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Public health and inequities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453666/inequalities-in-rural-communities-adapting-national-deprivation-indices-for-rural-settings
#1
D Fecht, A Jones, T Hill, T Lindfield, R Thomson, A L Hansell, R Shukla
Background: Deprivation indices have been widely used in healthcare research and planning in the United Kingdom. Existing indices, however, are dominated by characteristics of urban populations that may be less relevant in capturing the nature of rural deprivation. We explore if deprivation indices can be modified to make them more sensitive to displaying rural disadvantage in England. Methods: The analysis focussed on the 2011 Carstairs Index (Carstairs2011) and the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2010)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446238/changing-ethnic-inequalities-in-mortality-in-new-zealand-over-30%C3%A2-years-linked-cohort-studies-with-68-9-million-person-years-of-follow-up
#2
George Disney, Andrea Teng, June Atkinson, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Internationally, ethnic inequalities in mortality within countries are increasingly recognized as a public health concern. But few countries have data to monitor such inequalities. We aimed to provide a detailed description of ethnic inequalities (Māori [indigenous], Pacific, and European/Other) in mortality for a country with high quality ethnicity data, using both standard and novel visualization methods. METHODS: Cohort studies of the entire New Zealand population were conducted, using probabilistically-linked Census and mortality data from 1981 to 2011 (68...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446178/inequality-in-unmet-dental-care-needs-among-south-korean-adults
#3
Nayoung Kim, Chang-Yup Kim, Hosung Shin
BACKGROUND: The current public health research agenda was to identify the means to reduce oral health inequalities internationally. The objectives of this study were to provide evidence of inequality in unmet dental needs and to find influencing factors attributable to those among South Korean adults. METHODS: Pooled cross-sectional data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) on 17,141 Korean adults were used. Demographic factors (sex, age, and marital status), socioeconomic factors (education level, employment status, and income level), need factors (normative dental needs and self-perceived oral health status), and oral health-related factors (the number of decayed teeth, the presence of periodontitis, and the number of missing teeth) were included...
April 26, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443274/the-guatemala-penn-partners-an-innovative-inter-institutional-model-for-scientific-capacity-building-healthcare-education-and-public-health
#4
Maria Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Elizabeth Messenger, Caroline A Nelson, Erwin Calgua, Frances K Barg, Kent W Bream, Charlene Compher, Anthony J Dean, Sergio Martinez-Siekavizza, Victor Puac-Polanco, Therese S Richmond, Rudolf R Roth, Charles C Branas
Population health outcomes are directly related to robust public health programs, access to basic health services, and a well-trained health-care workforce. Effective health services need to systematically identify solutions, scientifically test these solutions, and share generated knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance states that the capacity to perform research is an essential factor for well-functioning public health systems. Low- and middle-income countries have greater health-care worker shortages and lower research capacity than higher-income countries...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441098/how-robust-are-value-judgments-of-health-inequality-aversion-testing-for-framing-and-cognitive-effects
#5
Shehzad Ali, Aki Tsuchiya, Miqdad Asaria, Richard Cookson
BACKGROUND: Empirical studies have found that members of the public are inequality averse and value health gains for disadvantaged groups with poor health many times more highly than gains for better off groups. However, these studies typically use abstract scenarios that involve unrealistically large reductions in health inequality and face-to-face survey administration. It is not known how robust these findings are to more realistic scenarios or anonymous online survey administration...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438160/use-of-oral-health-care-services-in-finnish-adults-results-from-the-cross-sectional-health-2000-and-2011-surveys
#6
Anna L Suominen, Sari Helminen, Satu Lahti, Miira M Vehkalahti, Matti Knuuttila, Sinikka Varsio, Anne Nordblad
BACKGROUND: During the 2000s, two major legislative reforms concerning oral health care have been implemented in Finland. One entitled the whole population to subsidized care and the other regulated the timeframes of access to care. Our aim was, in a cross-sectional setting, to assess changes in and determinants of use of oral health care services before the first reform in 2000 and after both reforms in 2011. METHODS: The data were part of the nationally representative Health 2000 and 2011 Surveys of adults aged ≥ 30 years and were gathered by interviews and questionnaires...
