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Febril seizures

D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Marko Pokorn, Monika Jevšnik, Miroslav Petrovec, Andrej Steyer, Tatjana Mrvič, Štefan Grosek, Lara Lusa, Franc Strle
The majority of children with febrile seizures have viral infections and viruses were detected in 22% to 63% of children in published studies. Using molecular methods, viruses were also detected in asymptomatic persons. A prospective study was conducted to detect respiratory and enteric viruses in 192 children with febrile seizures and compare the detection rates to those found in 156 healthy age-matched controls. A respiratory or enteric virus was detected in 72.9% of children with febrile seizures and in 51...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Ellen V S Hessel, Hein A van Lith, Inge G Wolterink-Donselaar, Marina de Wit, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Frank C P Holstege, Martien J H Kas, Cathy Fernandes, Pierre N E de Graan
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children. Recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy later in life and are known to have a strong genetic component. Experimental FS (eFS) can be elicited in mice by warm-air induced hyperthermia. We used this model to screen the chromosome substitution strain (CSS) panel derived from C57BL/6J and A/J for FS susceptibility and identified C57BL/6J-Chr2(A) /NaJ (CSS2), as the strain with the strongest FS susceptibility phenotype...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Carolien G F de Kovel, Eva H Brilstra, Marjan J A van Kempen, Ruben Van't Slot, Isaac J Nijman, Zaid Afawi, Peter De Jonghe, Tania Djémié, Renzo Guerrini, Katia Hardies, Ingo Helbig, Rik Hendrickx, Moine Kanaan, Uri Kramer, Anna-Elina E Lehesjoki, Johannes R Lemke, Carla Marini, Davide Mei, Rikke S Møller, Manuela Pendziwiat, Hannah Stamberger, Arvid Suls, Sarah Weckhuysen, Bobby P C Koeleman
BACKGROUND: Many genes are candidates for involvement in epileptic encephalopathy (EE) because one or a few possibly pathogenic variants have been found in patients, but insufficient genetic or functional evidence exists for a definite annotation. METHODS: To increase the number of validated EE genes, we sequenced 26 known and 351 candidate genes for EE in 360 patients. Variants in 25 genes known to be involved in EE or related phenotypes were followed up in 41 patients...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Andrew G Engel, Duygu Selcen, Xin-Ming Shen, Margherita Milone, C Michel Harper
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular basis of a fatal syndrome of microcephaly, cortical hyperexcitability, and myasthenia. METHODS: We performed clinical and in vitro microelectrode studies of neuromuscular transmission, examined neuromuscular junctions cytochemically and by electron microscopy (EM), and searched for mutations by Sanger and exome sequencing. RESULTS: Neuromuscular transmission was severely compromised by marked depletion of the readily releasable pool of quanta, but the probability of quantal release was normal...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
S Boronat, M Vicente, E Lainez, A Sánchez-Montañez, E Vázquez, L Mangado, L Martínez-Ribot, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, publications about epilepsy and electroencephalographic features are scarce. In this study, we prospectively performed electroencephalography (EEG) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 61 patients with diagnosis of FASD. One patient had multiple febrile seizures with normal EEGs. Fourteen children showed EEG anomalies, including slow background activity and interictal epileptiform discharges, focal and/or generalized, and 3 of them had epilepsy...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Katherine Remick, Christopher Redgate, Daniel Ostermayer, Amy H Kaji, Marianne Gausche-Hill
OBJECTIVE: Many Emergency Medicine Services (EMS) protocols require point-of-care blood glucose testing (BGT) for any pediatric patient who presents with seizure or altered level of conscious. Few data describe the diagnostic yield of BGT when performed on all pediatric seizures regardless of presenting mental status. We analyzed a large single center dataset of pediatric patients presenting with prehospital seizures to determine the prevalence of hypoglycemic seizures and the utility of repeat BGT in the emergency department (ED)...
September 16, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
A C McClelland, W A Gomes, S Shinnar, D C Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D V Lewis, J A Bello, S Chan, J MacFall, M Chen, J M Pellock, D R Nordli, L M Frank, S L Moshé, R C Shinnar, S Sun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study...
