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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047231/alterations-in-gut-microbiota-and-immunity-by-dietary-fat
#1
REVIEW
Bo Gie Yang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung Shik Lee
Gut microbiota play critical physiological roles in energy extraction from the intestine and in the control of systemic immunity, as well as local intestinal immunity. Disturbance of gut microbiota leads to the development of several diseases, such as colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, etc. From a metabolic point of view, the gut is a large metabolic organ and one of the first to come into contact with dietary fats. Interestingly, excessive dietary fat has been incriminated as a primary culprit of metabolic syndrome and obesity...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046639/neonatal-colonic-inflammation-increases-spinal-transmission-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthetase-expression-in-spinal-dorsal-horn-of-rats-with-visceral-hypersensitivity
#2
Liting Zhao, Ying Xiao, Rui-Xia Weng, Xuelian Liu, Ping-An Zhang, Chuang-Ying Hu, Shan P Yu, Guang-Yin Xu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and alteration of bowel movements. The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients remains largely unknown. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to play an important role in development of visceral hyperalgesia. However, the role of H2S at spinal dorsal horn level remains elusive in visceral hypersensitivity. The aim of this study is designed to investigate how H2S takes part in visceral hypersensitivity of adult rats with neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043689/-mesenteric-edema-as-a-prenatal-ultrasound-sign-of-poor-prognosis-in-gastroschisis
#3
M Dore Reyes, P Triana Junco, J L Encinas Hernández, E Alvarado Antolín, J L Bartha Rasero, V Núñez Cerezo, M Romo Muñoz, M Gómez Cervantes, A Sánchez Galán, L Martínez Martínez, M López Santamaría
INTRODUCTION/AIM OF THE STUDY: Gastroschisis is a congenital malformation with an easy and early prenatal diagnosis, however, it has a variable post-natal outcome. Our aim was to determine if certain ultrasound markers or early delivery were related with a worse postnatal outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of patients with gastroschisis diagnosed between 2005-2014, with emphasis on prenatal ultrasounds, gestational age at delivery and post-natal outcome...
July 20, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043445/the-role-of-intermediate-filaments-in-maintaining-integrity-and-function-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-massive-bowel-resection-in-a-rat
#4
I Sukhotnik, Y Ben Shahar, Y Pollak, T Dorfman, H Kreizman Shefer, Z E Assi, N Mor-Vaknin, A G Coran
PURPOSE: Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a part of the cytoskeleton that extend throughout the cytoplasm of all cells and function in the maintenance of cell-shape by bearing tension and serving as structural components of the nuclear lamina. In normal intestine, IFs provide a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IFs during intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS)...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039050/the-protective-effect-of-fish-oil-lipid-emulsions-on-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#5
Seiro Machigashira, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Waka Yamada, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Takafumi Kawano, Kazuhiko Nakame, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Pediatric patients with intestinal failure need long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), but this nutritional support causes liver dysfunction, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Several studies have shown that the lipid emulsion produced by soybean oil (SO) is associated with the occurrence of IFALD. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SO and fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into three groups: sham operation with normal chow (Sham group), 80% small bowel resection (80% SBR) + TPN with SO lipid emulsion (SO group), and 80% SBR + TPN with FO lipid emulsion (FO group)...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038646/medical-therapies-in-the-pipeline-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Michael Camilleri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035975/breath-hydrogen-testing-in-east-and-southeast-asia
#7
Chu Kion Yao, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Breath hydrogen tests are popular, noninvasive tests for the assessment of carbohydrate fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). There is limited information regarding the utility of breath hydrogen and methane tests in IBS and FD patients in East and Southeast Asia. This review aims to summarize current literature about common indications of breath testing in this region, the genesis of functional gastrointestinal symptoms by provocative breath testing and provide suggestions for correct use...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035515/the-isoform-specific-substrate-inhibition-mechanism-of-human-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#8
Kasper Damgaard Tidemand, Guenther H H J Peters, Pernille Harris, Eva Stensgaard, Hans E M Christensen
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome. TPH exists in two isoforms; TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 catalyses the initial step in the synthesis of serotonin in the peripheral tissues, while TPH2 catalyses this step in the brain. In this study, the steady-state kinetic mechanism for the catalytic domain of human TPH1 has been determined. Varying substrate tryptophan (Trp) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) results in a hybrid Ping Pong-ordered mechanism in which the reaction can either occur through a Ping Pong or a sequential mechanism depending on the concentration of tryptophan...