April 24, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436297/health-impact-assessment-hia-of-political-proposals-at-the-local-level-successful-introduction-but-what-has-happened-15-years-later
#7
Karin Berensson, Per Tillgren
Health impact assessments (HIAs) were first introduced in Sweden in the mid-to-late 1990s, with the aim of placing health issues on the political agenda and helping to reduce health inequalities. In the early 2000s, HIAs entered a second phase and the Swedish Parliament adopted a national public health policy. A national survey conducted in 2001 showed that 10/289 municipalities had begun to use HIA and 55/289 had decided to use HIA or had initiated an adoption process. In a 2013 follow-up study based on a strategic sample of municipalities, 9/36 municipalities reported using HIA and/or similar tools...
April 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434029/health-of-midlife-and-older-adults-in-china-the-role-of-regional-economic-development-inequality-and-institutional-setting
#8
Xuejie Ding, Francesco C Billari, Stuart Gietel-Basten
OBJECTIVES: To document the association between economic development, income inequality, and health-related public infrastructure, and health outcomes among Chinese adults in midlife and older age. METHODS: We use a series of multi-level regression models with individual-level baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS). Provincial-level data are obtained both from official statistics and from CHARLS itself. Multi-level models are estimated with different subjective and objective health outcomes...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433398/multi-state-survey-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-brazil
#9
C Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, M C Padoveze, C R Veiga Kiffer, A L Barth, Irna C do Rosário Souza Carneiro, H I Garcia Giamberardino, J L Nobre Rodrigues, L Santos Filho, M J Gonçalves de Mello, M Severino Pereira, P Pinto Gontijo Filho, M Rocha, E A Servolo de Medeiros, A C Campos Pignatari
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) challenge public health in developing countries such as Brazil, which harbour social inequalities and variations in the complexity of healthcare and regional development. AIM: To describe the prevalence of HCAIs in hospitals in a sample of hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A prevalence survey conducted in 2011-13 enrolled 152 hospitals from the five macro-regions in Brazil. Hospitals were classified as large (≥200 beds), medium (50-199 beds) or small sized (<50 beds)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433324/stakeholder-views-on-criteria-and-processes-for-priority-setting-in-norway-a-qualitative-study
#10
Jeremy M Aidem
Since 2013, Norway has engaged in political processes to revise criteria for priority setting. These processes have yielded key efficiency and equity criteria, but excluded potentially relevant social values. This study describes the views of 27 stakeholders in Norway's health system regarding a wider set of priority-setting criteria and procedural characteristics. Between January and February 2016, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of policymakers, hospital administrators, practitioners, university students and seniors...
April 12, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430128/environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-smoke-free-rules-in-homes-among-socially-disadvantaged-populations-in-poland
#11
Katarzyna Milcarz, Leokadia Bak-Romaniszyn, Dorota Kaleta
This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the "Reducing Social Inequalities in Health" program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#12
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426303/measures-of-local-segregation-for-monitoring-health-inequities-by-local-health-departments
#13
Nancy Krieger, Pamela D Waterman, Neelesh Batra, Johnna S Murphy, Daniel P Dooley, Snehal N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of local measures of segregation for monitoring health inequities by local health departments. METHODS: We analyzed preterm birth and premature mortality (death before the age of 65 years) rates for Boston, Massachusetts, for 2010 to 2012, using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) and the poverty rate at both the census tract and neighborhood level. RESULTS: For premature mortality at the census tract level, the rate ratios comparing the worst-off and best-off terciles were 1...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425895/understanding-sexual-orientation-and-health-in-canada-who-are-we-capturing-and-who-are-we-missing-using-the-statistics-canada-sexual-orientation-question
#14
Christoffer Dharma, Greta R Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420660/education-achievement-and-type-2-diabetes-what-mediates-the-relationship-in-older-adults-data-from-the-esther-study-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Christopher J Steele, Ben Schöttker, Adele H Marshall, Anne Kouvonen, Mark G O'Doherty, Ute Mons, Kai-Uwe Saum, Paolo Boffetta, Antonia Trichopoulou, Hermann Brenner, Frank Kee
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to identify the mediating factors of the relationship between education achievement and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the German federal state of Saarland. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were excluded if they had prevalent T2DM or missing data on prevalent T2DM, missing or zero follow-up time for incident T2DM or were under 50 years of age...
