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bowel syndrome

Katarzyna Sznurkowska, Anton Żawrocki, Jacek Sznurkowski, Maciej Zieliński, Piotr Landowski, Katarzyna Plata-Nazar, Ewa Iżycka-Świeszewska, Piotr Trzonkowski, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Barbara Kamińska
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the proportion of T-regulatory cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells) in peripheral blood and the number of FOXP3(+) cells in intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to verify whether these parameters correlate with the activity of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 patients newly diagnosed for IBD were included in the study: ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 13) and Crohn's disease (CD; n = 11). Seventeen healthy controls (HC) and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) served as a control group for peripheral and intestinal Tregs assessment, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Andrew J Irvine, William D Chey, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) share similar symptoms, leading to confusion between the two and diagnostic delay. International guidelines recommend screening individuals with IBS for CD, via serological testing. However, studies published recently have cast doubt on the utility of this. We updated a previous meta-analysis examining this issue. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic were searched through to May 2016. Eligible studies recruited adults with IBS according to symptom-based criteria, physician's opinion, or questionnaire data...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jonathan J Lyons, Xiaomin Yu, Jason D Hughes, Quang T Le, Ali Jamil, Yun Bai, Nancy Ho, Ming Zhao, Yihui Liu, Michael P O'Connell, Neil N Trivedi, Celeste Nelson, Thomas DiMaggio, Nina Jones, Helen Matthews, Katie L Lewis, Andrew J Oler, Ryan J Carlson, Peter D Arkwright, Celine Hong, Sherene Agama, Todd M Wilson, Sofie Tucker, Yu Zhang, Joshua J McElwee, Maryland Pao, Sarah C Glover, Marc E Rothenberg, Robert J Hohman, Kelly D Stone, George H Caughey, Theo Heller, Dean D Metcalfe, Leslie G Biesecker, Lawrence B Schwartz, Joshua D Milner
Elevated basal serum tryptase levels are present in 4-6% of the general population, but the cause and relevance of such increases are unknown. Previously, we described subjects with dominantly inherited elevated basal serum tryptase levels associated with multisystem complaints including cutaneous flushing and pruritus, dysautonomia, functional gastrointestinal symptoms, chronic pain, and connective tissue abnormalities, including joint hypermobility. Here we report the identification of germline duplications and triplications in the TPSAB1 gene encoding α-tryptase that segregate with inherited increases in basal serum tryptase levels in 35 families presenting with associated multisystem complaints...
October 17, 2016: Nature Genetics
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Cristina Oana Mărginean, Maria Oana Mărginean, Iunius Simu, Adrienne Horvath, Lorena Elena Meliţ
BACKGROUND: Adenomas of the colon are usually benign tumors which carry a tendency for malignancy. These tumors can be villous, tubular, tubulovillous, or sessile serrated. Those with adenomatous structure can develop malignant characteristics in 1.5% to 9.4% of cases. METHODS: We present a case report of a 16-year-old female adolescent with an adenoma of the descending colon. History revealed prolonged diarrheic syndrome for the past 6 months, repeated headache, and a weight loss of ∼5 kg in the past month...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bindu Madhavi Mudduluru, Shalin Shah, Steven Shamah, Arun Swaminath
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) antagonists are biologic agents used in the management of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthropathies and inflammatory bowel disease. These agents have been recently shown to cause a syndrome called anti-TNF induced lupus (ATIL), a rare condition which has similar clinical manifestations to idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Given that extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease include arthritis, it can be difficult to separate arthritis due to underlying disease from drug-induced arthritis...
October 17, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Y-B Yu, D-Y Zhao, Q-Q Qi, X Long, X Li, F-X Chen, X-L Zuo
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a vital role in the homeostatic regulation of intestinal barrier integrity. We aimed to investigate the physiological role of BDNF in maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier using postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) mice and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms using intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: Postinflammatory-IBS mice were induced by intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and allowed to recover for 28 days...
October 17, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Motoko Ikuma, Dai Watanabe, Hiroki Yagura, Misa Ashida, Masaaki Takahashi, Masaaki Shibata, Tadafumi Asaoka, Munehiro Yoshino, Tomoko Uehira, Wataru Sugiura, Takuma Shirasaka
An elderly woman with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection developed short bowel syndrome as a result of extensive intestinal resection. Considering the possibility of poor absorption of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was performed. A single-dose test of 6 ARVs (darunavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, etravirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir) did not provide information on the appropriate ARV, and repeated TDM under continuous antiretroviral therapy resulted in viral suppression below 50 copies/mL, which was considered to be treatment success...
2016: Internal Medicine
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Ahmad S Ashrafi, Michael J Horkoff, Waleed M Mohammad, Shaheer Tadros, Sudhir Sundaresan
INTRODUCTION: Boerhaave's syndrome is defined as the spontaneous perforation of the esophagus. Although it has been reported in association with different gastrointestinal pathologies, there are no previous reports in association with an incarcerated inguinal hernia containing ischemic small bowel. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present an unusual case of a gentleman who presented with severe chest pain after a 24-h period of emesis. He was found to have developed an esophageal perforation presumed secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia causing small bowel obstruction...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
S M Johnson, G M Garnett, R K Woo
Maintenance of central venous access in patients with chronic medical conditions such as short bowel syndrome demands forethought and ingenuity. We describe an innovative technique for re-utilizing central venous access sites in patients who have chronic central venous access needs. Records of patients undergoing this technique were reviewed between August 2012 and December 2015. The technique involves "cutting-down" to the sterile fibrous tunnel that naturally forms around tunneled catheters. The fibrous sheath is then isolated and controlled much as would be done for a venous "cut-down...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms which impact on the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors which result in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous systems, circulating endocrine hormones and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules have a role to play in this disorder...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Abdel-Naser Elzouki
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic bacteria capable of colonizing the colonic mucosa. The most common probiotics include strains of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria, which are part of the normal gastrointestinal microbiota. Initial studies of selected probiotic species have suggested potential efficacy in several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (particularly pouchitis), antibiotic-related diarrhea, Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis, infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ji-Meng Zhao, Liu Chen, Ci-Li Zhou, Yin Shi, Yu-Wei Li, Hai-Xia Shang, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Chuan-Zi Dou, Huan-Gan Wu
Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion (Mox) on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects) in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS). Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral) acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC) activity in colon of rats...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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