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potassium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636601/crystal-structure-of-the-potassium-importing-kdpfabc-membrane-complex
#1
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L Stokes
Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#2
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622150/intraoperative-hyperkalemia-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-during-parathyroidectomy-a-case-report
#3
Daniel J Rosenkrans, Lavinia M Kolarczyk
We present a case of acute hyperkalemia and ventricular arrhythmia during parathyroidectomy in a patient with end-stage renal disease. This case highlights the under-recognized alterations in potassium homeostasis associated with parathyroidectomy and underscores the importance of preoperative optimization.
June 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615682/improved-retinal-function-in-rcs-rats-after-suppressing-the-over-activation-of-mglur5
#4
Jiaman Dai, Yan Fu, Yuxiao Zeng, Shiying Li, Zheng Qin Yin
Müller cells maintain retinal synaptic homeostasis by taking up glutamate from the synaptic cleft and transporting glutamine back to the neurons. To study the interaction between Müller cells and photoreceptors, we injected either DL-α-aminoadipate or L-methionine sulfoximine-both inhibitors of glutamine synthetase-subretinally in rats. Following injection, the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) was attenuated, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) was activated. Selective antagonism of mGluR5 by 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine increased the ERG a-wave amplitude and also increased rhodopsin expression...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614118/the-renal-response-to-potassium-stress-integrating-past-with-present
#5
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Arohan R Subramanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602864/nckx3-was-compensated-by-calcium-transporting-genes-and-bone-resorption-in-a-nckx3-ko-mouse-model
#6
Hyun Yang, Changhwan Ahn, Eun-Kyeong Shin, Ji-Sun Lee, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determination of gene function or permanent modification of the phenotypic characteristics of an animal. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time required for completion and potential for confounding off-target effects. In this study, a rapid single-step approach to knockout of a targeted gene in mice using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) was demonstrated for generation of mutant (knockout; KO) alleles. Specifically, ZFNs to target the sodium/calcium/potassium exchanger3 (NCKX3) gene in C57bl/6j were designed using the concept of this approach...
June 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576921/novel-elements-of-immune-suppression-within-the-tumor-microenvironment
#7
REVIEW
Devikala Gurusamy, David Clever, Robert Eil, Nicholas P Restifo
Adaptive evolution has prompted immune cells to use a wide variety of inhibitory signals, many of which are usurped by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Although tumor immunologists often focus on genes and proteins as mediators of immune function, here we highlight two elements from the periodic table-oxygen and potassium-that suppress the immune system in previously unappreciated ways. While both are key to the maintenance of T-cell function and tissue homeostasis, they are exploited by tumors to suppress immuno-surveillance and promote metastatic spread...
June 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#8
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549580/hyperkalemia-and-cardiac-arrest-associated-with-glucose-replacement-in-a-patient-on-spironolactone
#9
Ryan Offman, Amanda Paden, Adam Gwizdala, James Fletcher Reeves
We present a case of hypoglycemia, which after intravenous glucose replacement, led to cardiac arrest secondary to a profound extracellular potassium shift. The patient was on spironolactone therapy which is known to cause aldosterone resistance (which inhibits the body's ability to prevent potassium shifts) [1]. Physicians typically review medications that cause hypoglycemia, but other medications may interfere with potassium homeostasis with administration of glucose. Knowledge of this case may prompt further monitoring, repeat lab testing, and careful medication reconciliation before discharging a patient with risk for aldosterone resistance...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539294/-effects-of-clostridium-butyricum-on-serum-uric-acid-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-rats-with-hyperuricemia
#10
Li Wang, Zhi-Rong Fang, Ya-Ting Shen, Yan-Bo Liu, Li-Li Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intragastric administration of Clostridium butyricum in regulating serum uric acid, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rats with hyperuricemia rats. METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomized into 4 equal groups, namely the normal control group, hyperuricemia model group, benzbromarone (3 mg/kg daily) intervention group and live Clostridium butyricum group (1.5×10(7) CFU/day)...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536536/rna-seq-comparison-of-larval-and-adult-malpighian-tubules-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-reveals-life-stage-specific-changes-in-renal-function
#11
Yiyi Li, Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, Hannah E Drumm, Faye D Schilkey, Immo A Hansen
Introduction: The life history of Aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. During the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. With the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. This shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. In addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis. Methods: To determine differences in gene expression associated with these different life stages, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the main diuretic tissue in A...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520883/effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte-homeostasis-a-crossover-study-in-fasting-adult-volunteers
#12
N Van Regenmortel, T De Weerdt, A H Van Craenenbroeck, E Roelant, W Verbrugghe, K Dams, M L N G Malbrain, T Van den Wyngaert, P G Jorens
