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potassium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735082/aeromonas-caviae-alters-the-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-creatine-kinase-activities-in-experimentally-infected-silver-catfish-impairment-on-renal-bioenergetics
#1
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Guerino B Júnior, Camila Marina Verdi, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Roberto C V Santos, Bruno S Vizzotto, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733328/thermal-imprinting-modifies-bone-homeostasis-in-cold-challenged-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#2
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, Enric Gisbert, Patricia I S Pinto, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Deborah M Power
Fish are ectotherms and temperature plays a determinant role in their physiology, biology and ecology and is a driver of seasonal responses. The present study assessed how thermal imprinting during embryonic and larval stages modified the response of adult fish to low water temperature. We targeted the gilthead sea bream that develops a condition known as winter syndrome when it is exposed to low water temperatures. Eggs and larvae of sea bream were exposed to four different thermal regimes and then the response of the resulting adults to a low temperature challenge was assessed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722222/catalase2-functions-for-seedling-post-germinative-growth-by-scavenging-h2-o2-and-stimulating-acx2-3-activity-in-arabidopsis
#3
Wen-Cheng Liu, Tong-Tong Han, Hong-Mei Yuan, Zhen-Dong Yu, Lin-Yu Zhang, Bing-Lei Zhang, Shuang Zhai, Si-Qiu Zheng, Ying-Tang Lu
Increased fatty acid β-oxidation is essential for early post-germinative growth in seedlings, but high levels of H2 O2 produced by β-oxidation can induce oxidative stress. Whether and how catalase (CAT) functions in fine-tuning H2 O2 homeostasis during seedling growth remain unclear. Here, we report that CAT2 functions in early seedling growth. Compared to the wild type, the cat2-1 mutant, with elevated H2 O2 levels, exhibited reduced root elongation on sucrose (Suc)-free medium, mimicking soils without exogenous sugar supply...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714415/aquaporin-4-in-astrocytes-is-a-target-for-therapy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yu-Long Lan, Jian-Jiao Chen, Gang Hu, Jun Xu, Ming Xiao, Shao Li
Current experimental evidence points to the conclusion that aquaporin 4 (AQP4), which is an important water-channel membrane protein found in the brain, could play major roles in various brain conditions pathologically including pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this paper, we review how AQP4 and altered astrocyte functions interact in AD, and provide experimental evidence highlighting the importance of this topic for the future investigations. The interactions of AQP4 are as follows: (i) AQP4 could influence astrocytic calcium signaling and potassium homeostasis...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710919/regulation-of-potassium-transport-and-signaling-in-plants
#5
REVIEW
Yi Wang, Wei-Hua Wu
As an essential macronutrient, potassium (K(+)) plays crucial roles in diverse physiological processes during plant growth and development. The K(+) concentration in soils is relatively low and fluctuating. Plants are able to perceive external K(+) changes and generate chemical and physical signals in plant cells. The signals can be transducted across the plasma membrane and into the cytosol, and eventually regulates the downstream targets, particularly K(+) channels and transporters. As a result, K(+) homeostasis in plant cells is modulated, which facilitates plant adaptation to K(+) deficient conditions...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708379/chemical-genomics-structure-elucidation-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-marine-derived-anticlostridial-ecteinamycin
#6
Thomas P Wyche, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Jeff S Piotrowski, Megan N Duster, Simone R Warrack, Gabriel Cornilescu, Travis J De Wolfe, Yanpeng Hou, Doug R Braun, Gregory A Ellis, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Chad L Myers, James Steele, Hirotada Mori, Nasia Safdar, John L Markley, Scott Raymond Rajski, Tim S Bugni
A polyether antibiotic, ecteinamycin (1) was isolated from a marine Actinomadura sp., cultivated from the ascidian Ectein-ascidia turbinata. 13C-enrichment, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling enabled elucidation of the structure of 1 which was validated on the basis of comparisons with its recently reported crystal structure. Importantly, ec-teinamycin demonstrated potent activity against the toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile NAP1/B1/027 (MIC = 59 ng/μL), as well as other toxigenic and non-toxigenic C...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706401/influence-of-west-african-ethnicity-and-gender-on-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-essential-hypertensives-treated-with-hydrochlorothiazide-and-hydrochlorothiazide-lisinopril-combination
#7
Micheal Olamoyegun, Babatope Kolawole, Adesuyi A L Ajayi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) given alone and in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on beta-cell function in a negroid population to further explore possible ethnic differences in the effect of antihypertensive drugs on homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 newly diagnosed Nigerian essential hypertensive patients were assigned to receive either HCT 25 mg daily or both HCT and lisinopril (Lis; 25/10 mg daily) in an open-label study for 12 weeks...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702049/endurance-exercise-ability-in-the-horse-a-trait-with-complex-polygenic-determinism
#8
Anne Ricard, Céline Robert, Christine Blouin, Fanny Baste, Gwendoline Torquet, Caroline Morgenthaler, Julie Rivière, Nuria Mach, Xavier Mata, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey
Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30-40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697495/electrolyte-and-acid-base-abnormalities-in-infants-with-community-acquired-acute-pyelonephritis-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#9
Gregorio P Milani, Angela Grava, Mario G Bianchetti, Sebastiano A G Lava, Laura Dell'Era, Thomas Teatini, Emilio F Fossali
BACKGROUND: Retrospective case series suggest that abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis may occur among infants with a febrile urinary tract infection. Potentially inaccurate laboratory methods of sodium testing have often been used. METHODS: Between January 2009 and June 2016, we managed 80 previously healthy infants (52 males and 28 females) ≥4 weeks to ≤24 months of age with their first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Ionized sodium, ionized potassium and ionized chloride were determined by direct potentiometry, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry...
