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Feedforward Inhibition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#1
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122591/spiking-and-excitatory-inhibitory-input-dynamics-of-barrel-cells-in-response-to-whisker-deflections-of-varying-velocity-and-angular-direction
#2
Mainak Patel
The spiking of barrel regular-spiking (RS) cells is tuned for both whisker deflection direction and velocity. Velocity tuning arises due to thalamocortical (TC) synchrony (but not spike quantity) varying with deflection velocity, coupled with feedforward inhibition, while direction selectivity is not fully understood, though may be due partly to direction tuning of TC spiking. Data show that as deflection direction deviates from the preferred direction of an RS cell, excitatory input to the RS cell diminishes minimally, but temporally shifts to coincide with the time-lagged inhibitory input...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107522/-silent-nmda-synapses-enhance-motion-sensitivity-in-a-mature-retinal-circuit
#3
Santhosh Sethuramanujam, Xiaoyang Yao, Geoff deRosenroll, Kevin L Briggman, Greg D Field, Gautam B Awatramani
Retinal direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) have the remarkable ability to encode motion over a wide range of contrasts, relying on well-coordinated excitation and inhibition (E/I). E/I is orchestrated by a diverse set of glutamatergic bipolar cells that drive DSGCs directly, as well as indirectly through feedforward GABAergic/cholinergic signals mediated by starburst amacrine cells. Determining how direction-selective responses are generated across varied stimulus conditions requires understanding how glutamate, acetylcholine, and GABA signals are precisely coordinated...
October 25, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077746/value-based-decision-making-via-sequential-sampling-with-hierarchical-competition-and-attentional-modulation
#4
Jaron T Colas
In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069595/cortical-interneurons-differentially-shape-frequency-tuning-following-adaptation
#5
Ryan G Natan, Winnie Rao, Maria N Geffen
Neuronal stimulus selectivity is shaped by feedforward and recurrent excitatory-inhibitory interactions. In the auditory cortex (AC), parvalbumin- (PV) and somatostatin-positive (SOM) inhibitory interneurons differentially modulate frequency-dependent responses of excitatory neurons. Responsiveness of neurons in the AC to sound is also dependent on stimulus history. We found that the inhibitory effects of SOMs and PVs diverged as a function of adaptation to temporal repetition of tones. Prior to adaptation, suppressing either SOM or PV inhibition drove both increases and decreases in excitatory spiking activity...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066561/concerted-interneuron-activity-in-the-cerebellar-molecular-layer-during-rhythmic-oromotor-behaviors
#6
G Astorga, D Li, L Therreau, M Kassa, A Marty, I Llano
Molecular layer interneurons (MLIs, stellate and basket cells) of the cerebellar cortex are linked together by chemical and electrical synapses and exert a potent feedforward inhibition on Purkinje cells. The functional role of MLIs during specific motor tasks is uncertain. Here we use two-photon imaging to study the patterns of activity of neighboring individual MLIs in the Crus II region of awake female mice during two types of oromotor activity, licking and bruxing, using specific expression of the genetically-encoded calcium indicator protein GCaMP6s...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033795/cellular-mechanisms-of-cortisol-induced-changes-in-mauthner-cell-excitability-in-the-startle-circuit-of-goldfish
#7
Daniel R Bronson, Thomas Preuss
Predator pressure and olfactory cues (alarm substance) have been shown to modulate Mauthner cell (M-cell) initiated startle escape responses (C-starts) in teleost fish. The regulation of such adaptive responses to potential threats is thought to involve the release of steroid hormones such as cortisol. However, the mechanism by which cortisol may regulate M-cell excitability is not known. Here, we used intrasomatic, in vivo recordings to elucidate the acute effects of cortisol on M-cell membrane properties and sound evoked post-synaptic potentials (PSPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028183/non-synaptic-signaling-from-cerebellar-climbing-fibers-modulates-golgi-cell-activity
#8
Angela K Nietz, Jada H Vaden, Luke T Coddington, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche, Jacques I Wadiche
Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973852/nucleus-accumbens-feedforward-inhibition-circuit-promotes-cocaine-self-administration
#9
Jun Yu, Yijin Yan, King-Lun Li, Yao Wang, Yanhua H Huang, Nathaniel N Urban, Eric J Nestler, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) sends excitatory projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and regulates motivated behaviors partially by activating NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Here, we characterized a feedforward inhibition circuit, through which BLA-evoked activation of NAc shell (NAcSh) MSNs was fine-tuned by GABAergic monosynaptic innervation from adjacent fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs). Specifically, BLA-to-NAcSh projections predominantly innervated NAcSh FSIs compared with MSNs and triggered action potentials in FSIs preceding BLA-mediated activation of MSNs...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959971/axonal-synapse-sorting-in-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#10
Helene Schmidt, Anjali Gour, Jakob Straehle, Kevin M Boergens, Michael Brecht, Moritz Helmstaedter
Research on neuronal connectivity in the cerebral cortex has focused on the existence and strength of synapses between neurons, and their location on the cell bodies and dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The synaptic architecture of individual presynaptic axonal trees, however, remains largely unknown. Here we used dense reconstructions from three-dimensional electron microscopy in rats to study the synaptic organization of local presynaptic axons in layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex, the site of grid-like spatial representations...