Background.: Daily and globally, millions of adult hospitalized patients are exposed to maintenance i.v. fluid solutions supported by limited scientific evidence. In particular, it remains unclear whether fluid tonicity contributes to the recently established detrimental effects of fluid, sodium, and chloride overload. Methods.: This crossover study consisted of two 48 h study periods, during which 12 fasting healthy adults were treated with a frequently prescribed solution (NaCl 0...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520217/the-gene-encoding-the-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-kir4-1-may-be-involved-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#13
Siri H Opdal, Åshild Vege, Arne Stray-Pedersen, Torleiv O Rognum
AIM: Disturbances in brain function and development may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This Norwegian study aimed to test the hypothesis that specific variants of genes involved in water transport and potassium homeostasis would be predisposing factors for SIDS. METHODS: Genetic variation in the genes encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4), Kir4.1 (KCNJ10) and α-syntrophin were analysed in 171 SIDS cases (62.6% male) with a median age of 15.5 (2-52) weeks and 398 adult controls (70...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503871/subcellular-distribution-of-calcium-during-spermatogenesis-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Amin Golpour, Martin Pšenička, Hamid Niksirat
Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472512/chloroplast-function-and-ion-regulation-in-plants-growing-on-saline-soils-lessons-from-halophytes
#15
Jayakumar Bose, Rana Munns, Sergey Shabala, Matthew Gilliham, Barry Pogson, Stephen D Tyerman
Salt stress impacts multiple aspects of plant metabolism and physiology. For instance it inhibits photosynthesis through stomatal limitation, causes excessive accumulation of sodium and chloride in chloroplasts, and disturbs chloroplast potassium homeostasis. Most research on salt stress has focused primarily on cytosolic ion homeostasis with few studies of how salt stress affects chloroplast ion homeostasis. This review asks the question whether membrane-transport processes and ionic relations are differentially regulated between glycophyte and halophyte chloroplasts and whether this contributes to the superior salt tolerance of halophytes...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430816/possible-increase-in-insulin-resistance-and-concealed-glucose-coupled-potassium-lowering-mechanisms-during-acute-coronary-syndrome-documented-by-covariance-structure-analysis
#16
Satoshi Ito, Tomohisa Nagoshi, Kosuke Minai, Yusuke Kashiwagi, Hiroshi Sekiyama, Akira Yoshii, Haruka Kimura, Yasunori Inoue, Kazuo Ogawa, Toshikazu D Tanaka, Takayuki Ogawa, Makoto Kawai, Michihiro Yoshimura
OBJECTIVE: Although glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy ought to be beneficial for ischemic heart disease in general, variable outcomes in many clinical trials of GIK in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) had a controversial impact. This study was designed to examine whether "insulin resistance" is involved in ACS and to clarify other potential intrinsic compensatory mechanisms for GIK tolerance through highly statistical procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the degree of insulin resistance during ACS attack and remission phase after treatment in individual patients (n = 104)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#17
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428266/kca1-1-channels-regulate-%C3%AE-1-integrin-function-and-cell-adhesion-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#18
Mark R Tanner, Michael W Pennington, Teresina Laragione, Pércio S Gulko, Christine Beeton
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa1.1; BK, Slo1, MaxiK, KCNMA1) is the predominant potassium channel expressed at the plasma membrane of fibroblast-like synoviocytes isolated from the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLS). It is a critical regulator of RA-FLS migration and invasion and therefore represents an attractive target for the therapy of RA. However, the molecular mechanisms by which KCa1.1 regulates RA-FLS invasiveness have remained largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that KCa1...
April 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421093/enhanced-growth-performance-and-salinity-tolerance-in-transgenic-switchgrass-via-overexpressing-vacuolar-na-k-h-antiporter-gene-pvnhx1
#19
Yanhua Huang, Cong Guan, Yanrong Liu, Baoyue Chen, Shan Yuan, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been increasingly recognized as one of the most valuable perennial bioenergy crop. To improve its biomass production, especially under salt stress, we isolated a putative vacuolar Na(+) (K(+))/H(+) antiporter gene from switchgrass and designated as PvNHX1. Subcellular localization revealed that this protein was localized mainly on the vacuole membrane. The PvNHX1 was found to be expressed throughout the entire growth period of switchgrass, exhibited preferentially expressed in the leaf tissue, and highly induced by salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420751/control-of-potassium-homeostasis-is-an-essential-function-of-the-second-messenger-cyclic-di-amp-in-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Jan Gundlach, Christina Herzberg, Volkhard Kaever, Katrin Gunka, Tamara Hoffmann, Martin Weiß, Johannes Gibhardt, Andrea Thürmer, Dietrich Hertel, Rolf Daniel, Erhard Bremer, Fabian M Commichau, Jörg Stülke
The second messenger cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is essential in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis and in related pathogenic bacteria. It controls the activity of the conserved ydaO riboswitch and of several proteins involved in potassium (K(+)) uptake. We found that the YdaO protein was conserved among several different bacteria and provide evidence that YdaO functions as a K(+) transporter. Thus, we renamed the gene and protein KimA (K(+) importer A). Reporter activity assays indicated that expression beyond the c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch of the kimA upstream regulatory region occurred only in bacteria grown in medium containing low K(+) concentrations...
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
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