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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440304/the-natural-history-of-severe-acute-liver-injury
#1
David G Koch, J L Speiser, V Durkalski, R J Fontana, T Davern, B McGuire, R T Stravitz, A M Larson, I Liou, O Fix, M L Schilsky, T McCashland, J E Hay, N Murray, O S Shaikh, D Ganger, A Zaman, S B Han, R T Chung, R S Brown, S Munoz, K R Reddy, L Rossaro, R Satyanarayana, A J Hanje, J Olson, R M Subramanian, C Karvellas, B Hameed, A H Sherker, W M Lee, A Reuben
OBJECTIVES: Acute liver failure (ALF) is classically defined by coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy (HE); however, acute liver injury (ALI), i.e., severe acute hepatocyte necrosis without HE, has not been carefully defined nor studied. Our aim is to describe the clinical course of specifically defined ALI, including the risk and clinical predictors of poor outcomes, namely progression to ALF, the need for liver transplantation (LT) and death. METHODS: 386 subjects prospectively enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry between 1 September 2008 through 25 October 2013, met criteria for ALI: International Normalized Ratio (INR)≥2...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440100/detrimental-effects-of-nicotine-on-thioacetamide-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#2
Zixiong Zhou, Surim Park, Jong Won Kim, Jing Zhao, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung Chul Choi, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
AIM: Nicotine exerts a number of physiological effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For in vivo experiments, hepatic fibrosis was induced by TAA (0.25 g/kg, i.p.) three times a week for 6 weeks. Mice of TAA treated groups were administered daily with distilled water and nicotine (50 or 100 μg/mL) via gastrogavage throughout the experimental period...
April 25, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438794/intraductal-oncocytic-papillary-neoplasm-a-benign-hepatic-cystic-neoplasm
#3
Angela Tong, Gregory Veillette, Alexandra Budhai, Anthony Gilet
A 61-year-old Asian man presented with severe right upper quadrant pain which had been worsening for several months. Laboratory results indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The subsequent ultrasound, CT and MRI showed a large cystic mass with solid components and severe intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation. The mass was resected and pathology showed a well-demarcated mucinous cystic lesion with polygonal cells containing ovoid nuclei and abundant pink oncocytic cytoplasm...
April 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438567/a-systematic-evaluation-of-micrornas-in-regulating-human-hepatic-cyp2e1
#4
Yong Wang, Dianke Yu, William H Tolleson, Li-Rong Yu, Bridgett Green, Linjuan Zeng, Yinting Chen, Si Chen, Zhen Ren, Lei Guo, Weida Tong, Huaijin Guan, Baitang Ning
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is an important drug metabolizing enzyme for processing numerous xenobiotics in the liver, including acetaminophen and ethanol. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can suppress CYP2E1 expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of its transcript. However, a systematic analysis of CYP2E1 regulation by miRNAs has not been described. Here, we applied in silico, in vivo, and in vitro approaches to investigate miRNAs involved in the regulation of CYP2E1...
April 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437891/the-therapeutic-effect-of-nano-encapsulated-and-nano-emulsion-forms-of-carvacrol-on-experimental-liver-fibrosis
#5
Jihan Hussein, Mona El-Banna, Khaled F Mahmoud, Safaa Morsy, Yasmin Abdel Latif, Dalia Medhat, Eman Refaat, Abdel Razik Farrag, Sherien M El-Daly
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. METHODS: To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3...
April 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437325/presenting-features-and-prognosis-of-ischemic-and-nonischemic-neonatal-liver-failure
#6
Carlos Zozaya Nieto, Beatriz Fernández Caamaño, Gema Muñoz Bartolo, Juan J Menéndez Suso, Esteban Frauca Remacha, Eva Valverde Núñez
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological features, clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates diagnosed with liver failure, as well as determine prognostic factors. METHODS: Cohort study conducted at a single tertiary referral and university-affiliated pediatric center. Hospital records of all neonates diagnosed with liver failure between January 2003 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and data on clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436319/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-in-vivo-hypolipidemic-effects-of-the-king-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-eryngii-var-ferulae-ddl01-agaricomycetes-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-and-hyperlipidemia
#7
Jun-Hui Choi, Dae-Won Kim, Seung Kim, Sung-Jun Kim
We investigated the effect of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae DDL01 on oxidative damage in the liver and brain and a high-fat/high-cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic model. In in vitro studies, the water extracts of the fruiting bodies showed strong scavenging activities of DPPH (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) and hydroxyl (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) radicals. Moreover, the extracts showed Fe2+ chelating and reducing abilities, as well as a large amount of polyphenols and an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation in the liver and brain tissues...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#8
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433945/cqmuh-011-a-novel-adamantane-sulfonamide-compound-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-and-d-galactosamine-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#9
Liping Yan, Xiangnan Hu, Qihong Wu, Rong Jiang, Sisi Zhang, Qiao Ling, Hailin Liu, Xuejun Jiang, Jingyuan Wan, Yingju Liu
