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leptospira in dogs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513759/-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#1
Michèle Bergmann, Julia-Rebecca Llewellyn, Katrin Hartmann
Rapid confirmation of the diagnosis leptospirosis is important in order to apply appropriate treatment; in addition, infected dogs are a zoonotic risk. Culture and isolation of living leptospires from blood, urine, or tissues is considered the reference standard of diagnosis. However, sensitivity are low, and leptospires require weeks to months to grow. Therefore, diagnosis of leptospirosis is most commonly based on antibody testing or the detection of Leptospira spp. DNA by PCR. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is currently still the recommended confirmatory test for canine leptospirosis, despite its numerous limitations (e...
May 17, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475453/presence-of-antibodies-to-leptospira-spp-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-and-beavers-castor-canadensis-in-northwestern-mexico
#2
Andrés M López-Pérez, Gerardo Carreón-Arroyo, Daniel Atilano, Ana L Vigueras-Galván, Carlos Valdez, Daniel Toyos, Daniel Mendizabal, Jonathan López-Islas, Gerardo Suzán
Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466955/-epidemiology-and-prevention-of-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#3
Michèle Bergmann, Julia-Rebecca Llewellyn, Katrin Hartmann
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with increasing prevalence in dogs and humans. The various Leptospira serovars display different pathogenicity. Even healthy infected dogs can shed leptospires with their urine and thus, represent a risk for humans and other animals. Vaccination is the most important measure for prevention; it not only prevents disease in dogs, but also reduces shedding of leptospires in urine. For comprehensive protection through vaccination, tetravalent vaccines containing serovars of the serogroups relevant in the corresponding region should be used...
May 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384550/molecular-detection-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-leptospira-from-asymptomatic-humans-domestic-animals-and-water-sources-in-nan-province-a-rural-area-of-thailand
#4
Alongkorn Kurilung, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Kittitat Lugsomya, Waree Niyomtham, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367783/high-number-of-asymptomatic-dogs-as-leptospiral-carriers-in-an-endemic-area-indicates-a-serious-public-health-concern
#5
R Sant'anna, A S Vieira, J Grapiglia, W Lilenbaum
Asymptomatic dogs can be potential hosts of leptospirosis. However, the extension of this phenomenon in endemic areas has not yet been clearly defined. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of asymptomatic dogs as carriers of Leptospira in an endemic area of Brazil. A total of 131 male dogs without apparent leptospirosis symptoms were included in the study based on clinical and hematologic exams. Serum and urine samples were collected for microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeted the LipL32 gene, respectively...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351712/bovine-leptospirosis-prevalence-associated-risk-factors-for-infection-and-their-cause-effect-relation
#6
Juscivete F Fávero, Hugo L de Araújo, Walter Lilenbaum, Gustavo Machado, Alexandre A Tonin, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan infectious disease that causes severe reproductive disorders in cattle, especially those related to abortion. This disease has rodents as main reservoirs; however, cattle are responsible for maintenance of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with infection and cause-effect relation of leptospirosis in dairy herds from Southern of Brazil. Serum samples of 1242 cows were collected from herds classified as of medium and high density, and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT)...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332640/leptospirosis-in-domestic-animals-in-france-serological-results-from-1988-to-2007
#7
G André-Fontaine
Leptospirosis is a common infection in domestic animals. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is used for serological diagnosis. From 1988 to 2007, the Leptospira Medical and Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory at the Nantes National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering used the MAT to test serum samples from more than 40,000 cattle, 40,000 pigs, 20,000 horses and 9,500 dogs. Five Leptospira serogroups were prominent, with specific variations within the four animal species: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroë, Grippotyphosa and Autumnalis...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303833/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-leptospira-spp-isolated-from-environmental-human-and-animal-sources-in-malaysia
#8
Douadi Benacer, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Peck Toung Ooi, Kwai Lin Thong
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of isolates obtained from different hosts. A total of 65 Leptospira isolates from humans (n = 1), zoonoses (rat, n = 60; dog, n = 1; swine, n = 1) and environment (n = 2) were tested against six antibiotics. All the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole and had high MIC toward chloramphenicol (MIC90: 6.25 μg/ml). All except one environment isolate were sensitive to ampicillin, doxycycline and penicillin G...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235787/evaluation-of-a-rapid-igm-detection-test-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#9
J Lizer, M Grahlmann, H Hapke, S Velineni, D Lin, B Kohn
Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira-specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45)...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131372/diagnostic-accuracy-of-an-in-house-elisa-using-the-intermediate-species-leptospira-fainei-as-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#10
Bruno Penna, Carla D Marassi, Hugo Libonati, Lorena Narduche, Walter Lilenbaum, Pascale Bourhy
Diagnosis of animal leptospirosis is still challenging. The microscopic agglutination test, is the current method for diagnosing leptospirosis. However, this technique requires specific equipment, highly trained staff and the maintenance of live cultures of several reference strains of Leptospira for use as antigens. Recently, an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) employing a Leptospira fainei serovar Hurstbridge based antigen for the early diagnostic of human leptospirosis was developed. In this study we estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this test in identifying acute canine leptospirosis...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129788/meta-analysis-to-estimate-the-load-of-leptospira-excreted-in-urine-beyond-rats-as-important-sources-of-transmission-in-low-income-rural-communities
#11
REVIEW
Veronica Barragan, Nathan Nieto, Paul Keim, Talima Pearson
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a major zoonotic disease with widespread distribution and a large impact on human health. Carrier animals excrete pathogenic Leptospira primarily in their urine. Infection occurs when the pathogen enters a host through mucosa or small skin abrasions. Humans and other animals are exposed to the pathogen by direct contact with urine, contaminated soil or water. While many factors influence environmental cycling and the transmission of Leptospira to humans, the load of pathogenic Leptospira in the environment is likely to play a major role...
