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potassium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330066/regulation-of-vascular-tone-homeostasis-by-no-and-h2s-implications-in-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
Sevda Gheibi, Sajad Jeddi, Khosrow Kashfi, Asghar Ghasemi
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two gasotransmitters that are produced in the vasculature and contribute to the regulation of vascular tone. NO and H2S are synthesized in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells; NO functions primarily through the sGC/cGMP pathway, and H2S mainly through activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels; both leading to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells. A deficit in the NO/H2S homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310825/potassium-intake-modulates-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-ncc-activity-via-the-kir4-1-potassium-channel
#2
Ming-Xiao Wang, Catherina A Cuevas, Xiao-Tong Su, Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Dao-Hong Lin, James A McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Wen-Hui Wang, David H Ellison
Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice...
January 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301054/the-ability-to-regulate-voltage-gated-k-permeable-channels-in-the-mature-root-epidermis-is-essential-for-waterlogging-tolerance-in-barley
#3
Muhammad Bilal Gill, Fanrong Zeng, Lana Shabala, Jennifer Böhm, Guoping Zhang, Meixue Zhou, Sergey Shabala
Oxygen depletion under waterlogged conditions results in a compromised operation of H+-ATPase, with strong implications for membrane potential maintenance, cytosolic pH homeostasis, and transport of all nutrients across membranes. The above effects, however, are highly tissue specific and time dependent, and the causal link between hypoxia-induced changes to the cell's ionome and plant adaptive responses to hypoxia is not well established. This work aimed to fill this gap and investigate the effects of oxygen deprivation on K+ signalling and homeostasis in plants, and potential roles of GORK (depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium) channels in adaptation to oxygen-deprived conditions in barley...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238599/characterization-of-physiological-and-molecular-processes-associated-with-potato-response-to-zebra-chip-disease
#4
Chika C Nwugo, Venkatesan G Sengoda, Li Tian, Hong Lin
Transcriptional analyses identified molecular mechanisms associated with the response of leaf and root potato tissues to 'Candidatus. Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) infection, presumptive causal agent of zebra chip disease (ZC). Putative Lso infection affected several host processes including defense response-, regulation-, starch metabolism- and energy production-related processes. Interestingly, while proteinase inhibitors were strongly upregulated in leaf tissues, a concomitant downregulation was observed in root tissues...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237822/potassium-regulated-distal-tubule-wnk-bodies-are-kidney-specific-wnk1-dependent
#5
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Daniel J Shiwarski, Ankita Roy, Lubika J Nkashama, Hima N Namboodiri, Jian Xie, Kara L McClain, Allison Marciszyn, Thomas R Kleyman, Roderick J Tan, Donna B Stolz, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Chou-Long Huang, Arohan R Subramanya
With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases coordinate volume and potassium homeostasis by regulating renal tubular electrolyte transport. In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), potassium imbalance causes WNK signaling complexes to concentrate into large discrete foci, which we call "WNK bodies." Though these structures have been reported previously, the mechanisms that drive their assembly remain obscure. Here, we show that kidney-specific WNK1 (KS-WNK1), a truncated kinase-defective WNK1 isoform that is highly expressed in the DCT, is critical for WNK body formation...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222092/targeted-disruption-of-the-kcnj5-gene-in-the-female-mouse-lowers-aldosterone-levels
#6
Iris Hardege, Lu Long, Raya Al Maskari, Nicola Figg, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy
Aldosterone is released from adrenal zona glomerulosa cells and plays an important role in Na and K homeostasis. Mutations in the human KCNJ5 gene encoding the GIRK4 potassium channel cause abnormal aldosterone secretion and hypertension. To better understand the role of wild-type (WT) GIRK4 in regulating aldosterone release we have looked at aldosterone secretion in a Kcnj5 knock-out (KO) mouse.  We found that female, but not male, KO mice have reduced aldosterone levels compared to WT female controls, but higher levels of aldosterone after Ang-II stimulation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218312/potassium-homeostasis-oxidative-stress-and-human-disease
#7
Udensi K Udensi, Paul B Tchounwou
Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome...