July 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686154/influence-of-red-blood-cell-derived-microparticles-upon-vasoregulation
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed S Said, Allan Doctor
Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis...
May 15, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643197/ampk-is-activated-early-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-undergoing-apoptosis-and-influences-vadc1-phosphorylation-status-and-activity
#11
A Bobba, E Casalino, G Amadoro, V A Petragallo, A Atlante
The neurodegeneration of cerebellar granule cells, after low potassium induced apoptosis, is known to be temporally divided into an early and a late phase. Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) protein, changing from the closed inactive state to the active open state, is central to the switch between the early and late phase. It is also known that: (i) VDAC1 can undergo phosphorylation events and (ii) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the sensor of cellular stress, may have a role in neuronal homeostasis...
June 22, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636601/crystal-structure-of-the-potassium-importing-kdpfabc-membrane-complex
#12
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L Stokes
Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases...
June 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#13
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622150/intraoperative-hyperkalemia-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-during-parathyroidectomy-a-case-report
#14
Daniel J Rosenkrans, Lavinia M Kolarczyk
We present a case of acute hyperkalemia and ventricular arrhythmia during parathyroidectomy in a patient with end-stage renal disease. This case highlights the under-recognized alterations in potassium homeostasis associated with parathyroidectomy and underscores the importance of preoperative optimization.
June 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615682/improved-retinal-function-in-rcs-rats-after-suppressing-the-over-activation-of-mglur5
#15
Jiaman Dai, Yan Fu, Yuxiao Zeng, Shiying Li, Zheng Qin Yin
Müller cells maintain retinal synaptic homeostasis by taking up glutamate from the synaptic cleft and transporting glutamine back to the neurons. To study the interaction between Müller cells and photoreceptors, we injected either DL-α-aminoadipate or L-methionine sulfoximine-both inhibitors of glutamine synthetase-subretinally in rats. Following injection, the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) was attenuated, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) was activated. Selective antagonism of mGluR5 by 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine increased the ERG a-wave amplitude and also increased rhodopsin expression...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614118/the-renal-response-to-potassium-stress-integrating-past-with-present
#16
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Arohan R Subramanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602864/nckx3-was-compensated-by-calcium-transporting-genes-and-bone-resorption-in-a-nckx3-ko-mouse-model
#17
Hyun Yang, Changhwan Ahn, Eun-Kyeong Shin, Ji-Sun Lee, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determination of gene function or permanent modification of the phenotypic characteristics of an animal. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time required for completion and potential for confounding off-target effects. In this study, a rapid single-step approach to knockout of a targeted gene in mice using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) was demonstrated for generation of mutant (knockout; KO) alleles. Specifically, ZFNs to target the sodium/calcium/potassium exchanger3 (NCKX3) gene in C57bl/6j were designed using the concept of this approach...
June 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576921/novel-elements-of-immune-suppression-within-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
REVIEW
Devikala Gurusamy, David Clever, Robert Eil, Nicholas P Restifo
Adaptive evolution has prompted immune cells to use a wide variety of inhibitory signals, many of which are usurped by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Although tumor immunologists often focus on genes and proteins as mediators of immune function, here we highlight two elements from the periodic table-oxygen and potassium-that suppress the immune system in previously unappreciated ways. While both are key to the maintenance of T-cell function and tissue homeostasis, they are exploited by tumors to suppress immuno-surveillance and promote metastatic spread...
June 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#19
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549580/hyperkalemia-and-cardiac-arrest-associated-with-glucose-replacement-in-a-patient-on-spironolactone
#20
Ryan Offman, Amanda Paden, Adam Gwizdala, James Fletcher Reeves
We present a case of hypoglycemia, which after intravenous glucose replacement, led to cardiac arrest secondary to a profound extracellular potassium shift. The patient was on spironolactone therapy which is known to cause aldosterone resistance (which inhibits the body's ability to prevent potassium shifts) [1]. Physicians typically review medications that cause hypoglycemia, but other medications may interfere with potassium homeostasis with administration of glucose. Knowledge of this case may prompt further monitoring, repeat lab testing, and careful medication reconciliation before discharging a patient with risk for aldosterone resistance...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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