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Public health and inequities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738872/a-population-based-study-of-homicide-deaths-in-ontario-canada-using-linked-death-records
#1
James Lachaud, Peter D Donnelly, David Henry, Kathy Kornas, Andrew Calzavara, Catherine Bornbaum, Laura Rosella
BACKGROUND: Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012...
July 24, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738806/financial-crisis-and-income-related-inequalities-in-the-universal-provision-of-a-public-service-the-case-of-healthcare-in-spain
#2
Ignacio Abásolo, Marc Saez, Guillem López-Casasnovas
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the recent recession has altered health care utilisation patterns of different income groups in Spain. METHODS: Based on information concerning individuals 'income and health care use, along with health need indicators and demographic characteristics (provided by the Spanish National Health Surveys from 2006/07 and 2011/12), econometric models are estimated in two parts (mixed logistic regressions and truncated negative binominal regressions) for each of the public health services studied (family doctor appointments, appointments with specialists, hospitalisations, emergencies and prescription drug use)...
July 24, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#3
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (n = 377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731036/stroke-in-women-from-evidence-to-inequalities
#4
REVIEW
Charlotte Cordonnier, Nikola Sprigg, Else Charlotte Sandset, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Valeria Caso, Hanne Christensen
Stroke is the second largest cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost worldwide. The prevalence of stroke in women is predicted to rise rapidly, owing to the increasing average age of the global female population. Vascular risk factors differ between women and men in terms of prevalence, and evidence increasingly supports the clinical importance of sex differences in stroke. The influence of some risk factors for stroke - including diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation - are stronger in women, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy also affect the risk of stroke decades after pregnancy...
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730174/monitoring-health-inequalities-at-the-municipal-level-lithuanian-experience
#5
Snieguole Kaseliene, Olga Mesceriakova-Veliuliene, Jurgita Vladickiene, Ramune Kalediene, Neringa Seseikaite, Mindaugas Stankunas
This study aimed to assess the attitudes of Lithuanian public health professionals towards health inequality monitoring in municipalities. The survey was conducted in public health bureaus (PHBs) and administrations of municipalities in March 2015. All employees of PHBs, all municipal doctors and all employees of health departments were invited to participate in the study (N=318; response rate, 47.2%). The study participants had positive attitudes towards the importance of health inequality monitoring at the municipal level, meanwhile systematic health inequality monitoring was assessed moderately...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727523/from-lead-exposure-in-early-childhood-to-adolescent-health-a-chicago-birth-cohort
#6
Alix S Winter, Robert J Sampson
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. METHODS: We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724420/legal-access-to-medications-a-threat-to-brazil-s-public-health-system
#7
Ana Luiza Chieffi, Rita De Cassia Barata Barradas, Moisés Golbaum
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, health is fundamental human right guaranteed by the Constitution of 1988, which created the Brazilian Universal Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). The SUS provides medications for outpatient care via policy of pharmaceutical assistance (PA) programmes. Despite the advances in PA policies which include the improvement in access to medications, there has been a significant increase in lawsuits related to health products and services. This study aimed to characterize the medication processes filed between 2010 and 2014 against the Secretary of State for Health of São Paulo (State Health Department of São Paulo - SES/SP), in Brazil, following PA policies...
July 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724046/breast-cancer-screening-in-brazil-barriers-related-to-the-health-system
#8
René Aloisio da Costa Vieira, Alessandro Formenton, Silvia Regina Bertolini
Objective: Identify factors related to the health system that lead to a late diagnosis of breast cancer in Brazil. Method: We performed a systematic review in the PubMed and LILACS databases using as keywords "Breast cancer," "system of health" and "Brazil or Brasil." We evaluated the content of the articles using the PRISMA methodology based on PICTOS. The final date was 12/16/2015. We were able to identify 94 publications in PubMed and 43 publications in LILACS...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724000/differences-and-inequalities-in-relation-to-access-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-the-brics-countries
#9
Fábio Humberto Ribeiro Paes Ferraz, Cibele Isaac Saad Rodrigues, Giuseppe Cesare Gatto, Natan Monsores de Sá
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries due to the high level of economic resources needed to maintain patients in the different programs that make up renal replacement therapy (RRT). To analyze the differences and inequalities involved in access to RRT in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa). This is an applied, descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study, with documentary analysis and a literature review...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720270/cancer-through-black-eyes-the-views-of-uk-based-black-men-towards-cancer-a-constructivist-grounded-theory-study
#10
Betselot Mulugeta, Susan Williamson, Rob Monks, Thomas Hack, Kinta Beaver
PURPOSE: Little is known about black African (BA) and black African-Caribbean (BAC) men's views towards cancer; yet culture and acculturation can contribute to the way in which people understand, explain and develop their attitudes towards cancer. Hence, cancer prevention and early detection strategies may not be sensitive to United Kingdom (UK)-based black men's views, affecting their awareness of risk factors and early detection services. This study explored the views of UK-based BA and BAC men towards cancer...
