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potassium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#1
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903775/nonclinical-and-clinical-pharmacology-evidence-for-cardiovascular-safety-of-saxagliptin
#2
REVIEW
Pia S Pollack, Kristina D Chadwick, David M Smith, Martin Billger, Boaz Hirshberg, Nayyar Iqbal, David W Boulton
BACKGROUND: In the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR) trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, saxagliptin did not increase the risk for major CV adverse events. However, there was an unexpected imbalance in events of hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), one of six components of the secondary CV composite endpoint, with a greater number of events observed with saxagliptin...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898250/effects-of-proteasome-inhibitor-mg-132-on-the-parasite-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
Enyara R Morais, Katia C Oliveira, Renato G de Paula, Alice M M Ornelas, Érika B C Moreira, Fernanda Rafacho Badoco, Lizandra G Magalhães, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Vanderlei Rodrigues
Proteasome is a proteolytic complex responsible for intracellular protein turnover in eukaryotes, archaea and in some actinobacteria species. Previous work has demonstrated that in Schistosoma mansoni parasites, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 affects parasite development. However, the molecular targets affected by MG-132 in S. mansoni are not entirely known. Here, we used expression microarrays to measure the genome-wide changes in gene expression of S. mansoni adult worms exposed in vitro to MG-132, followed by in silico functional analyses of the affected genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890284/activity-dependent-changes-in-transporter-and-potassium-currents-in-hippocampal-astrocytes
#4
REVIEW
Albina Lebedeva, Alex Plata, Olga Nosova, Olga Tyurikova, Alexey Semyanov
Astrocytes are involved in maintenance of synaptic microenvironment by glutamate uptake and K(+) clearance. These processes are associated with net charge transfer across the membrane and therefore can be recorded as glutamate transporter (IGluT) and K(+) (IK) currents. It has been previously shown that the blockade of IK with BaCl2 enhances the IGluT. Here we show that activity-dependent facilitation (5 stimuli at 50Hz) of IGluT was not significantly different in BaCl2 compared to facilitation of IGluT isolated by post-hoc subtraction of IK...
September 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888605/effects-of-profound-acidemia-on-the-dynamic-glucose-and-insulin-response-and-plasma-potassium-and-phosphorus-concentrations-during-an-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test-in-neonatal-calves
#5
F M Trefz, I Lorenz, P D Constable
Acidemia and electrolyte imbalances such as hyperkalemia are common in neonatal calves with diarrhea. Acidemia negatively affects the cellular response to insulin and may therefore result in deranged glucose, potassium, and phosphorus homeostasis. The primary aim of this study was to compare indices that characterize the dynamic glucose and insulin response between acidemic and nonacidemic neonatal diarrheic calves and a healthy control group during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) that consisted of i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888328/a-population-based-approach-to-assess-the-heritability-and-distribution-of-renal-handling-of-electrolytes
#6
Flore Moulin, Belen Ponte, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Ackermann, Yassine Bouatou, Idris Guessous, Georg Ehret, Olivier Bonny, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi, Jan A Staessen, Fred Paccaud, Pierre-Yves Martin, Michel Burnier, Bruno Vogt, Olivier Devuyst, Murielle Bochud
The handling of electrolytes by the kidney is essential for homeostasis. However, the heritability of these processes, the first step in gene discovery, is poorly known. To help clarify this, we estimated the heritability of serum concentration, urinary excretion, renal clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, and chloride in a population-based study. Nuclear families were randomly selected from the general population in Lausanne, Geneva, and Bern, Switzerland, and urine collected over 24-hour periods...