October 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034439/low-grade-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-is-common-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-on-quantitative-jejunal-aspirate-culture
#9
Uday C Ghoshal, Chalamalasetty Sreenivasa Baba, Ujjala Ghoshal, George Alexander, Asha Misra, Vivek A Saraswat, Gourdas Choudhuri
BACKGROUND: Though pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear, association with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth [SIBO] and fecal dysbiosis is suggested. We evaluated SIBO in NASH using quantitative jejunal aspirate culture (conventional criteria: ≥ 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL and newer cutoff ≥ 10(3) CFU/mL) and glucose hydrogen breath test. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with NASH (age 37.5 years, range 20-54, 9, 24% female), diagnosed by ultrasonography, alanine aminotransferase >1...
October 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033544/eluxadoline-in-the-treatment-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Ayşe Elif Özdener, Anastasia Rivkin
Eluxadoline is a novel drug approved for the management of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It has unique pharmacology and works on three different opioid receptors. Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated eluxadoline's efficacy in reducing symptoms related to IBS-D. Clinical trial results and postmarketing reports show a risk of pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder or those abusing alcohol. This review article will include information on clinical trial results related to IBS-D management as well as eluxadoline's limitations...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031895/chronic-pelvic-pain-in-an-interdisciplinary-setting-1-year-prospective-cohort
#11
Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Sonja Bodmer-Roy, Sean Zhu, Kristina Arion, Kristin Ambacher, Jessica Wu, Ali Yosef, Fontayne Wong, Heather Noga, Susannah Britnell, Holly Yager, Mohamed A Bedaiwy, Arianne Y Albert, Sarka Lisonkova, Paul J Yong
BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain affects ∼15% of women, and presents a challenging problem for gynecologists due to its complex etiology involving multiple comorbidities. Thus an interdisciplinary approach has been proposed for chronic pelvic pain, where these multifactorial comorbidities can be addressed by different interventions at a single integrated center. Moreover, while cross-sectional studies can provide some insight into the association between these comorbidities and chronic pelvic pain severity, prospective longitudinal cohorts can identify comorbidities that are associated with changes in chronic pelvic pain severity over time...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028807/ulcerative-colitis-crohn-s-disease-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-have-different-profiles-of-extracellular-matrix-turnover-which-also-reflects-disease-activity-in-crohn-s-disease
#12
Joachim Høg Mortensen, Tina Manon-Jensen, Michael Dam Jensen, Per Hägglund, Lone Gabriels Klinge, Jens Kjeldsen, Aleksander Krag, Morten Asser Karsdal, Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027719/glioplasticity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
N L Lilli, L Quénéhervé, S Haddara, C Brochard, P Aubert, M Rolli-Derkinderen, T Durand, P Naveilhan, J-B Hardouin, R De Giorgio, G Barbara, S Bruley des Varannes, E Coron, M Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates a wide array of cellular remodeling in the mucosal microenvironment during irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which possibly contributes to pathophysiology and symptom generation. Here, we investigated whether enteric glial cells (EGC) may be altered, and which factors/mechanisms lead to these changes. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies of IBS patients (13 IBS-Constipation [IBS-C]; 10 IBS-Diarrhea [IBS-D]; 11 IBS-Mixed [IBS-M]) and 24 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed...
October 13, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027468/serrated-polyposis-syndrome-associated-with-long-standing-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Jesús Castro, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Francesc Balaguer, Elena Ricart, María Pellisé
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), which is thought to develop via the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Since the discovery of the serrated carcinogenesis pathway and serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), the incidence of carcinomas arising from serrated lesions in IBD patients has increased. We report three cases of long-standing IBD patients with associated serrated polyposis syndrome. At present, the pathophysiology of serrated lesions in IBD patients is not fully understood and there is a lack of strong evidence to confirm whether the manifestation of both conditions represents an increased risk of developing cancer...
