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Public health and inequities

Patrick Gogognon, Béatrice Godard
Research in health occupies a central place in the elaboration of public policies and the interventions that aim to reduce inequality and make the right to health effective. However, research in health remains marked by inequalities which particularly affect developing countries. The objective of this critical recension of the international normative frameworks and the scientific literature is to present a summary of the assessment, underline the challenges and identify the main recommendations as well as the ethical principles that aim to reduce inequalities in the field of health research...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
J Burgess-Allen, M Braithwaite, S Whiston
Public health competencies being illustrated; Planning, delivery and evaluation of health improvement programmes, addressing health inequalities, awareness of cultural impacts on health and wellbeing. Smile4Life, a schools-based, evidence informed oral health promotion programme, was designed to address high levels of oral health need and inequality within a UK City. The aims of the pilot described were to test the feasibility of delivering the programme (supervised tooth-brushing, take home kits, educational resources and application of fluoride varnish) in six culturally diverse schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, and evaluate its impact on caries prevalence...
March 20, 2018: Community Dental Health
Sarah E Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, Emily MacDonald, E Richard Gold
Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward...
2018: MNI Open Res
E Fosse, M K Helgesen, S Hagen, S Torp
AIMS: The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Martha P Romero Mendoza, Héctor Gómez-Dantes, Quetzaliztli Manríquez Montiel, Gabriela J Saldívar Hernández, Julio C Campuzano Rincón, Rafael Lozano, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
The increasing burden of interpersonal violence in women in Mexico is a neglected social and health problem that competes with other leading causes of premature death, disability, and health losses in young women. In this article, we focus on revealing the burden of violence in girls and young women and its implications for public policy. This study presents the subnational analysis of Mexico from the Global Burden of Disease study (1990-2015). The global study harmonized information of 195 countries and 79 risk factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Martin Dlouhý
The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Aimilia Exarchakou, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Karina Araujo Pinto, Rosane Harter Griep, Lucia Rotenberg, Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Rosane Sousa Barreto, Estela M L Aquino
Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable...
2018: PloS One
Sangeeta Chattoo
This paper engages critically with the global assemblage framing sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders as a 'global health crisis'; and the promise of genomics, largely DNA-based carrier/pre-conceptual screening, prenatal diagnosis with a view to terminations, deployed in framing a solution to these historically racialised spectrum of diseases as essentially preventable. Sickle cell and thalassaemia are recessively inherited, potentially life-threatening haemoglobin disorders with significant variation of severity, often needing life-long treatment...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Rcrm do Nascimento, A A Guerra Jnr, J Alvares, I C Gomes, B Godman, M Bennie, A B Kurdi, F de A Acurcio
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Stains have become an integral part of treatment to reduce cardiac events in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, their use within the public healthcare system in Brazil is unknown. Consequently, we sought to determine and characterize statin use in primary healthcare delivered by the public health system (SUS) in Brazil and evaluate associated patient factors to improve future use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a national representative sample from five Brazilian regions, derived from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines using a multi-stage complex sampling plan...
March 12, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Rebecca Burch, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this targeted systematic review, we aimed to identify up-to-date prevalence estimates of migraine and severe headache in adults from population-based US government surveys. Our goal was to assess the stability of prevalence estimates over time, and to identify additional information pertinent to the burden and treatment of migraine and other severe headache conditions. METHODS: We searched for the most current publicly available summary statistics from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)...
March 12, 2018: Headache
David Showalter
BACKGROUND: The United States prohibited federal funding for syringe exchange programs for people who inject drugs nearly continuously from 1988 to 2015, despite growing scientific evidence, diminishing AIDS-related controversy, and tens of thousands of deaths from injection-related AIDS. This study investigates the political and institutional bases of this long-term failure to support lifesaving public policy. METHODS: This study draws on national, regional, and local media coverage, archival sources, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 6 long-time syringe exchange researchers and activists from California...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Gildas Vieira, Robert Courtois, Emmanuel Rusch
An interventional research study in public health was carried out with populations originating from sub-Saharan Africa living in France. With the aim of acting on health inequalities through health education, the researchers focused notably on the links between intercultural relationships and the improvement of health promotion actions.
March 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel, Adrian Kay, Fran Baum, Lyndall Strazdins, Tamara Mackean
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? METHODS: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Cheryl Holzmeyer
While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in innovation ecosystems that often perpetuate existing systemic biases toward commercial biomedicine...
March 7, 2018: Health Promotion International
Royasia Viki Ramadani, Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastián, Per E Gustafsson
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether this relationship is influenced by the level of income in Northern Sweden. Overweight and obesity are rising major public health problems which also affect HRQoL. While socioeconomic inequalities in health are persisting or increasing in many countries, including Sweden, little attention has been paid to the more complex roles of income in relation to health...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Erik Lamontagne, Marc d'Elbée, Michael W Ross, Aengus Carroll, André du Plessis, Luiz Loures
Background: Measuring homophobia at country level is important to guide public health policy as reductions in stigma are associated with improved health outcomes among gay men and other men who have sex with men. Methods: We developed a Homophobic Climate Index incorporating institutional and social components of homophobia. Institutional homophobia was based on the level of enforcement of laws that criminalise, protect or recognise same-sex relations. Social homophobia was based on the level of acceptance and justifiability of homosexuality...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Leena Paakkari, Shanti George
BACKGROUND: Schools are seen as crucial environments to influence and develop the health literacy of new generations, but without sufficient reflection on the ethical underpinnings of intentions and interventions around health literacy. In contrast, we argue here that ethics are fundamental to all education. The article adopts a 'One world' approach that generalizes broadly across the so-called Global North and Global South. It also generalizes across various age groups among school pupils, advocating age appropriate application of the arguments advanced...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
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