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leptospira in dogs

Christine V Fiorello, Mary H Straub, Laura M Schwartz, James Liu, Amanda Campbell, Alexa K Kownacki, Janet E Foley
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp...
December 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
Tülin Güven Gökmen, Ayben Soyal, Yıldız Kalayci, Cansu Önlen, Fatih Köksal
Leptospirosis is still one of the most important health problems in developing countries located in humid tropical and subtropical regions. Human infections are generally caused by exposure to water, soil or food contaminated with the urine of infected wild and domestic animals such as rodents and dogs. The clinical course of leptospirosis is variable and may be difficult to distinguish from many other infectious diseases. The dark-field microscopy (DFM), serology and nucleic acid amplification techniques are used to diagnose leptospirosis, however, a distinctive standard reference method is still lacking...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Erwan Lagadec, Yann Gomard, Gildas Le Minter, Colette Cordonin, Eric Cardinale, Beza Ramasindrazana, Muriel Dietrich, Steven M Goodman, Pablo Tortosa, Koussay Dellagi
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meghan R Mason, Carolina Encina, Srinand Sreevatsan, Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting animals and humans caused by infection with Leptospira. The bacteria can survive outside of hosts for long periods of time in soil and water. While identification of Leptospira species from human cases and animal reservoirs are increasingly reported, little is known about the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira species in the environment and how surveillance of the environment might be used for monitoring and controlling disease...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kenneth R Harkin, Michael P Hays
OBJECTIVE To use variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis to determine the infecting serovar and strain for leptospiral DNA isolated from canine urine samples confirmed through PCR testing to contain pathogenic leptospires and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) for identifying the infecting serogroup. DESIGN Diagnostic survey and test evaluation. SAMPLE Leptospiral DNA isolated from urine samples from 98 dogs confirmed through PCR testing to have pathogenic leptospires in their urine...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Julia-Rebecca Llewellyn, Inke Krupka-Dyachenko, Anna Lena Rettinger, Viktor Dyachenko, Ivonne Stamm, Peter Andreas Kopp, Reinhard Konrad Straubinger, Katrin Hartmann
Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species...
May 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Vanina Guernier, Erwan Lagadec, Colette Cordonin, Gildas Le Minter, Yann Gomard, Frédéric Pagès, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Alain Michault, Pablo Tortosa, Koussay Dellagi
BACKGROUND: Although leptospirosis is a zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands, the molecular epidemiology of the disease aiming at linking human cases to specific animal reservoirs has been rarely explored within these peculiar ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five species of wild small mammals (n = 995) as well as domestic animals (n = 101) were screened for Leptospira infection on Reunion Island; positive samples were subsequently genotyped and compared to Leptospira from clinical cases diagnosed in 2012-2013 (n = 66), using MLST analysis...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Z Arent, C Frizzell, C Gilmore, A Allen, W A Ellis
Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars - Bratislava and Muenchen - have been associated with disease in domestic animals, in particular pigs, but also in horses and dogs. Similar strains have also been recovered from various wildlife species. Their epidemiology is poorly understood. Two hundred and forty seven such isolates, from UK domestic animal and wildlife species, were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology...
July 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Bruno Alonso Miotto, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Aline Gil Alves Guilloux, Gisele Oliveira de Sousa, Ana Paula Loureiro, Andrea Micke Moreno, Walter Lilenbaum, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Mitika Kuribayashi Hagiwara
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog...
October 2016: Acta Tropica
Roan Pijnacker, Marga G A Goris, Margreet J M Te Wierik, Els M Broens, Joke W B van der Giessen, Mauro de Rosa, Jaap A Wagenaar, Rudy A Hartskeerl, Daan W Notermans, Kitty Maassen, Barbara Schimmer
In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e...
April 28, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Frederico S Kremer, Marcus R Eslabão, Sérgio Jorge, Natasha R Oliveira, Julia Labonde, Monize N P Santos, Leonardo G Monte, André A Grassmann, Carlos E P Cunha, Karine M Forster, Luísa Z Moreno, Andrea M Moreno, Vinicius F Campos, Alan J A McBride, Luciano S Pinto, Odir A Dellagostin
In the present paper, we announce new draft genomes of four Leptospira interrogans strains named Acegua, RCA, Prea, and Capivara. These strains were isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from cattle, dog, Brazilian guinea pig, and capybara, respectively.
April 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
C Preyß-Jägeler, E Müller, R K Straubinger, K Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD) have a higher prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) antibodies than other breeds, but it is not known whether this is the case for other pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the frequency and level of specific antibodies against members of the Bbsl group, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), and Leptospira (L.) interrogans serovars in BMD and compare the results with those found in dogs of other breeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 171 healthy BMD and 57 healthy control dogs of other breeds were included in the study...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
K Tsegay, A D Potts, N Aklilu, C Lötter, B Gummow
Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses...
March 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha, Samuel Rodrigues Felix, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas Neto, Anelize Campello-Felix, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Leonardo Garcia Monte, Marta Gonçalves Amaral, Márcia de Oliveira Nobre, Éverton Fagonde da Silva, Cláudia Pinho Hartleben, Alan John Alexander McBride, Odir Antonio Dellagostin
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. In this study, we characterized two Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok isolates, one obtained from a dog and the other from a patient with severe leptospirosis, 4 years later. Histopathological analysis showed that both isolates caused severe tissue damage when used to infect hamsters. While L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok is endemic in animals in Europe, there is only one report of human leptospirosis in the literature...
March 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
M Parthiban, S Senthil Kumar, C Balachandran, K Kumanan, K S Aarthi, G Nireesha
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira affecting humans and animals. Untreated leptospirosis may result in severe kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. Virulent leptospirosis can rapidly enter kidney fibroblasts and induce a programmed cell death. Thus, it is a challenge for immunologists to develop an effective and safe leptospirosis vaccine. Here, we compared the commercial canine leptospira vaccine and recombinant proteins (OmpL1 and LipL41) with and without adjuvant in terms of immune response and challenge studies in hamsters and immune response studies alone in experimental dogs...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
June E Olds, Yaxuan Sun, David H Baum, Phillip Gauger
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination...
December 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Solange Maria Gennari, Cassia Yumi Ikuta, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Zenaide Maria de Morais, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T...
2015: PloS One
Peng Ju Yao, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley, Chuck R Toussieng, Thomas B Farver, Jane E Sykes, Katryna A Fleer
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS: 130,557 dogs. PROCEDURES: Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit...
November 15, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Bruno B Chomel
Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets...
2014: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
N R Senthil, K M Palanivel, R Rishikesavan
Leptospirosis is a reemerging and a complex zoonotic bacterial disease, caused by pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A total of 124 sera samples of dogs belonging to different categories like vaccinated, unvaccinated-semiowned, and stray dogs were subjected to sampling. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was conducted by using Leptospira culture. Out of 42 vaccinated dogs, 24 (57%) were positive to one or more serovars. Of the 24, 22 (52.3%), 11 (26.19%), 4 (9.5%), 1 (3%), and 2 (4.7%) were positive to icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, pomona, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis, respectively...
2013: Journal of veterinary medicine
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