2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208215/plasma-potassium-concentrations-in-neonatal-diarrhoeic-calves-are-correlated-with-serum-aldosterone-concentrations-but-not-with-insulin-concentrations
#8
Florian M Trefz, Ingrid Lorenz
Hyperkalaemia is a clinically relevant electrolyte imbalance in neonatal diarrhoeic calves which was previously associated with severe dehydration and acidaemia. The present study assessed the association of plasma potassium (cK) with serum aldosterone and insulin concentrations, since these hormones are involved in the regulation of potassium homeostasis. Serum aldosterone (rs=0.62), but not insulin concentrations (rs=0.22) were closely correlated to cK in 123 hospitalised neonatal diarrhoeic calves. Median values for serum aldosterone concentrations in 38 hyperkalaemic calves (cK>5...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196846/the-availability-of-water-associated-with-glycogen-during-dehydration-a-reservoir-or-raindrop
#9
Roderick F G J King, Ben Jones, John P O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether glycogen-associated water is a protected entity not subject to normal osmotic homeostasis. An investigation into practical and theoretical aspects of the functionality of this water as a determinant of osmolality, dehydration, and glycogen concentration was undertaken. METHODS: In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the intrinsic osmolality of glycogen-potassium phosphate mixtures as would be found intra-cellularly at glycogen concentrations of 2% for muscle and 5 and 10% for liver...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184506/recent-advances-in-the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-hypothalamic-neuronal-glucose-detection
#10
Xavier Fioramonti, Chloé Chrétien, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud
The hypothalamus have been recognized for decades as one of the major brain centers for the control of energy homeostasis. This area contains specialized neurons able to detect changes in nutrients level. Among them, glucose-sensing neurons use glucose as a signaling molecule in addition to its fueling role. In this review we will describe the different sub-populations of glucose-sensing neurons present in the hypothalamus and highlight their nature in terms of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression. This review will particularly discuss whether pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons from the arcuate nucleus are directly glucose-sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184062/molecular-architecture-of-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2
#11
Morgane Agez, Patrick Schultz, Igor Medina, David J Baker, Matthew P Burnham, Ross A Cardarelli, Leslie C Conway, Kelly Garnier, Stefan Geschwindner, Anders Gunnarsson, Eileen J McCall, Alexandre Frechard, Stéphane Audebert, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss, Nicholas J Brandon, Qi Wang, Niek Dekker, Anass Jawhari
KCC2 is a neuron specific K+-Cl- co-transporter that controls neuronal chloride homeostasis, and is critically involved in many neurological diseases including brain trauma, epilepsies, autism and schizophrenia. Despite significant accumulating data on the biology and electrophysiological properties of KCC2, structure-function relationships remain poorly understood. Here we used calixarene detergent to solubilize and purify wild-type non-aggregated and homogenous KCC2. Specific binding of inhibitor compound VU0463271 was demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165327/effects-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-on-cerebral-ischemia-infarction-in-rat-model-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#12
Run-Zhe Liu, Chao-Xin Fan, Zhi-Lin Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi Sun, Hui-Hui Liu, Zong-Xiu Nie, Xiao-Ping Pu
Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a drug that is used in the treatment of ischaemic stroke. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic studies investigating the effects of dl-3-n-butylphtalide on the brain metabolism of small molecules. In this study, we first investigated the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on the spatial distribution of small molecules in the brains of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163608/oshak1-a-high-affinity-potassium-transporter-positively-regulates-responses-to-drought-stress-in-rice
#13
Guang Chen, Chaolei Liu, Zhenyu Gao, Yu Zhang, Hongzhen Jiang, Li Zhu, Deyong Ren, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu, Qian Qian
Drought is one of the environmental factors that severely restrict plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we reported that the high-affinity potassium transporter OsHAK1 plays important roles in K acquisition and translocation in rice over low and high K concentration ranges, however, knowledge on the regulatory roles of OsHAK1 in osmotic/drought stress is limited. Here, transcript levels of OsHAK1 were found transiently elevated by water deficit in roots and shoots, consistent with the enhanced GUS activity in transgenic plants under stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137293/identification-of-novel-genetic-regulations-associated-with-airway-epithelial-homeostasis-using-next-generation-sequencing-data-and-bioinformatics-approaches