August 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712112/socioeconomic-differences-in-the-cost-availability-and-quality-of-healthy-food-in-sydney
#11
Belinda Crawford, Roy Byun, Emily Mitchell, Susan Thompson, Bin Jalaludin, Siranda Torvaldsen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. METHODS: A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706107/interventions-that-improve-maternity-care-for-immigrant-women-in-the-uk-protocol-for-a-narrative-synthesis-systematic-review
#12
Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom, Catrin Evans, Myfanwy Morgan, Kuldip Kaur Bharj, Jeanette Eldridge, Basharat Hussain
INTRODUCTION: A quarter of all births in the UK are to mothers born outside the UK. There is also evidence that immigrant women have higher maternal and infant death rates and of inequalities in the provision and uptake of maternity services/birth centres. The topic is of great significance to the National Health Service because of directives that address inequalities and the changing patterns of migration to the UK. Our main question for the systematic review is 'what interventions exist that are specifically focused on improving maternity care for immigrant women in the UK?' The primary objective of this synthesis is to generate new interpretations of research evidence...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706083/wealth-related-inequality-in-early-uptake-of-hiv-testing-among-pregnant-women-an-analysis-of-data-from-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-south-africa
#13
Nobubelo Kwanele Ngandu, Carine Van Malderen, Ameena Goga, Niko Speybroeck
OBJECTIVES: Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: South African primary public health facilities in 2012...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706036/driving-improvements-in-emerging-disease-surveillance-through-locally-relevant-capacity-strengthening
#14
REVIEW
Jo E B Halliday, Katie Hampson, Nick Hanley, Tiziana Lembo, Joanne P Sharp, Daniel T Haydon, Sarah Cleaveland
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten the health of people, animals, and crops globally, but our ability to predict their occurrence is limited. Current public health capacity and ability to detect and respond to EIDs is typically weakest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many known drivers of EID emergence also converge in LMICs. Strengthening capacity for surveillance of diseases of relevance to local populations can provide a mechanism for building the cross-cutting and flexible capacities needed to tackle both the burden of existing diseases and EID threats...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697768/identifying-inequitable-healthcare-in-older-people-systematic-review-of-current-research-practice
#16
REVIEW
Sarah M Salway, Nick Payne, Melanie Rimmer, Stefanie Buckner, Hannah Jordan, Jean Adams, Kate Walters, Sarah L Sowden, Lynne Forrest, Linda Sharp, Mira Hidajat, Martin White, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: There is growing consensus on the importance of identifying age-related inequities in the receipt of public health and healthcare interventions, but concerns regarding conceptual and methodological rigour in this area of research. Establishing age inequity in receipt requires evidence of a difference that is not an artefact of poor measurement of need or receipt; is not warranted on the grounds of patient preference or clinical safety; and is judged to be unfair. METHOD: A systematic, thematic literature review was undertaken with the objective of characterising recent research approaches...
July 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697732/an-assessment-of-equity-in-the-distribution-of-non-financial-health-care-inputs-across-public-primary-health-care-facilities-in-tanzania
#17
August Kuwawenaruwa, Josephine Borghi, Michelle Remme, Gemini Mtei
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on how health care inputs are distributed from the sub-national level down to health facilities and their potential influence on promoting health equity. To address this gap, this paper assesses equity in the distribution of health care inputs across public primary health facilities at the district level in Tanzania. METHODS: This is a quantitative assessment of equity in the distribution of health care inputs (staff, drugs, medical supplies and equipment) from district to facility level...
July 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695705/all-drinking-is-not-equal-how-a-social-practice-theory-lens-could-enhance-public-health-research-on-alcohol-and-other-health-behaviours
#18
Petra Sylvia Meier, Alan Warde, John Holmes
BACKGROUND: The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693034/large-scale-physical-activity-data-reveal-worldwide-activity-inequality
#19
Tim Althoff, Rok Sosič, Jennifer L Hicks, Abby C King, Scott L Delp, Jure Leskovec
To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe...
July 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685149/factors-associated-with-dental-pain-in-mexican-schoolchildren-aged-6-to-12-years
#20
Mauricio Escoffié-Ramirez, Leticia Ávila-Burgos, Elena Saraí Baena-Santillan, Fernando Aguilar-Ayala, Edith Lara-Carrillo, Mirna Minaya-Sánchez, Martha Mendoza-Rodríguez, María de Lourdes Márquez-Corona, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís
OBJECTIVE: To identify dental pain prevalence and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,404 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from public schools in the city of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, Mexico. Data were collected through a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, eating and dental hygiene habits, and behavior variables. The dependent variable was self-reported dental pain in the 12 months prior to the survey...
2017: BioMed Research International
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