September 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945232/extra-mitochondrial-prosurvival-bcl-2-proteins-regulate-gene-transcription-by-inhibiting-the-sufu%C3%A2-tumour-suppressor
#11
Xiaofeng Wu, Li-Shu Zhang, Jason Toombs, Yi-Chun Kuo, John Tyler Piazza, Rubina Tuladhar, Quinn Barrett, Chih-Wei Fan, Xuewu Zhang, Loren D Walensky, Marcel Kool, Steven Y Cheng, Rolf Brekken, Joseph T Opferman, Douglas R Green, Tudor Moldoveanu, Lawrence Lum
Direct interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members form the basis of cell death decision-making at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here we report that three anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins (MCL-1, BCL-2 and BCL-XL) found untethered from the OMM function as transcriptional regulators of a prosurvival and growth program. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins engage a BCL-2 homology (BH) domain sequence found in SUFU (suppressor of fused), a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the GLI DNA-binding proteins...
October 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924628/a-recurrent-neural-model-for-proto-object-based-contour-integration-and-figure-ground-segregation
#12
Brian Hu, Ernst Niebur
Visual processing of objects makes use of both feedforward and feedback streams of information. However, the nature of feedback signals is largely unknown, as is the identity of the neuronal populations in lower visual areas that receive them. Here, we develop a recurrent neural model to address these questions in the context of contour integration and figure-ground segregation. A key feature of our model is the use of grouping neurons whose activity represents tentative objects ("proto-objects") based on the integration of local feature information...
December 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923948/cross-scale-effects-of-neural-interactions-during-human-neocortical-seizure-activity
#13
Tahra L Eissa, Koen Dijkstra, Christoph Brune, Ronald G Emerson, Michel J A M van Putten, Robert R Goodman, Guy M McKhann, Catherine A Schevon, Wim van Drongelen, Stephan A van Gils
Small-scale neuronal networks may impose widespread effects on large network dynamics. To unravel this relationship, we analyzed eight multiscale recordings of spontaneous seizures from four patients with epilepsy. During seizures, multiunit spike activity organizes into a submillimeter-sized wavefront, and this activity correlates significantly with low-frequency rhythms from electrocorticographic recordings across a 10-cm-sized neocortical network. Notably, this correlation effect is specific to the ictal wavefront and is absent interictally or from action potential activity outside the wavefront territory...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916520/rubrocerebellar-feedback-loop-isolates-the-interposed-nucleus-as-an-independent-processor-of-corollary-discharge-information-in-mice
#14
Christy S Beitzel, Brenda D Houck, Samantha M Lewis, Abigail L Person
Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884446/analysis-of-homeostatic-mechanisms-in-biochemical-networks
#15
Michael Reed, Janet Best, Martin Golubitsky, Ian Stewart, H Frederik Nijhout
Cell metabolism is an extremely complicated dynamical system that maintains important cellular functions despite large changes in inputs. This "homeostasis" does not mean that the dynamical system is rigid and fixed. Typically, large changes in external variables cause large changes in some internal variables so that, through various regulatory mechanisms, certain other internal variables (concentrations or velocities) remain approximately constant over a finite range of inputs. Outside that range, the mechanisms cease to function and concentrations change rapidly with changes in inputs...
November 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855178/baroreflex-and-neurovascular-responses-to-skeletal-muscle-mechanoreflex-activation-in-humans-an-exercise-in-integrative-physiology
#16
Rachel C Drew
Cardiovascular adjustments to exercise, resulting in increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), occur in response to activation of several neural mechanisms - the exercise pressor reflex, central command, and the arterial baroreflex. Neural inputs from these feedback and feedforward mechanisms integrate in the cardiovascular control centers in the brain stem, and modulate sympathetic and parasympathetic neural outflow, resulting in the increased BP and HR observed during exercise. Another specific consequence of the central neural integration of these inputs during exercise is increased sympathetic neural outflow directed to the kidneys, causing renal vasoconstriction, a key reflex mechanism involved in blood flow redistribution during increased skeletal muscle work...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808338/a-dynamical-framework-for-complex-fractional-killing
#17
Richard Ballweg, Andrew L Paek, Tongli Zhang
When chemotherapy drugs are applied to tumor cells with the same or similar genotypes, some cells are killed, while others survive. This fractional killing contributes to drug resistance in cancer. Through an incoherent feedforward loop, chemotherapy drugs not only activate p53 to induce cell death, but also promote the expression of apoptosis inhibitors which inhibit cell death. Consequently, cells in which p53 is activated early undergo apoptosis while cells in which p53 is activated late survive. The incoherent feedforward loop and the essential role of p53 activation timing makes fractional killing a complex dynamical challenge, which is hard to understand with intuition alone...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747874/the-functioning-of-a-cortex-without-layers
#18
REVIEW
Julien Guy, Jochen F Staiger
A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736520/combined-effects-of-feedforward-inhibition-and-excitation-in-thalamocortical-circuit-on-the-transitions-of-epileptic-seizures
#19
Denggui Fan, Lixia Duan, Qian Wang, Guoming Luan
The mechanisms underlying electrophysiologically observed two-way transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures in cerebral cortex remain unknown. The interplay within thalamocortical network is believed to give rise to these epileptic multiple modes of activity and transitions between them. In particular, it is thought that in some areas of cortex there exists feedforward inhibition from specific relay nucleus of thalamus (TC) to inhibitory neuronal population (IN) which has even more stronger functions on cortical activities than the known feedforward excitation from TC to excitatory neuronal population (EX)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698210/apobec3a-and-apobec3b-activities-render-cancer-cells-susceptible-to-atr-inhibition
#20
Rémi Buisson, Michael S Lawrence, Cyril H Benes, Lee Zou
The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B have emerged as key mutation drivers in cancer. Here, we show that APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B activities impose a unique type of replication stress by inducing abasic sites at replication forks. In contrast to cells under other types of replication stress, APOBEC3A-expressing cells were selectively sensitive to ATR inhibitors (ATRi), but not to a variety of DNA replication inhibitors and DNA-damaging drugs. In proliferating cells, APOBEC3A modestly elicited ATR but not ATM...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Research
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