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potassium homeostasis

Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Xin Li, Gökhan Yücel, Siegfried Lang, Katherine Sattler, Jan-Dierk Schünemann, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Lukas Cyganek, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Karen Bieback, Ralf Bauer, Antonius Ratte, Regina Pribe-Wolferts, Kleopatra Rapti, Daniel Nowak, Janina Wittig, Dierk Thomas, Patrick Most, Hugo A Katus, Ursula Ravens, Constanze Schmidt, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Oliver J Müller, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heritable group of genetically determined disorders with a primary involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature with partially cardiac manifestation, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and life-threatening tachyarrhythmia. We report here that human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes from a patient with LGMD2I and DCM associated with recurrent ventricular tachycardia displayed ion channel dysfunction and abnormality of calcium homeostasis...
March 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
Efstratios Kardalas, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Gerasimos Siasos, Andromachi Vryonidou
Hypokalaemia is a common electrolyte disturbance, especially in hospitalized patients. It can have various causes, including endocrine ones. Sometimes, hypokalaemia requires urgent medical attention. The aim of this review is to present updated information regarding: 1) the definition and prevalence of hypokalaemia, 2) the physiology of potassium homeostasis, 3) the various causes leading to hypokalaemia, 4) the diagnostic steps for the assessment of hypokalaemia and 5) the appropriate treatment of hypokalaemia depending on the cause...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Lina A Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P Snutch, Wolfgang H Oertel, Amalia M Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Qilin Long, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen
Insulin, as one of the most important hormones regulating energy metabolism, plays an essential role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo. Failure or insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells increases glucose and free fatty acid level in circulation and subsequently contributes to the emergence of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. Therefore, stimulating the insulin release benefits the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity significantly. Frog skin peptides have been extensively studied for their biological functions, among which, Phylloseptin peptides discovered in Phyllomedusinae frogs have been found to exert antimicrobial, antiproliferative and insulinotropic activities, while the mechanism associated with Phylloseptin-induced insulin secretion remains elusive...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Khaled M Hazzouri, Basel Khraiwesh, Khaled M A Amiri, Duke Pauli, Tom Blake, Mohammad Shahid, Sangeeta K Mullath, David Nelson, Alain L Mansour, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, Michael Purugganan, Khaled Masmoudi
Sodium (Na+ ) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5 -like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2 . In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eugene Choi, Derek Alsop, Joanna Y Wilson
In this study, we examined if rainbow trout chronically exposed to acetaminophen (10 and 30 μgL-1 ) showed histological changes that coincided with functional changes in the kidney, gill and liver. Histological changes in the kidney included movement and loss of nuclei, non-uniform nuclei size, non-uniform cytoplasmic staining, and loss of tubule integrity. Histological effects were more severe at the higher concentration and coincided with concentration dependent increases in urine flow rate and increased urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein...
February 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Jay Ian Lakkis, Matthew R Weir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperkalemia develops in a patient with systemic arterial hypertension (HTN) if one or more risk factors are present, namely chronic kidney disease (CKD) (especially severe stage 4-5 CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), heart failure (HF), or pharmacological therapies that interfere with potassium homeostasis, mainly through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition (RAASi). Hyperkalemia is a considerable reason of morbidity (emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations) and portends a higher mortality risk in patients at risk; for instance, hyperkalemia increases the risk of mortality within 1 day of a hyperkalemic event...
March 1, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Tiffany M Zarrella, Dennis W Metzger, Guangchun Bai
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a newly discovered bacterial second messenger. However, regulation of c-di-AMP homeostasis is poorly understood. In Streptococcus pneumoniae , a sole diadenylate cyclase, CdaA, produces c-di-AMP and two phosphodiesterases, Pde1 and Pde2, cleave the signaling di-nucleotide. To expand our knowledge of the pneumococcal c-di-AMP signaling network, we performed whole genome sequencing of Δ pde1 Δ pde2 heat shock suppressors. In addition to surviving heat shock, these suppressor mutants restored general stress resistance and improved growth in rich medium...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Vera Geraldes, Sérgio Laranjo, Isabel Rocha
Hypertension is a prevalent and major health problem, involving a complex integration of different organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS and the hypothalamus in particular are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In fact, evidence supports altered hypothalamic neuronal activity as a major factor contributing to increased sympathetic drive and increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to hypothalamic-driven sympathetic activity, including altered ion channel function...
February 26, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Francesco Nicita, Giorgio Tasca, Marta Nardella, Emanuele Bellacchio, Ilaria Camponeschi, Gessica Vasco, Tommaso Schirinzi, Enrico Bertini, Ginevra Zanni
Mutations in KCNJ10, which encodes the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1, a primary regulator of membrane excitability and potassium homeostasis, cause a complex syndrome characterized by seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, intellectual disability, and electrolyte imbalance called SeSAME/EAST syndrome. We describe a 41-year-old patient with non-syndromic, slowly progressive, early-onset ataxia. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a novel c.180 T > G (p.Ile60Met) missense homozygous mutation...
