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potassium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137293/identification-of-novel-genetic-regulations-associated-with-airway-epithelial-homeostasis-using-next-generation-sequencing-data-and-bioinformatics-approaches
#1
Chau-Chyun Sheu, Ming-Ju Tsai, Feng-Wei Chen, Kuo-Feng Chang, Wei-An Chang, Inn-Wen Chong, Po-Lin Kuo, Ya-Ling Hsu
Airway epithelial cells play important roles in airway remodeling. Understanding gene regulations in airway epithelial homeostasis may provide new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of asthma. This study aimed to combine gene expression (GE) microarray, next generation sequencing (NGS), and bioinformatics to explore genetic regulations associated with airway epithelial homeostasis. We analyzed expression profiles of mRNAs (GE microarray) and microRNAs (NGS) in normal and asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, and identified 9 genes with potential microRNA-mRNA interactions...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134970/circadian-potassium-excretion-is-unaffected-following-furosemide-induced-increase-in-sodium-delivery-to-the-distal-nephron
#2
B P Ilenwabor, E O Asowata, L F Obika
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is widely accepted as a key regulator of K+ balance as well as urinary K+excretion. However, recent evidence suggests that the circadian control of K+ excretion is independent of aldosterone. Thedelivery of Na+ to the distal nephron is known to be an important determinant of aldosterone mediated secretion of K+ in thissegment of the nephron. Examining the link between distal Na+ delivery and K+ excretion; and how this link affect circadianK+ excretion will advance what is currently known about the maintenance of K+ homeostasis...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129281/the-essential-roles-of-metal-ions-in-insect-homeostasis-and-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Julian At Dow
Metal ions play distinct roles in living organisms, including insects. Some, like sodium and potassium, are central players in osmoregulation and 'blood and guts' transport physiology, and have been implicated in cold adaptation. Calcium is a key player as a second messenger, and as a structural element. Other metals, particularly those with multiple redox states, can be cofactors in many metalloenzymes, but can contribute to toxic oxidative stress on the organism in excess. This short review selects some examples where classical knowledge has been supplemented with recent advances, in order to emphasize the importance of metals as essential nutrients for insect survival...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128492/expression-of-potassium-dependent-sodium-calcium-exchanger-in-the-murine-lens
#4
Alicia De Maria, Haiqing Zhao, Steven Bassnett
Loss of intracellular calcium homeostasis may contribute to the opacification of lens tissue during cortical cataract formation. In healthy lenses, the concentration of intracellular calcium is maintained at levels far below electrochemical equilibrium but the identity of the calcium extrusion mechanism in lens fiber cells has remained elusive. Previous studies focused on the role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases and sodium-calcium exchangers. Here, we examined the expression of mRNA transcripts encoding potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchangers (Nckx's, encoded by the Slc24 gene family) in the mouse lens...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115510/hgf-induces-the-serine%C3%A2-phosphorylation-and-cell-surface-translocation-of-romk-kir-1-1-channels-in-rat-kidney-cells
#5
Takashi Kato, Kiyomasa Oka, Toshikazu Nakamura
Extracellular potassium homeostasis is dependent on the activity of potassium channels, which are expressed on the apical membrane of epithelial tubular cells. The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is considered to be the major route for potassium transport into the tubule lumen. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exerts multiple biological activities and is important for maintaining renal homeostasis. It is also anti‑apoptotic and mitogenic for protection and recovery from ARF. Whether HGF regulates the ion channel activities remains to be elucidated, therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the modulation of HGF on the expression of ROMK in cultured renal tubular cells...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110772/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-barriers-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#6
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092859/urinary-bladder-hypertrophy-is-susceptible-in-male-but-protected-in-female-romk-bartter-s-mouse
#7
Jun-Mo Kim, Shuhua Xu, Xiaoyun Guo, Haiyan Hu, Ke Dong, Tong Wang
