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Betaine AND diabetes

Henrike Knacke, Maik Pietzner, Kieu Trinh Do, Werner Römisch-Margl, Gabi Kastenmüller, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Jan Krumsiek, Anna Artati, Henri Wallaschofski, Matthias Nauck, Karsten Suhre, Jerzy Adamski, Nele Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) is known for its various physiological and severe pathophysiological effects on human metabolism, however underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unsolved. To reveal possible molecular mechanisms mediating these effects, for the first time we associated serum IGF-I levels with multi-fluid untargeted metabolomics data. METHODS: Plasma/urine samples of 995 non-diabetic participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were characterized by mass spectrometry...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
R P F Dullaart, Erwin Garcia, Elias Jeyarajah, Eke G Gruppen, Margery A Connelly
BACKGROUND: The choline metabolite, betaine, plays a role in lipid metabolism, and may predict the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) require phosphatidylcholine as substrate, raising the possibility that there is an intricate relationship of these protein factors with choline metabolism. Here we determined the relationships of PLTP and LCAT activity with betaine in subjects with and without T2DM...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mohsen Mazidi, Amir Avan, Maryam Tayefi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Habibollah Esmaily, Gordon A Ferns, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad Safarian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. It is associated with a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship between adherence to several different dietary patterns and the presence of MetS was explored in an Iranian population sample of 5764 subjects. RESULTS: We observed that the prevalence of MetS was 13% and 18% in men and women, respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
V V Zabrodina, O V Shreder, E D Shreder, A D Durnev
Cognitive activity in 60-day-old offspring of rats (intrauterine development in experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes) was studied on the model of food-seeking behavior under conditions of free choice in a 6-arm maze. The formation of the food-procuring skill was significantly delayed, which attests to impairment of cognitive functions in these animals. Peroral administration of afobazole (10 and 50 mg/kg) and betaine (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently alleviated this disorder. Correlation analysis of the data on delayed formation of a food-procuring skill and results of DNA comet attests to a strong relationship between DNA damage in cells of the embryo and placenta during intrauterine development and cognitive dysfunction in the postnatal offspring of animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alison M Burkart, Elvira Isganaitis, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, making identification of biomarkers for detection, staging, and effective prevention strategies an especially critical scientific and medical goal. Fortunately, advances in metabolomics techniques, together with improvements in bioinformatics and mathematical modeling approaches, have provided the scientific community with new tools to describe the T2D metabolome. The metabolomics signatures associated with T2D and obesity include increased levels of lactate, glycolytic intermediates, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and long-chain fatty acids...
August 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Nunzia D'Onofrio, Luigi Servillo, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Milena Vitiello, Raffaele Marfella, Giuseppe Paolisso, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Ergothioneine (Egt), the betaine of 2-mercapto-L-histidine, is a dietary antioxidant protecting against many diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), through a redox mechanism different from alkylthiols. Here, experiments were designed to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of Egt against hyperglycaemia-induced senescence in endothelial cells. To this end, cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Egt (0.01-1.00mM) for 12h followed by incubation for 48h with high-glucose (25mM)...
July 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Gard F T Svingen, Hall Schartum-Hansen, Eva R Pedersen, Per M Ueland, Grethe S Tell, Gunnar Mellgren, Pål R Njølstad, Reinhard Seifert, Elin Strand, Therese Karlsson, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Several compounds in the choline oxidation pathway are associated with insulin resistance and prevalent diabetes; however, prospective data are scarce.We explored the relationships between systemic and urinary choline-related metabolites and incident type 2 diabetes in an observational prospective study among Norwegian patients. METHODS: We explored risk associations by logistic regression among 3621 nondiabetic individuals with suspected stable angina pectoris, of whom 3242 provided urine samples...
May 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Geoffrey A Walford, Yong Ma, Clary Clish, Jose C Florez, Thomas J Wang, Robert E Gerszten
Identifying novel biomarkers of type 2 diabetes risk may improve prediction and prevention among individuals at high risk of the disease and elucidate new biological pathways relevant to diabetes development. We performed plasma metabolite profiling in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a completed trial that randomized high-risk individuals to lifestyle, metformin, or placebo interventions. Previously reported markers, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids and glutamine/glutamate, were associated with incident diabetes (P < 0...
May 2016: Diabetes
Asma Ejaz, Laura Martinez-Guino, Allison B Goldfine, Francesc Ribas-Aulinas, Valeria De Nigris, Sílvia Ribó, Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Elizabeth Li, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Walt Gall, Jason K Kim, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Francesc Villarroya, Robert E Gerszten, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Carles Lerin
Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure...