CQMUH-011, a novel adamantane sulfonamide compound, was shown to suppress macrophage activation and proliferation in our previous study. However, it is unknown whether CQMUH-011 has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the potential effects and mechanisms of CQMUH-011 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell activation in vitro and LPS- and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in vivo. The results showed that in RAW264.7 cells challenged by LPS, CQMUH-011 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
April 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433804/crocin-attenuates-hemorrhagic-shock-induced-oxidative-stress-and-organ-injuries-in-rats
#10
Long Yang, Xiujuan Dong
We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430162/ameliorative-effects-and-possible-molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-black-ginseng-panax-ginseng-on-acetaminophen-mediated-liver-injury
#11
Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Zi Wang, Xin-Dian Li, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Li, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429935/saponins-ginsenosides-from-the-leaves-of-panax-quinquefolius-ameliorated-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#12
Xing-Yue Xu, Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Rui Zhang, Yu-Fang He, Wei Hou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Ge Yang, Wei Li
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428356/biological-variation-estimates-obtained-from-91-healthy-study-participants-for-9-enzymes-in-serum
#13
Anna Carobene, Thomas Røraas, Una Ørvim Sølvik, Marit Sverresdotter Sylte, Sverre Sandberg, Elena Guerra, Irene Marino, Niels Jonker, Gerhard Barla, William A Bartlett, Pilar Fernandez-Calle, Jorge Díaz-Garzón, Francesca Tosato, Mario Plebani, Abdurrahman Coŝkun, Mustafa Serteser, Ibrahim Unsal, Ferruccio Ceriotti
BACKGROUND: We sought to develop estimates of biological variation (BV) for 9 enzymes in blood serum as part of the European Biological Variation Study. METHODS: Ninety-one healthy study participants (38 male and 53 female, 21-69 years old) were phlebotomized in each of 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories. The same preanalytical sample-handling protocol was followed at each center before transport to San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, for analysis...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428134/use-of-physiological-biomarkers-in-diagnosis-along-with-field-trials-of-different-trypanisidal-drugs-in-camels-of-cholistan-desert
#14
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Avais, Haroon Akbar, Waqas Ahmad, Muhammad Azeem
The point prevalence of trypanosomiasis with different physiological biomarkers along with evaluation of the most responsive trypanosidal drug against trypanosomiasis under field conditions was studied. For this purpose a total of 300 free range camels were selected at different grazing and watering point in Cholistan desert. The study population of camels included 150 clinically suspected camels for trypanosomiasis and 150 healthy camels with normal temperature, pulse and respiration. For therapeutic trials 36 positively diagnosed animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups for therapeutic trials...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#15
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427368/complications-of-miliary-tuberculosis-low-mortality-and-predictive-biomarkers-from-a-uk-cohort
#16
Jonathan Underwood, Fiona Cresswell, Alex P Salam, Alex J Keeley, Charles Cleland, Laurence John, Robert N Davidson
BACKGROUND: Untreated, miliary tuberculosis (TB) has a mortality approaching 100%. As it is uncommon there is little specific data to guide its management. We report detailed data from a UK cohort of patients with miliary tuberculosis and the associations and predictive ability of admission blood tests with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Routinely collected demographic, clinical, blood, imaging, histopathological and microbiological data were assessed for all patients with miliary TB identified from the London TB register from 2008 to 2012 from Northwest London Hospitals NHS Trust...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#17
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426943/how-strong-is-the-evidence-for-using-blood-biomarkers-alone-to-screen-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#18
Helen Howlett, Sarah Abernethy, Nigel W Brown, Judith Rankin, William K Gray
Accurate and early identification of women at risk from alcohol consumption during pregnancy allows education and support programmes to be targeted at those most in need. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy of blood analysis and maternal self-report in detecting at risk women during pregnancy. This review investigated diagnostic accuracy. We searched four databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo and CINAHL) for relevant articles and conducted hand searches of recent issues of key journals in the field...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426730/functional-genetic-variant-of-ww-domain-containing-oxidoreductase-wwox-gene-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk
#19
Hsiang-Lin Lee, Hsin-Lin Cheng, Yu-Fan Liu, Ming-Chih Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, Ying-Erh Chou
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Human WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in multiple cancers. We hypothesize that genetic variations in WWOX are associated with HCC risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the WWOX gene were evaluated from 708 normal controls and 354 patients with HCC. We identified a significant association between a WWOX single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs73569323, and decreased risk of HCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424943/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-attenuates-alcohol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#20
Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Byeong-Moo Kim, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Sara A Morrison, Tyler J Tantillo, Qingsong Tao, Mussa M Rafat Mohamed, Juan M Ramirez, Aaron Karas, Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Abeba Teshager, Sarah Shireen Gul, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Atul K Bhan, Madhu S Malo, Michael Y Choi, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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