#14
Chau-Chyun Sheu, Ming-Ju Tsai, Feng-Wei Chen, Kuo-Feng Chang, Wei-An Chang, Inn-Wen Chong, Po-Lin Kuo, Ya-Ling Hsu
Airway epithelial cells play important roles in airway remodeling. Understanding gene regulations in airway epithelial homeostasis may provide new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of asthma. This study aimed to combine gene expression (GE) microarray, next generation sequencing (NGS), and bioinformatics to explore genetic regulations associated with airway epithelial homeostasis. We analyzed expression profiles of mRNAs (GE microarray) and microRNAs (NGS) in normal and asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, and identified 9 genes with potential microRNA-mRNA interactions...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134970/circadian-potassium-excretion-is-unaffected-following-furosemide-induced-increase-in-sodium-delivery-to-the-distal-nephron
#15
B P Ilenwabor, E O Asowata, L F Obika
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is widely accepted as a key regulator of K+ balance as well as urinary K+excretion. However, recent evidence suggests that the circadian control of K+ excretion is independent of aldosterone. Thedelivery of Na+ to the distal nephron is known to be an important determinant of aldosterone mediated secretion of K+ in thissegment of the nephron. Examining the link between distal Na+ delivery and K+ excretion; and how this link affect circadianK+ excretion will advance what is currently known about the maintenance of K+ homeostasis...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129281/the-essential-roles-of-metal-ions-in-insect-homeostasis-and-physiology
#16
REVIEW
Julian At Dow
Metal ions play distinct roles in living organisms, including insects. Some, like sodium and potassium, are central players in osmoregulation and 'blood and guts' transport physiology, and have been implicated in cold adaptation. Calcium is a key player as a second messenger, and as a structural element. Other metals, particularly those with multiple redox states, can be cofactors in many metalloenzymes, but can contribute to toxic oxidative stress on the organism in excess. This short review selects some examples where classical knowledge has been supplemented with recent advances, in order to emphasize the importance of metals as essential nutrients for insect survival...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128492/expression-of-potassium-dependent-sodium-calcium-exchanger-in-the-murine-lens
#17
Alicia De Maria, Haiqing Zhao, Steven Bassnett
Loss of intracellular calcium homeostasis may contribute to the opacification of lens tissue during cortical cataract formation. In healthy lenses, the concentration of intracellular calcium is maintained at levels far below electrochemical equilibrium but the identity of the calcium extrusion mechanism in lens fiber cells has remained elusive. Previous studies focused on the role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases and sodium-calcium exchangers. Here, we examined the expression of mRNA transcripts encoding potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchangers (Nckx's, encoded by the Slc24 gene family) in the mouse lens...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115510/hgf-induces-the-serine%C3%A2-phosphorylation-and-cell-surface-translocation-of-romk-kir-1-1-channels-in-rat-kidney-cells
#18
Takashi Kato, Kiyomasa Oka, Toshikazu Nakamura
Extracellular potassium homeostasis is dependent on the activity of potassium channels, which are expressed on the apical membrane of epithelial tubular cells. The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is considered to be the major route for potassium transport into the tubule lumen. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exerts multiple biological activities and is important for maintaining renal homeostasis. It is also anti‑apoptotic and mitogenic for protection and recovery from ARF. Whether HGF regulates the ion channel activities remains to be elucidated, therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the modulation of HGF on the expression of ROMK in cultured renal tubular cells...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110772/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-barriers-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#19
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092859/urinary-bladder-hypertrophy-is-susceptible-in-male-but-protected-in-female-romk-bartter-s-mouse
#20
Jun-Mo Kim, Shuhua Xu, Xiaoyun Guo, Haiyan Hu, Ke Dong, Tong Wang
The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK; Kir1.1) plays an important role in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. ROMK knockout mice (KO) show a similar phenotype to Bartter's syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-2Cl-K-cotransporter activity but not in ROMK1 KO. ROMK KO mice also show hydronephrosis; however, the mechanism of this phenotype has not been understood. We have previously demonstrated a gender-sex difference in hydronephrosis and PGE2 production in ROMK KO mouse. In this study we compared the gender-sex difference in bladder hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in ROMK KO mice...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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