September 15, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Giorgio Tettamanti, Xiaochen Shu, Maral Adel Fahmideh, Joachim Schuz, Martin Röösli, Tore Tynes, Michael A Grotzer, Christoffer Johansen, Lars Klæboe, Claudia E Kuehni, Birgitta Lannering, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt, Danielle Vienneau, Maria Feychting
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have evaluated the effect of medical diagnostic radiation on brain tumors. Recent cohort studies have reported an increased risk associated with exposure to head CT scans. METHODS: Information regarding medical conditions, including prenatal and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic radiation, was obtained from CEFALO, a multicenter case-control study performed in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland through face to face interview...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jun Natsume, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Kuniaki Iyoda, Hideaki Kanemura, Masaya Kubota, Masakazu Mimaki, Shinichi Niijima, Takuya Tanabe, Harumi Yoshinaga, Noriko Kojimahara, Hirohumi Komaki, Kenji Sugai, Tokiko Fukuda, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Hideo Sugie
In 2015, the Japanese Society of Child Neurology released new guidelines for the management of febrile seizures, the first update of such guidelines since 1996. In 1988, the Conference on Febrile Convulsions in Japan published "Guidelines for the Treatment of Febrile Seizures." The Task Committee of the Conference proposed a revised version of the guidelines in 1996; that version released in 1996 was used for the next 19years in Japan for the clinical management of children with febrile seizures. Although the guidelines were very helpful for many clinicians, new guidelines were needed to reflect changes in public health and the dissemination of new medical evidence...
September 6, 2016: Brain & Development
Hannah C Kinney, Annapurna H Poduri, Jane B Cryan, Robin L Haynes, Lisa Teot, Lynn A Sleeper, Ingrid A Holm, Gerald T Berry, Sanjay P Prabhu, Simon K Warfield, Catherine Brownstein, Harry S Abram, Michael Kruer, Walter L Kemp, Beata Hargitai, Joanne Gastrang, Othon J Mena, Elisabeth A Haas, Roya Dastjerdi, Dawna D Armstrong, Richard D Goldstein
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) are defined as sudden death in a child remaining unexplained despite autopsy and death scene investigation. They are distinguished from each other by age criteria, i.e. with SIDS under 1 year and SUDC over 1 year. Our separate studies of SIDS and SUDC provide evidence of shared hippocampal abnormalities, specifically focal dentate bilamination, a lesion classically associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, across the 2 groups...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Han-Tao Li, Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Chun-Wei Chang, Shih-Tseng Lee, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization...
September 4, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Takuya Matsuda, Shuichi Shimakawa, Hiromitsu Toshikawa, Mari Hatanaka, Miho Fukui, Atsushi Mori, Hiroshi Tamai
We report a 13-month-old girl who developed acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) with transient reduced diffusion in the hippocampus and anterior commissure on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which was performed on the first day after febrile status epilepticus (FSE) as the initial neurological symptom of AESD. DWI just after late seizures showed high signal intensity lesions in both left hippocampus and anterior commissure, and left extratemporal and occipital subcortical white matter...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Orrin Devinsky, Dale C Hesdorffer, David J Thurman, Samden Lhatoo, George Richerson
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) can affect individuals of any age, but is most common in younger adults (aged 20-45 years). Generalised tonic-clonic seizures are the greatest risk factor for SUDEP; most often, SUDEP occurs after this type of seizure in bed during sleep hours and the person is found in a prone position. SUDEP excludes other forms of seizure-related sudden death that might be mechanistically related (eg, death after single febrile, unprovoked seizures, or status epilepticus). Typically, postictal apnoea and bradycardia progress to asystole and death...
September 2016: Lancet Neurology
Unnikrishnan Krishnan Syam, Sanjeev V Thomas
PURPOSE: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6-8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. RESULTS: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Hideaki Kanemura, Fumikazu Sano, Tetsuo Ohyama, Kanji Sugita, Masao Aihara
AIMS: To develop and implement interventions to improve the quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy, it is important for clinicians and researchers to understand the effects of the children's parents' perception of stigma. The purpose of this study was to identify a relationship between patient clinical characteristics and perception of stigma in the parents of children with epilepsy. METHODS: Parents of children with epilepsy were recruited from our university hospital between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2012...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Bo Feng, Zhong Chen
Febrile seizures (FSs) occur commonly in children aged from 6 months to 5 years. Complex (repetitive or prolonged) FSs, but not simple FSs, can lead to permanent brain modification. Human infants and immature rodents that have experienced complex FSs have a high risk of subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the causes of FSs and the mechanisms underlying the subsequent epileptogenesis remain unknown. Here, we mainly focus on two major questions concerning FSs: how fever triggers seizures, and how epileptogenesis occurs after FSs...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ali Güneş, Aydin Ece, Halise Akça, Fesih Aktar, Şehmus Mete, Serhat Samanci, Ünal Uluca, Velat Şen, İlhan Tan, İbrahim Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia occurs following convulsions, and hypoxia is one of the most common causes of acute renal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary levels of kidney injury molecules, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in children with febrile seizures (FS) for the first time. METHODS: The study included 28 children with FS and 34 age and gender matched healthy children...
August 25, 2016: Renal Failure
Jiyeon Kim, Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Woojun Kim, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL) in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG) and a poor response group (PRG) were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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