October 13, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026603/downregulation-of-mucosal-mast-cell-activation-and-immune-response-in-diarrhoea-irritable-bowel-syndrome-by-oral-disodium-cromoglycate-a-pilot-study
#15
Beatriz Lobo, Laura Ramos, Cristina Martínez, Mar Guilarte, Ana M González-Castro, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Marc Pigrau, Inés de Torres, Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Marina Fortea, Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Danila Guagnozzi, Fernando Azpiroz, Javier Santos, María Vicario
BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) exhibits intestinal innate immune and mucosal mast cell (MC) activation. MC stabilisers have been shown to improve IBS symptoms but the mechanism is unclear. Our primary aim was to investigate the effect of oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on jejunal MC activation and specific innate immune signalling pathways in IBS-D, and secondarily, its potential clinical benefit. STUDY: Mucosal MC activation (by ultrastructural changes, tryptase release and gene expression) and innate immune signalling (by protein and gene expression) were quantified in jejunal biopsies from healthy (HS; n = 16) and IBS-D subjects after six months of either treatment with DSCG (600 mg/day, IBS-D-DSCG group; n = 18) or without treatment (IBS-D-NT group; n = 25)...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026591/irritable-bowel-syndrome-diagnosis-and-management-a-simplified-algorithm-for-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Paul Moayyedi, Fermín Mearin, Fernando Azpiroz, Viola Andresen, Giovanni Barbara, Maura Corsetti, Anton Emmanuel, A Pali S Hungin, Peter Layer, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Peter Whorwell, Frank Zerbib, Jan Tack
BACKGROUND: Effective management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, can be challenging for physicians because of the lack of simple diagnostic tests and the wide variety of treatment approaches available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to outline a simple algorithm for day-to-day clinical practice to help physicians navigate key stages to reaching a positive IBS diagnosis and guidance on how to prioritise the use of specific management strategies...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023318/comparison-of-gut-directed-hypnotherapy-and-unspecific-hypnotherapy-as-self-help-format-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-abdominal-pain-or-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-pilot-study
#17
Marco D Gulewitsch, Angelika A Schlarb
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial treatments for chronic abdominal pain in childhood or adolescence are effective, but time consuming and hardly available. In the present study, gut-directed hypnotherapy (GDHT) and unspecific hypnotherapy (UHT) were compared to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a hypnotherapeutic self-help intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Children/adolescents between 6 and 17 years of age with chronic abdominal pain were randomized to GDHT or UHT...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023266/novel-zbtb24-mutation-associated-with-immunodeficiency-centromere-instability-and-facial-anomalies-type-2-syndrome-identified-in-a-patient-with-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Máire A Conrad, Noor Dawany, Kathleen E Sullivan, Marcella Devoto, Judith R Kelsen
BACKGROUND: Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diagnosed in children ≤5 years old, can be the initial presentation of some primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: In this study, we describe a 17-month-old boy with recurrent infections, growth failure, facial anomalies, and inflammatory bowel disease. Immune evaluation, whole-exome sequencing, karyotyping, and methylation array were performed to evaluate the child's constellation of symptoms and examination findings...
October 11, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022143/comorbidity-of-gastrointestinal-disorders-migraine-and-tension-type-headache-a-cross-sectional-study-in-iran
#19
Fahimeh Martami, Zeinab Ghorbani, Maryam Abolhasani, Mansoureh Togha, Alipasha Meysamie, Alireza Sharifi, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi
Migraine can be accompanied by some gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) and different lower and upper GI disorders as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and cholelithiasis. This cross-sectional study included 1574 overweight and obese participants who were referred to the Obesity Research Center of Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The diagnosis of migraine and TTH was made by an expert neurologist based on the international classification of headache disorders-III β (ICHD III β)...
October 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019640/spine-conditions-mechanical-and-inflammatory-low-back-pain
#20
Christopher Ledford
Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is an injury or derangement of an anatomic structure in the low back. When evaluating patients with LBP, clinicians should maintain clinical suspicion for vertebral fracture, cancer, and cauda equina syndrome. Management includes patient education focused on exercise, massage, and behavioral approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Acupuncture can be an effective alternative and specific herbal supplements may provide short-term pain relief. The prognosis for patients with mechanical LBP is good...
October 2017: FP Essentials
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