February 23, 2018: Cerebellum
P J M van Kleeff, J Gao, S Mol, N Zwart, H Zhang, K W Li, A H de Boer
Potassium (K+ ) is a vital ion for many processes in the plant and fine-tuned ion channels control the K+ -fluxes across the plasma membrane. GORK is an outward-rectifying K+ -channel with important functions in stomatal closure and in root K+ -homeostasis. In this study, post-translational modification of the Arabidopsis GORK ion channel and its regulation by 14-3-3 proteins was investigated. To investigate the possible interaction between GORK and 14-3-3s an in vivo pull-down from an Arabidopsis protein extract with recombinant GORK C-terminus (GORK-C) indeed identified endogenous 14-3-3s (LAMBDA, CHI, NU) as binding partners in a phosphorylation dependent manner...
February 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kayla Thompson, Jonathan Chen, Qianyi Luo, Yucheng Xiao, Theodore R Cummins, Ashay D Bhatwadekar
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of adult blindness. Retinal Müller cells maintain water homeostasis and potassium concentration via inwardly rectifying Kir4.1 channels. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major pathologic event in DR. While diabetes leads to a decrease in the Kir4.1 channels, it remains unknown whether AGEs-linked to the basement membrane (BM) affect normal Kir4.1 channels. For this study, we hypothesized that AGE-modification of laminin is detrimental to Kir4...
2018: PloS One
Mohit Dubey, Eelke Brouwers, Eline M C Hamilton, Oliver Stiedl, Marianna Bugiani, Henner Koch, Maarten H P Kole, Ursula Boschert, Robert C Wykes, Huibert D Mansvelder, Marjo S van der Knaap, Rogier Min
OBJECTIVE: Loss of function of the astrocyte-specific protein MLC1 leads to the childhood onset leukodystrophy "megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts" (MLC). Studies on isolated cells show a role for MLC1 in astrocyte volume regulation and suggest that disturbed brain ion and water homeostasis is central to the disease. Excitability of neuronal networks is particularly sensitive to ion and water homeostasis. In line with this, reports of seizures and epilepsy in MLC patients exist...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Maryem Bezine, Sonia Maatoug, Rym Ben Khalifa, Meryam Debbabi, Amira Zarrouk, Yuqin Wang, William J Griffiths, Thomas Nury, Mohammad Samadi, Anne Vejux, Jérôme de Sèze, Thibault Moreau, Riadh Kharrat, Mohamed El Ayeb, Gérard Lizard
Little is known about K+ regulation playing major roles in the propagation of nerve impulses, as well as in apoptosis and inflammasome activation involved in neurodegeneration. As increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0) have been observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, we studied the effect of 24 and/or 48 h of treatment with 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0 on Kv3.1b potassium channel level, intracellular K+ concentration, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and plasma membrane permeability in 158N oligodendrocytes and BV-2 microglial cells...
February 17, 2018: Biochimie
Xinli Zhang, Linbing Qu, Ling Chen, Chen Chen
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by diastolic and systolic cardiac dysfunction, yet no therapeutic drug to specifically treat it. Hexarelin has been demonstrated to improve heart function in various types of cardiomyopathy via its receptor GHS-R. This experiment aims to test the effect of hexarelin on cardiomyocytes under experimental diabetes. Streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rat model was employed with vehicle injection group as control. Daily hexarelin (100 μg/kg) treatment was performed for 2 weeks after 4-week STZ-induced diabetes...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Yixing Du, Wei Wang, Anthony D Lutton, Conrad M Kiyoshi, Baofeng Ma, Anne T Taylor, John W Olesik, Dana M McTigue, Candice C Askwith, Min Zhou
Membrane potential (VM) depolarization occurs immediately following cerebral ischemia and is devastating for the astrocyte homeostasis and neuronal signaling. Previously, an excessive release of extracellular K+ and glutamate has been shown to underlie an ischemia-induced VM depolarization. Ischemic insults should impair membrane ion channels and disrupt the physiological ion gradients. However, their respective contribution to ischemia-induced neuronal and glial depolarization and loss of neuronal excitability are unanswered questions...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Francis T Djankpa, Oluwole B Akinola, Sharon L Juliano
KCC2 (a brain-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter) affects development of the cerebral cortex, including aspects of neuronal migration and cellular maturation and differentiation. KCC2 also modulates chloride homeostasis by influencing the switch of GABA from depolarizing in young neurons to hyperpolarizing in mature neurons. We describe the expression pattern, regional distribution, and cellular colocalization of KCC2 in the ferret cortex in normal kits and those treated with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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