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Molecular vitamin nutrient

Edwin T Moran
The small intestinal mucosa acts to recover nutrients from the lumen while providing a barrier against potential hazards. Its unstirred water layer (USWL) at the lumen interface involves membrane associated mucin linearly protruding from underlying microvilli that entangles secretory mucin released from local goblet cells. Both mucin sources are dominated by repetitive O-glycosylated areas dependant on threonine, serine, glycine, and proline. Secretory mucin differs from membrane attached mucin by further employing multiple cystines that interconnect these areas into a net-like molecular sieve...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Dexiang Liu, Zunji Ke, Jia Luo
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Andreea Ioana Radu, Maria Kuellmer, Bernd Giese, Uwe Huebner, Karina Weber, Dana Cialla-May, Jürgen Popp
Food analysis has been gaining interest throughout recent decades for different reasons: the detection of hazardous substances in food and routine investigations of food composition and vitamin/nutrient contents. Regardless of the targeted component, food analysis raises a few challenges regarding the complexity of the matrix and detecting trace amounts of substances. We report herein the results obtained regarding the simultaneous detection of two B vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B2 and cyanocobalamin, vitamin B12) by means of SERS...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Brendon D Gill, Grant A Abernethy, Rebecca J Green, Harvey E Indyk
A method for the determination of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and adult nutritional formulas is described. Samples are saponified at high temperature and lipid-soluble components are extracted into isooctane. A portion of the isooctane layer is transferred and washed, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione is added to derivatize the vitamin D to form a high-molecular-mass, easily ionizable adduct. The vitamin D adduct is then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analyzed by RPLC...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Ahmad Reza Dorosty-Motlagh, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mina Abdolahi
Vitamin A, considered to be an essential nutrient, has important actions in immunological responses and the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroimmunological functions of vitamin A are mediated through its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). In the CNS, RA contributes to regeneration and plasticity, while also playing a key role in enhancing tolerance and reducing inflammatory responses by regulating T cell, B cell and dendritic cell populations. However, evidence has indicated lower plasma levels of vitamin A in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Joseph L Roberts, Régis Moreau
Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
Marcio M Ladeira, Jon P Schoonmaker, Mateus P Gionbelli, Júlio C O Dias, Tathyane R S Gionbelli, José Rodolfo R Carvalho, Priscilla D Teixeira
The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points in the synthesis of fat in cattle take place at the molecular level, and the association of nutritional factors with the modulation of this metabolism is one of the recent targets of nutrigenomic research. Within this context, special attention has been paid to the study of nuclear receptors associated with fatty acid metabolism...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anne Létondor, Benjamin Buaud, Carole Vaysse, Emmanuel Richard, Sophie Layé, Véronique Pallet, Serge Alfos
Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Suyun Lin, Guowen Zhang, Yijing Liao, Deming Gong
Dietary guidelines to promote health are usually based on the patterns' prediction on disease risk of foods and nutrients. Overactivity of xanthine oxidase (XO) is the underlying cause of gout. Herein, the inhibitory kinetics and mechanism of dietary vitamins D3 and B2 on XO were investigated by multispectroscopic methods and a molecular modeling technique. The results showed that vitamin D3 competitively inhibited XO with an inhibition constant of 26.93 ± 0.42 μM by inserting into the active cavity of XO interacting with the surrounding amino acid residues through hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
Pawel R Kiela, Fayez K Ghishan
Virtually all nutrients from the diet are absorbed into blood across the highly polarized epithelial cell layer forming the small and large intestinal mucosa. Anatomical, histological, and functional specializations along the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for the effective and regulated nutrient transport via both passive and active mechanisms. In this chapter, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanism of intestinal absorption of key nutrients such as sodium, anions (chloride, sulfate, oxalate), carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids, lipid- and water-soluble vitamins, as well as the major minerals and micronutrients...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Andrea Ticinesi, Tiziana Meschi, Fulvio Lauretani, Giovanna Felis, Fabrizio Franchi, Carlo Pedrolli, Michela Barichella, Giuseppe Benati, Sergio Di Nuzzo, Gian Paolo Ceda, Marcello Maggio
Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)...