April 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419286/horizontal-inequity-in-outpatient-care-use-and-untreated-morbidity-evidence-from-nationwide-surveys-in-india-between-1995-and-2014
#16
Anamika Pandey, George B Ploubidis, Lynda Clarke, Lalit Dandona
Equity in healthcare has been a long-term guiding principle of health policy in India. We estimate the change in horizontal inequities in healthcare use over two decades comparing the older population (60 years or more) with the younger population (under 60 years). We used data from the nationwide healthcare surveys conducted in India by the National Sample Survey Organization in 1995-96 and 2014 with sample sizes 633 405 and 335 499, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logit regression analyses were used to study the socioeconomic differentials in self-reported morbidity (SRM), outpatient care and untreated morbidity...
April 17, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419150/disparities-in-dialysis-allocation-an-audit-from-the-new-south-africa
#17
Kajiru G Kilonzo, Erika S W Jones, Ikechi G Okpechi, Nicola Wearne, Zunaid Barday, Charles R Swanepoel, Karen Yeates, Brian L Rayner
End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) is a public health problem with an enormous economic burden. In resource limited settings management of ESKD is often rationed. Racial and socio-economic inequalities in selecting candidates have been previously documented in South Africa. New guidelines for dialysis developed in the Western Cape have focused on prioritizing treatment. With this in mind we aimed at exploring whether the new guidelines would improve inequalities previously documented. A retrospective study of patients presented to the selection committee was conducted at Groote Schuur Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417941/mapping-patterns-and-trends-in-the-spatial-availability-of-alcohol-using-low-level-geographic-data-a-case-study-in-england-2003-2013
#18
Colin Angus, John Holmes, Ravi Maheswaran, Mark A Green, Petra Meier, Alan Brennan
Much literature examines the relationship between the spatial availability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm. This study aims to address an important gap in this evidence by using detailed outlet data to examine recent temporal trends in the sociodemographic distribution of spatial availability for different types of alcohol outlet in England. Descriptive analysis of measures of alcohol outlet density and proximity using extremely high resolution market research data stratified by outlet type and quintiles of area-level deprivation from 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013 was undertaken and hierarchical linear growth models fitted to explore the significance of socioeconomic differences...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416569/association-between-smoking-and-health-outcomes-in-an-economically-deprived-population-the-liverpool-lung-project
#19
F C Sherratt, J K Field, M W Marcus
BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and several health outcomes among those from the most deprived communities in the UK has not previously been detailed. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of smoking on health outcomes specifically among a particularly deprived population in a developed country (Liverpool; one of the most deprived local authorities in England). METHODS: The Liverpool Lung Project recruited a prospective cohort of 8753 participants from across Liverpool, aged 45-79 years between 1998 and 2008...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409478/reversing-racial-inequities-at-the-end-of-life-a-call-for-health-systems-to-create-culturally-competent-advance-care-planning-programs-within-african-american-communities
#20
Randi Belisomo
Racial and cultural barriers inherent in health systems have made the delivery of culturally relevant end of life care that aligns with patient preferences a particular challenge across African American patient populations. The end of life experience has been cited as a public health crisis by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and this crisis is one felt even more acutely by patients of this minority race. Structural racism has limited access to the planning mechanisms proven to result in quality end of life care; thus, health systems must initiate remedies in the face of dire need, as African Americans face a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from many serious illnesses...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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