January 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012903/multiple-host-pathogens-in-domestic-hunting-dogs-in-nicaragua-s-bosaw%C3%A3-s-biosphere-reserve
#12
Christine V Fiorello, Mary H Straub, Laura M Schwartz, James Liu, Amanda Campbell, Alexa K Kownacki, Janet E Foley
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680169/comparison-of-16s-rrna-pcr-rflp-lipl32-pcr-and-ompl1-pcr-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis
#13
Tülin Güven Gökmen, Ayben Soyal, Yıldız Kalayci, Cansu Önlen, Fatih Köksal
Leptospirosis is still one of the most important health problems in developing countries located in humid tropical and subtropical regions. Human infections are generally caused by exposure to water, soil or food contaminated with the urine of infected wild and domestic animals such as rodents and dogs. The clinical course of leptospirosis is variable and may be difficult to distinguish from many other infectious diseases. The dark-field microscopy (DFM), serology and nucleic acid amplification techniques are used to diagnose leptospirosis, however, a distinctive standard reference method is still lacking...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574792/identification-of-tenrec-ecaudatus-a-wild-mammal-introduced-to-mayotte-island-as-a-reservoir-of-the-newly-identified-human-pathogenic-leptospira-mayottensis
#14
Erwan Lagadec, Yann Gomard, Gildas Le Minter, Colette Cordonin, Eric Cardinale, Beza Ramasindrazana, Muriel Dietrich, Steven M Goodman, Pablo Tortosa, Koussay Dellagi
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529550/distribution-and-diversity-of-pathogenic-leptospira-species-in-peri-domestic-surface-waters-from-south-central-chile
#15
Meghan R Mason, Carolina Encina, Srinand Sreevatsan, Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting animals and humans caused by infection with Leptospira. The bacteria can survive outside of hosts for long periods of time in soil and water. While identification of Leptospira species from human cases and animal reservoirs are increasingly reported, little is known about the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira species in the environment and how surveillance of the environment might be used for monitoring and controlling disease...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479284/variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-of-leptospiral-dna-isolated-from-canine-urine-samples-molecularly-confirmed-to-contain-pathogenic-leptospires
#16
Kenneth R Harkin, Michael P Hays
OBJECTIVE To use variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis to determine the infecting serovar and strain for leptospiral DNA isolated from canine urine samples confirmed through PCR testing to contain pathogenic leptospires and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) for identifying the infecting serogroup. DESIGN Diagnostic survey and test evaluation. SAMPLE Leptospiral DNA isolated from urine samples from 98 dogs confirmed through PCR testing to have pathogenic leptospires in their urine...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344919/urinary-shedding-of-leptospires-and-presence-of-leptospira-antibodies-in-healthy-dogs-from-upper-bavaria
#17
Julia-Rebecca Llewellyn, Inke Krupka-Dyachenko, Anna Lena Rettinger, Viktor Dyachenko, Ivonne Stamm, Peter Andreas Kopp, Reinhard Konrad Straubinger, Katrin Hartmann
Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species...
May 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294677/human-leptospirosis-on-reunion-island-indian-ocean-are-rodents-the-only-ones-to-blame
#18
Vanina Guernier, Erwan Lagadec, Colette Cordonin, Gildas Le Minter, Yann Gomard, Frédéric Pagès, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Alain Michault, Pablo Tortosa, Koussay Dellagi
BACKGROUND: Although leptospirosis is a zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands, the molecular epidemiology of the disease aiming at linking human cases to specific animal reservoirs has been rarely explored within these peculiar ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five species of wild small mammals (n = 995) as well as domestic animals (n = 101) were screened for Leptospira infection on Reunion Island; positive samples were subsequently genotyped and compared to Leptospira from clinical cases diagnosed in 2012-2013 (n = 66), using MLST analysis...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283852/leptospira-interrogans-serovars-bratislava-and-muenchen-animal-infections-implications-for-epidemiology-and-control
#19
Z Arent, C Frizzell, C Gilmore, A Allen, W A Ellis
Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars - Bratislava and Muenchen - have been associated with disease in domestic animals, in particular pigs, but also in horses and dogs. Similar strains have also been recovered from various wildlife species. Their epidemiology is poorly understood. Two hundred and forty seven such isolates, from UK domestic animal and wildlife species, were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology...
July 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282095/molecular-and-serological-characterization-of-the-first-leptospira-santarosai-strain-isolated-from-a-dog
#20
Bruno Alonso Miotto, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Aline Gil Alves Guilloux, Gisele Oliveira de Sousa, Ana Paula Loureiro, Andrea Micke Moreno, Walter Lilenbaum, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Mitika Kuribayashi Hagiwara
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog...
October 2016: Acta Tropica
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