2016: Nutrients
Paola Dongiovanni, Claudia Lanti, Patrizia Riso, Luca Valenti
Following the epidemics of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of liver disease in western countries. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, there are no approved drugs for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification, including increase of physical activity and the adoption of a healthy eating behavior. In this regard, studies aimed to elucidate the effect of dietary interventions and the mechanisms of action of specific food bioactives are urgently needed...
March 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Aijuan Zheng, Jianjie Luo, Kun Meng, Jianke Li, Wayne L Bryden, Wenhuan Chang, Shu Zhang, L X N Wang, Guohua Liu, Bin Yao
BACKGROUND: The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS)...
2016: BMC Genomics
Qian Zhang, Yeqing Lu, Huaiping Zheng, Helu Liu, Shengkang Li
Vitellogenin (Vg), an egg yolk precursor protein, not only functions as a source of nutrients and a nonpolar molecular carrier that combine and transfer lipids, proteins, vitamin and carotenoids to oocytes during the oogenesis. but also links with the immune defense in many oviparous animals. To investigate whether Vg plays a immune defensive role in noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, an acute Vibrio anguillarum infection experiment was conducted in orange and brown scallops with different carotenoids content. qRT-PCR result showed that Vg transcripts were significantly up-regulated after challenge with V...
March 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shujuan Cao, Liang Yu, Jingyuan Mao, Quan Wang, Jishou Ruan
This study begins with constructing the mini metabolic networks (MMNs) of beta amyloid (Aβ) and acetylcholine (ACh) which stimulate the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Then we generate the AD network by incorporating MMNs of Aβ and ACh, and other MMNs of stimuli of AD. The panel of proteins contains 49 enzymes/receptors on the AD network which have the 3D-structure in PDB. The panel of drugs is formed by 5 AD drugs and 5 AD nutraceutical drugs, and 20 non-AD drugs. All of these complexes formed by these 30 drugs and 49 proteins are transformed into dyadic arrays...
2015: PloS One
Daniel J Hunter, Jessica L Torkelson, James Bodnar, Bobak Mortazavi, Timothy Laurent, Jeff Deason, Khanhkeo Thephavongsa, Jianmin Zhong
Ticks and other arthropods often are hosts to nutrient providing bacterial endosymbionts, which contribute to their host's fitness by supplying nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. It has been detected, in our lab, that Ixodes pacificus is host to Rickettsia species phylotype G021. This endosymbiont is predominantly present, and 100% maternally transmitted in I. pacificus. To study roles of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, bioinformatic and molecular approaches were carried out. MUMmer genome alignments of whole genome sequence of I...
2015: PloS One
Arancha Hevia, Susana Delgado, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
The human gastrointestinal tract is a very complex ecosystem, in which there is a continuous interaction between nutrients, host cells, and microorganisms. The gut microbiota comprises trillions of microbes that have been selected during evolution on the basis of their functionality and capacity to survive in, and adapt to, the intestinal environment. Host bacteria and our immune system constantly sense and react to one another. In this regard, commensal microbes contribute to gut homeostasis, whereas the necessary responses are triggered against enteropathogens...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bo Xia, Li Pang, Zhi-xiong Zhuang, Jian-jun Liu
Environmental pollution and an unhealthy lifestyle result in direct exposure to dangerous chemicals that can modify endogenous pathways and induce malignant transformation of human cells. Although the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis are still not well understood, epigenetic alteration may be associated with exogenous chemical-induced carcinogenicity. Given the association between nutrition and cancer, nutrient supplementation may reduce aberrant epigenetic modifications induced by chemicals, thus decreasing carcinogenesis...
January 22, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Yunes Panahi, Behrad Darvishi, Narges Jowzi, Fatemeh Beiraghdar, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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