert Moralez, Takuro Washio, Satyam Sarma, Michinari Hieda, Steven A Romero, Matthew N Cramer, Manabu Shibasaki, Craig G Crandall
The effect of acute increases in cardiac contractility on cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unknown. We hypothesized that the external carotid artery (ECA) downstream vasculature modifies the direct influence of acute increases in heart rate and cardiac function on CBF regulation. Twelve healthy subjects received two infusions of dobutamine (first a low dose; 5 μg/kg/min and then a high dose; 15 μg/kg/min) for 12 min each. Cardiac output, blood flow through the internal carotid artery (ICA) and ECA and echocardiographic measurements were performed during dobutamine infusions...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915538/long-term-t3-and-t4-treatment-as-an-alternative-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-improving-cardiac-function-post-myocardial-infarction
#10
Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Alexsandra Zimmer, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Patrick Türck, Rafaela Siqueira, Adriane Belló-Klein, Pawan K Singal, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Here we aimed to compare the beneficial effects of T3 and T4 hormone treatment to those provided by aerobic exercise training in Wistar rats post-myocardial infarction (MI). Rats in one group were SHAM-operated and in the other group were subjected to MI surgery. One week after surgery, the MI group animals either received T3 and T4 hormones by gavage or underwent a low intensity aerobic exercise training protocol on a treadmill, and both treatments lasted until 10 weeks after MI. Untreated SHAM-operated and MI groups were also followed for the same duration...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915226/pulmonary-vascular-function-and-aerobic-exercise-capacity-at-moderate-altitude
#11
Vitalie Faoro, Gael Deboeck, Marco Vicenzi, Anne-Fleur Gaston, Bamodi Simaga, Grégory Doucende, Ilona Hapkova, Emma Roca, Enric Subirats, Fabienne Durand, Robert Naeije
PURPOSE: There has been suggestion that a greater "pulmonary vascular reserve" defined by a low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a high lung diffusing capacity (DL) allow for a superior aerobic exercise capacity. How pulmonary vascular reserve might affect exercise capacity at moderate altitude is not known. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation, combined with measurements of DL for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and at an altitude of 2250 m...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900614/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-pulmonary-pressures-and-right-ventricular-function-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-simple-approach-for-the-intensivist
#12
REVIEW
Maurice Beghetti
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is diagnosed using cardiac catheterization and is defined as an elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) greater than 25 mmHg. Although invasive hemodynamics remains the gold standard and is mandatory for disease confirmation, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an extremely useful non-invasive and widely available tool that allows for screening and follow-up, in particular, in the acute setting. TTE may be a valuable alternative, allowing for direct measurement and/or indirect assessment of PAP...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899910/human-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-is-unaltered-by-8%C3%A2-h-of-preceding-isocapnic-hyperoxia
#13
Hung-Yuan Cheng, Quentin P P Croft, Matthew C Frise, Nick P Talbot, Nayia Petousi, Peter A Robbins, Keith L Dorrington
Exposure to sustained hypoxia of 8 h duration increases the sensitivity of the pulmonary vasculature to acute hypoxia, but it is not known whether exposure to sustained hyperoxia affects human pulmonary vascular control. We hypothesized that exposure to 8 h of hyperoxia would diminish the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) that occurs in response to a brief exposure to hypoxia. Eleven healthy volunteers were studied in a crossover protocol with randomization of order. Each volunteer was exposed to acute isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 mmHg for 10 min) before and after 8 h of hyperoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 420 mmHg) or euoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 100 mmHg)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895094/fluid-loading-and-norepinephrine-infusion-mask-the-left-ventricular-preload-decrease-induced-by-pleural-effusion
#14
Kristian Borup Wemmelund, Viktor Kromann Ringgård, Simon Tilma Vistisen, Janus Adler Hyldebrandt, Erik Sloth, Peter Juhl-Olsen
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. METHODS: In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced...
September 11, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894923/differences-in-myocardial-strain-between-pectus-excavatum-patients-and-healthy-subjects-assessed-by-cardiac-mri-a-pilot-study
#15
André Lollert, Tilman Emrich, Jakob Eichstädt, Christoph Kampmann, Tariq Abu-Tair, Salmai Turial, Christoph Düber, Karl-Friedrich Kreitner, Gundula Staatz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences in myocardial strain between pectus excavatum (PE) patients and healthy subjects (HS) assessed by cardiac MRI using the feature-tracking algorithm. METHODS: Cardiac MRI was performed in 14 PE patients and 14 HS (9:5 male to female in each group; age 11-30 years) using a 3T scanner. Post-examination analysis included manual biventricular contouring with volumetry and ejection fraction measurement by two independent radiologists...
September 11, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892884/effect-of-metaboreflex-on-cardiovascular-system-in-subjects-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Pramita Dubey, Sunita Tiwari, Manish Bajpai, Kalpana Singh, Praveen Jha
INTRODUCTION: Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. AIM: To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889825/enhancement-of-diuresis-with-metolazone-in-infant-paediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-patients
#17
Russell T Wise, Brady S Moffett, Ayse Akcan-Arikan, Marianne Galati, Natasha Afonso, Paul A Checchia
BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding the use of metolazone in infants in cardiac intensive care. Researchers need to carry out further evaluation to characterise the effects of this treatment in this population. METHODS: This is a descriptive, retrospective study carried out in patients less than a year old. These infants had received metolazone over a 2-year period in the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit at our institution. The primary goal was to measure the change in urine output from 24 hours before the start of metolazone therapy to 24 hours after...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885662/differential-diagnosis-of-alterations-in-arterial-flow-and-tissue-oxygenation-on-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#18
Anna Hofer, Sylvia Leitner, Michaela Kreuzer, Jens Meier
BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) may be life-saving in several clinical situations, but it is also one of the most invasive therapeutic procedures, with significant potential for life-threatening complications. Pulse pressure waves are typically very small or even absent at the onset of ECMO therapy, and will reappear with the improvement of cardiac function. A low pulse pressure may indicate low cardiac output due to heart failure during sustained ECMO support...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883853/cardiac-surgery-related-cardio-renal-syndrome-assessed-by-conventional-and-novel-biomarkers-under-or-overestimated-diagnosis
#19
Jowita Biernawska, Joanna Bober, Katarzyna Kotfis, Anna Bogacka, Edyta Barnik, Maciej Żukowski
INTRODUCTION: Serum creatinine is a 'gold standard' criterion of recognizing and staging of acute kidney injury (AKI) despite it being a suboptimal, delayed indicator. The interpretation of increased values of biomarkers imposes great difficulty regarding cardiac surgery procedures performed with cardiopulmonary bypass and may lead to under- or overestimated diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the sole serum creatinine or urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentration used for identification of patients with AKI after cardiac surgery...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883542/longitudinal-micro-ultrasound-assessment-of-the-ob-ob-mouse-model-evaluation-of-cardiovascular-renal-and-hepatic-parameters
#20
N Di Lascio, C Kusmic, F Stea, F Lenzarini, C Barsanti, A Leloup, F Faita
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are widely employed to investigate obesity. Aim of this study was to provide a micro-ultrasound (μUS) longitudinal evaluation of the ob/ob mouse model in terms of cardiovascular effects, consequences for renal microcirculation and liver fat accumulation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen wild-type (wt) and eleven ob/ob male mice were studied at 8 (T0) and 25 (T1) weeks of age with a μUS system (Vevo2100) and B-mode and Doppler images were acquired...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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