April 2016: Diabetes
Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Nazamid Saari, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Azizah Abdul Hamid
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Daniel M Mueller, Martina Allenspach, Alaa Othman, Christoph H Saely, Axel Muendlein, Alexander Vonbank, Heinz Drexel, Arnold von Eckardstein
BACKGROUND: After ingestion of phosphatidylcholine, l-carnitine or betaine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is formed by gut microbiota and liver enzymes. Elevated TMAO plasma levels were associated with increased cardiovascular risk and other diseases. Also betaine and choline itself were recently associated with increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A newly developed LC-HRMS method was applied to measure the plasma concentrations of TMAO, betaine and choline in a cohort of 339 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease...
December 2015: Atherosclerosis
V V Zabrodina, E D Shreder, O V Shreder, A D Durnev, S B Seredenin
DNA comet assay showed that the level of DNA damage in the placental and embryonic tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus increased on gestation days 14 and 20. Afobazole and betaine administered per os effectively decreased the level of genotoxic damage; afobazole was most efficient in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg and betaine in a dose of 100 mg/kg.
October 2015: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hui Chan Kwak, Young-Mi Kim, Soo Jin Oh, Sang Kyum Kim
The present study was aimed to investigate the metabolomics of sulfur amino acids in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Plasma levels of total cysteine, homocysteine and methionine, but not glutathione (GSH) were markedly decreased in ZDF rats. Hepatic methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, betaine, taurine, spermidine and spermine were also decreased. There are no significant difference in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, GSH, GSH disulfide, hypotaurine and putrescine between control and ZDF rats...
August 1, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
Joana Pinto, Lara M Almeida, Ana S Martins, Daniela Duarte, António S Barros, Eulália Galhano, Cristina Pita, Maria do Céu Almeida, Isabel M Carreira, Ana M Gil
Metabolic biomarkers of pre- and postdiagnosis gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were sought, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics of maternal plasma and corresponding lipid extracts. Metabolite differences between controls and disease were identified through multivariate analysis of variable selected (1)H NMR spectra. For postdiagnosis GDM, partial least squares regression identified metabolites with higher dependence on normal gestational age evolution. Variable selection of NMR spectra produced good classification models for both pre- and postdiagnostic GDM...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Young-Giun Kim, Hyung-Ho Lim, Suh-Ha Lee, Mal-Soon Shin, Chang-Ju Kim, Hyeon Jeong Yang
Diabetic retinopathy is a severe microvascular complication amongst patients with diabetes, and is the primary cause of visual loss through neovascularization. Betaine is one of the components of Fructus Lycii. In the present study, the effects of betaine on the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in association with the Akt pathway were investigated in the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using western blot and immunohistochemical analyses...
August 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Michael Lever, Peter M George, Sandy Slow, David Bellamy, Joanna M Young, Markus Ho, Christopher J McEntyre, Jane L Elmslie, Wendy Atkinson, Sarah L Molyneux, Richard W Troughton, Christopher M Frampton, A Mark Richards, Stephen T Chambers
BACKGROUND: Betaine is a major osmolyte, also important in methyl group metabolism. Concentrations of betaine, its metabolite dimethylglycine and analog trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in blood are cardiovascular risk markers. Diabetes disturbs betaine: does diabetes alter associations between betaine-related measures and cardiovascular risk? METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 475 subjects four months after discharge following an acute coronary admission...
2014: PloS One
W H Wilson Tang, Zeneng Wang, Kevin Shrestha, Allen G Borowski, Yuping Wu, Richard W Troughton, Allan L Klein, Stanley L Hazen
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine by mass spectrometry. Median (interquartile range) TMAO levels, choline, and betaine levels were 5...
February 2015: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Sandy Slow, Stephen T Chambers, Christelle Foucher
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggest that bezafibrate increases betaine excretion in dyslipidemic patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate that fenofibrate induces increased betaine excretion in normal subjects and explore whether other 1-carbon metabolites and osmolytes are similarly affected. METHODS: Urine was collected from 26 healthy adults before and after treatment with fenofibrate (145 mg/day for 6 weeks). Excretions of betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, free choline, myo-inositol, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, carnitine, and acetylcarnitine were measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection...
July 2014: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Sandy Slow, Jane L Elmslie, Helen Lunt, Stephen T Chambers, Amber Parry-Strong, Jeremy D Krebs
PURPOSE: Betaine deficiency is a probable cardiovascular risk factor and a cause of elevated homocysteine. Urinary betaine excretion is increased by fibrate treatment, and is also often elevated in diabetes. Does fibrate further increase betaine excretion in diabetes, and does it affect the plasma concentrations and excretions of related metabolites and of other osmolytes? METHODS: Samples from a previous study of type 2 diabetes were selected if participants were taking bezafibrate (n = 32)...
October 2014: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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