The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK; Kir1.1) plays an important role in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. ROMK knockout mice (KO) show a similar phenotype to Bartter's syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-2Cl-K-cotransporter activity but not in ROMK1 KO. ROMK KO mice also show hydronephrosis; however, the mechanism of this phenotype has not been understood. We have previously demonstrated a gender-sex difference in hydronephrosis and PGE2 production in ROMK KO mouse. In this study we compared the gender-sex difference in bladder hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in ROMK KO mice...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079544/megalencephalic-leukoencephalopathy-with-subcortical-cysts-a-personal-biochemical-retrospective
#8
REVIEW
Raúl Estévez, Xabier Elorza-Vidal, Héctor Gaitán-Peñas, Carla Pérez-Rius, Mercedes Armand-Ugón, Marta Alonso-Gardón, Efren Xicoy-Espaulella, Sònia Sirisi, Tanit Arnedo, Xavier Capdevila-Nortes, Tania López-Hernández, Marisol Montolio, Anna Duarri, Oscar Teijido, Alejandro Barrallo-Gimeno, Manuel Palacín, Virginia Nunes
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare type of leukodystrophy characterized by dysfunction of the role of glial cells in controlling brain fluid and ion homeostasis. Patients affected by MLC present macrocephaly, cysts and white matter vacuolation, which lead to motor and cognitive impairments. To date, there is no treatment for MLC, only supportive care. MLC is caused by mutations in the MLC1 and GLIALCAM genes. MLC1 is a membrane protein with low identity to the Kv1.1 potassium channel and GlialCAM belongs to an adhesion molecule family...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076168/pleiotropic-effects-of-enhancing-vacuolar-k-h-exchange-in-tomato
#9
Anna De Luca, José M Pardo, Eduardo O Leidi
Cation antiporters of the NHX family are widely regarded as determinants of salt tolerance due to their capacity to drive sodium (Na) and sequester it into vacuoles. Recent work shows however that NHX transporters are primarily involved in vacuolar potassium (K) storage. Over-expression of the K/H antiporter AtNHX1 in tomato increases K accumulation into vacuoles and plant sensitivity to K deprivation. Here we show that the appearance of early leaf symptoms of K deficiency was associated with higher concentration of polyamines...
October 27, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072670/-the-genetic-aspects-of-occupational-hearing-impairment
#10
V V Krasitskaya, E E Bashmakova, K G Dobretsov, N V Orlova, L A Frank
This article was designed to be the overview of the current literature publications concerning the identification of the genetic markers of susceptibility to the noise-induced loss of hearing. The analysis of these data has demonstrated that the major gene polymorphisms associated with the development of this pathological condition are localized in the genes encoding for the antioxidant systems, potassium homeostasis, and adhesion molecules as well as in the genes involved in intercellular coupling, the mechanisms underlying the cellular response to stress, activation and regulation of heat shock proteins, and signaling function of the immune system...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069937/the-safety-of-high-dose-insulin-euglycaemia-therapy-in-toxin-induced-cardiac-toxicity
#11
Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: High-dose insulin euglycaemia (HIE) is recommended in the management of toxin-induced cardiac toxicity, with increasing insulin doses now being used. We aimed to investigate the safety of HIE in toxin-induced cardiac toxicity. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cases from two clinical toxicology units. Demographics, toxin(s) ingested, clinical effects, investigations (serum glucose, electrolytes), treatments (insulin, glucose, electrolyte replacement), length of stay (LOS) and outcomes were extracted from the patients' medical records...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044608/nutrient-sensing-in-pancreatic-islets-lessons-from-congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-monogenic-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Ming Lu, Changhong Li
Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM))...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039315/prevention-of-liver-cirrhosis-by-silymarin
#13
Syeda Nuzhat Fatima Zaidi, Tabassum Mahboob
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sylimarin supplementation on different biochemical parameters in thioacetamide induced cirrhotic rats. For this purpose 24 male Albino wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6). Group I, remained healthy control rats, Group II, received thioacetamide (at a dose of 200mg/kg b.w, i.p, for 12 weeks, twice a week) in first phase and saline in second phase, Group III, received thioacetamide (200mg/kg b.w, i.p for 12 weeks, twice a week) in first phase and silymarin (orally at a dosage of 200mg/kg b...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031359/treatment-of-abnormalities-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#14