September 6, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878288/abnormal-electroretinogram-after-kir7-1-channel-suppression-suggests-role-in-retinal-electrophysiology
#7
Pawan K Shahi, Xinling Liu, Bryce Aul, Andrea Moyer, Akshita Pattnaik, Jerod Denton, De-Ann M Pillers, Bikash R Pattnaik
The KCNJ13 gene encodes the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir7.1. Mutations in this gene cause childhood blindness, in which the a- and b-wave responses of electroretinogram (ERG) are abolished. The ERG a-wave is the light-induced hyperpolarization of retinal photoreceptors, and the b-wave is the depolarization of ON-bipolar cells. The Kir7.1 channel is localized to the apical aspects of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and contributes to a delayed c-wave response. We sought to understand why a defect in an RPE ion-channel result in abnormal electrophysiology at the level of the retinal neurons...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877665/lack-of-14-3-3-proteins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-results-in-cell-to-cell-heterogeneity-in-the-expression-of-pho4-regulated-genes-spl2-and-pho84
#8
Janneke H M Teunissen, Marjolein E Crooijmans, Pepijn P P Teunisse, G Paul H van Heusden
BACKGROUND: Ion homeostasis is an essential property of living organisms. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal model organism to investigate ion homeostasis at all levels. In this yeast genes involved in high-affinity phosphate uptake (PHO genes) are strongly induced during both phosphate and potassium starvation, indicating a link between phosphate and potassium homeostasis. However, the signal transduction processes involved are not completely understood. As 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of signal transduction processes, we investigated the effect of deletion of the 14-3-3 genes BMH1 or BMH2 on gene expression during potassium starvation and focused especially on the expression of genes involved in phosphate uptake...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857174/transcriptional-profiling-reveals-mechanisms-of-sexually-dimorphic-responses-of-populus-cathayana-to-potassium-deficiency
#9
Qingquan Han, Haifeng Song, Yanni Yang, Hao Jiang, Sheng Zhang
Potassium (K) deficiency causes a series of physiological and metabolic disorders in plants, and dioecious species exhibit different responses based on gender. Our previous morphological and physiological observations indicated that Populus cathayana males were more tolerant to K(+) deficiency than females. To continue this work, comparative transcriptome analyses were carried out to investigate sexually differential expressed genes (DEGs) in this study. The results indicate that 10 weeks of K(+) deficiency result in 111 and 181 DEGs in males and females, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847142/stress-as-a-cause-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-and-its-correlation-with-salivary-stress-markers
#10
Kirthana Kunikullaya U., Arun Kumar M., Vasanthi Ananthakrishnan, Goturu Jaisri
Stress causes an increase in cortisol and amylase. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) results due to a multitude of causes, amongst which stress is one of the most important. Aim of the study was to estimate the level of stress, serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, amylase and electrolytes in subjects with RAS. 34 subjects with RAS (cases) were compared with 34 controls. Stress was measured using state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Serum cortisol (Radioimmunoassay), Salivary cortisol, amylase (ELISA) and electrolytes (Flame photometry) were measured...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833775/glucagon-like-peptide-1-cleavage-product-glp-1-9-36-amide-enhances-hippocampal-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-correlation-with-suppression-of-kv4-2-expression-and-eef2-phosphorylation
#11
Stephen M Day, Wenzhong Yang, Sarah Ewin, Xueyan Zhou, Tao Ma
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous gut hormone and a key regulator in maintaining glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. Its natural cleavage product GLP-1 (9-36), used to be considered a "bio-inactive" metabolite mainly due to its lack of insulinotropic effects and low affinity for GLP-1 receptors, possesses unique properties such as anti-oxidant and cardiovascular protection. Little is known about the role of GLP-1 (9-36) in central nervous system. Here we report that chronic, systemic application of GLP-1 (9-36) in adult mice facilitated both the induction and maintenance phases of hippocampal Long-term potentiation (LTP), a major form of synaptic plasticity...