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Hyperkalemia, defined as serum potassium concentrations greater than 5.0 to 5.5 mEq/L, is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice because of the increasing incidence and prevalence of CKD. Patients at risk for this disorder are commonly treated with drugs that interfere in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, thereby enhancing the occurrence and prevalence of this disorder. Discontinuation of these drugs because of the development of hyperkalemia deprives these patients the renal-protective and cardiovascular benefits this class of pharmacology has been shown to provide...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031357/regulation-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#15
REVIEW
Thomas D DuBose
Disturbances of potassium homeostasis can cause either hyperkalemia or hypokalemia and result in serious consequences. Although the consequences of acute and chronic hyperkalemia and treatment of these conditions in CKD have been widely appreciated by nephrologists, more recent information has focused attention on the consequences of chronic hypokalemia. Several recent studies have documented a "U-shaped" relationship between the serum [K(+)] and higher mortality in several clinical studies. The causes of dyskalemias are placed into the unique perspective of patients with CKD and its evolution with progression of CKD to later stages and focuses on the pathophysiology of these disorders...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030153/potassium-homeostasis-in-health-and-disease-a-scientific-workshop-cosponsored-by-the-national-kidney-foundation-and-the-american-society-of-hypertension
#16
Csaba P Kovesdy, Lawrence J Appel, Morgan E Grams, Lisa Gutekunst, Peter A McCullough, Biff F Palmer, Bertram Pitt, Dominic A Sica, Raymond R Townsend
While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029808/potassium-homeostasis-in-health-and-disease-a-scientific-workshop-cosponsored-by-the-national-kidney-foundation-and-the-american-society-of-hypertension
#17
Csaba P Kovesdy, Lawrence J Appel, Morgan E Grams, Lisa Gutekunst, Peter A McCullough, Biff F Palmer, Bertram Pitt, Dominic A Sica, Raymond R Townsend
While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia...
September 29, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022503/the-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-romk-an-intriguing-pharmacological-target-for-an-innovative-class-of-diuretic-drugs
#18
Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli, Eugenia Piragine, Valentina Citi, Lara Testai, Maria Cristina Breschi
In the last four decades, the several classes of diuretics, currently available for clinical use, have been the first line option for the therapy of widespread cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. Diuretic drugs generally exhibit an overall favourable risk/benefit balance. However, they are not devoid of side effects. In particular, all the classes of diuretics cause alteration of potassium homeostasis. In recent years, understanding of the physiological role of the renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channels, has shown an intriguing pharmacological target for developing an innovative class of diuretic agents: the ROMK inhibitors...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019614/associations-of-serum-potassium-levels-with-mortality-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#19
Mette Aldahl, Anne-Sofie Caroline Jensen, Line Davidsen, Matilde Alida Eriksen, Steen Møller Hansen, Berit Jamie Nielsen, Maria Lukács Krogager, Lars Køber, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Peter Søgaard
Aims: Medication prescribed to patients suffering from chronic heart failure carries an increased risk of impaired potassium homeostasis. We examined the relation between different levels of serum potassium and mortality among patients with chronic heart failure. Methods and results: From Danish National registries, we identified 19 549 patients with a chronic heart failure diagnosis who had a measurement of potassium within minimum 90 days after initiated medical treatment with loop diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers...
October 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993507/dialysate-potassium-dialysate-magnesium-and-hemodialysis-risk
#20
Patrick H Pun, John P Middleton
One of the fundamental goals of the hemodialysis prescription is to maintain serum potassium levels within a narrow normal range during both the intradialytic and interdialytic intervals. Considering the extraordinarily high rate of cardiovascular mortality in the hemodialysis population, clinicians are obligated to explore whether factors related to dialytic potassium removal can be modified to improve clinical outcomes. Observational studies and circumstantial evidence suggest that extreme concentrations of serum and dialysate potassium can trigger cardiac arrest...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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