August 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818365/the-endophytic-fungus-piriformospora-indica-enhances-arabidopsis-thaliana-growth-and-modulates-na-k-homeostasis-under-salt-stress-conditions
#12
Mohamed E Abdelaziz, Dongjin Kim, Shawkat Ali, Nina V Fedoroff, Salim Al-Babili
The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816060/the-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-potential-of-mn-co-4-s2cnme-ch2co2h-a-water-soluble-co-releasing-molecule-corm-401-intracellular-accumulation-transcriptomic-and-statistical-analyses-and-membrane-polarization
#13
Lauren Katie Wareham, Samantha McLean, Ronald Begg, Namrata Rana, Salar Ali, John J Kendall, Guido Sanguinetti, Brian E Mann, Robert K Poole
AIMS: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) are candidates for animal and antimicrobial therapeutics. We aimed to probe the antimicrobial potential of a novel manganese CORM. RESULTS: [Mn(CO)4S2CNMe(CH2CO2H)], CORM-401, inhibits growth of Escherichia coli and several antibiotic-resistant clinical pathogens. CORM-401 releases CO that binds oxidases in vivo but is an ineffective respiratory inhibitor. Extensive CORM accumulation (assayed as intracellular manganese) accompanies antimicrobial activity...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#14
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814143/ly3045697-results-from-two-randomized-clinical-trials-of-a-novel-inhibitor-of-aldosterone-synthase
#15
Joanne Sloan-Lancaster, Eyas Raddad, Amy Flynt, Yan Jin, James Voelker, Jeffrey W Miller
INTRODUCTION: LY3045697 is a potent and selective aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitor that was developed as a safer alternative to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Effects of LY3045697 on aldosterone and cortisol synthesis, as well as potassium ion homeostasis, were evaluated in two clinical studies in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two incomplete, placebo-controlled crossover-design clinical studies examined safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics under single and repeated dose conditions in healthy subjects...
July 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810704/yeast-kch1-and-kch2-membrane-proteins-play-a-pleiotropic-role-in-membrane-potential-establishment-and-monovalent-cation-homeostasis-regulation
#16
Kristina Felcmanova, Petra Neveceralova, Hana Sychrova, Olga Zimmermannova
The Kch1 and Kch2 plasma-membrane proteins were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as being essential for the activation of a high-affinity Ca2+ influx system. We searched for Kch proteins roles in the maintenance of cation homeostasis and tested the effect of kch1 and/or kch2 deletions on various physiological parameters. Compared to wild-type, kch1 kch2 mutant cells were smaller, relatively hyperpolarised, grew better under limited K+ conditions and exhibited altered growth in the presence of monovalent cations...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808008/mathematical-model-reveals-role-of-nucleotide-signaling-in-airway-surface-liquid-homeostasis-and-its-dysregulation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Conner I Sandefur, Richard C Boucher, Timothy C Elston
Mucociliary clearance is composed of three components (i.e., mucin secretion, airway surface hydration, and ciliary-activity) which function coordinately to clear inhaled microbes and other foreign particles from airway surfaces. Airway surface hydration is maintained by water fluxes driven predominantly by active chloride and sodium ion transport. The ion channels that mediate electrogenic ion transport are regulated by extracellular purinergic signals that signal through G protein-coupled receptors. These purinoreceptors and the signaling pathways they activate have been identified as possible therapeutic targets for treating lung disease...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805727/leaf-physiological-and-proteomic-analysis-to-elucidate-silicon-induced-adaptive-response-under-salt-stress-in-rosa-hybrida-rock-fire
#18
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Chung Ho Ko, Sowbiya Muneer, Byoung Ryong Jeong
Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#19
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783096/c-di-amp-an-essential-molecule-in-the-signaling-pathways-that-regulate-the-viability-and-virulence-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#20
REVIEW
Tazin Fahmi, Gary C Port, Kyu Hong Cho
Signal transduction pathways enable organisms to monitor their external environment and adjust gene regulation to appropriately modify their cellular processes. Second messenger nucleotides including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP), cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) play key roles in many signal transduction pathways used by prokaryotes and/or eukaryotes. Among the various second messenger nucleotides molecules, c-di-AMP was discovered recently and has since been shown to be involved in cell growth, survival, and regulation of virulence, primarily within Gram-positive bacteria...
August 7, 2017: Genes
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