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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682114/infrainguinal-lesion-of-peripheral-artery-disease-and-levels-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#1
Tomoaki Iwasaki, Toshiya Nishibe, Yumiko Ohya, Shigeru Inoue, Hitoshi Ogino
Background : Recently, reduced serum levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been focused upon as newly recognized risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present study investigated the association between disease location and serum levels of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with PAD. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients at Tokyo Medical University between August 2011 and November 2015. The subjects included 98 patients who were categorized into two groups: those with (n=72) and without infrainguinal lesions (n=26)...
March 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679529/influence-of-human-milk-and-parenteral-lipid-emulsions-on-serum-fatty-acid-profiles-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#2
Anders K Nilsson, Chatarina Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Karin Sävman, Mats X Andersson, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk of a deficiency in ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated how fatty acids from breast milk and parenteral lipid emulsions shape serum LC-PUFA profiles in extremely preterm infants during early perinatal life. METHODS: Ninety infants born < 28 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive parenteral lipids with or without the ω-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (SMOFlipid: Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden, or Clinoleic: Baxter Medical AB, Kista, Sweden, respectively)...
April 21, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673104/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-reduces-blood-pressure-but-not-renal-vasoconstrictor-response-to-orthostatic-stress-in-healthy-older-adults
#3
Christine M Clark, Kevin D Monahan, Rachel C Drew
Older adults exhibit augmented renal vasoconstriction during orthostatic stress compared to young adults. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil (FO), modulates autonomic nerve activity. However, the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption on the renal vasoconstrictor response to orthostatic stress in young and older adults is unknown. Therefore, 10 young (25 ± 1 years; mean ± SEM) and 10 older (66 ± 2 years) healthy adults ingested 4 g FO daily for 12 weeks, and underwent graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -15 and -30 mmHg) pre- and post-FO supplementation...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672133/meat-eggs-full-fat-dairy-and-nutritional-boogeymen-does-the-way-in-which-animals-are-raised-affect-health-differently-in-humans
#4
Christopher P Haskins, George Henderson, Colin E Champ
BACKGROUND:  Food recommendations to improve cancer prevention are generally based on epidemiologic data and remain inconsistent. These epidemiologic studies, while controversial, have generally produced results that caution against the consumption of high-fat foods, including eggs, red meat, and full-fat dairy, such as butter and cheese. Yet, limited data exist assessing the quality of individual sources of these foods and the effect each has after its consumption. This study set out to assess the impact sources of food within the same groups from animals raised differently on variables associated with health in human studies...
April 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670910/regiospecific-analysis-of-fatty-acids-and-calculation-of-triglyceride-molecular-species-in-marine-fish-oils
#5
Huijun Zhang, Yingbin Shen, Youwei Zhang, Lirong Li, Xingguo Wang
The regiospecific distribution of fatty acids (FAs) and composition of triglyceride (TAG) molecular species of fishes were analyzed and calculated by pancreatic lipase (PL) hydrolysis and Visual Basic (VB) program. DHA was preferentially located at sn-2 position in TAG molecule, whereas EPA was almost equally distributed in each position of glycerol backbone. DOP, DPP, EPP, PoPP, PPO, and PPP were the predominant TAG species. MPP in anchovy, DDP, DOP, DPP in tuna, and EOO and OOO in salmon were the characteristic TAG molecules, which were meaningful to differentiate marine fish oils...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665872/maternal-intake-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-mid-pregnancy-is-inversely-associated-with-linear-growth
#6
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665425/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promotes-angiogenesis-in-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#7
Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Enhancement of angiogenesis is solicited in wound repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the placenta (P-MSCs) have an inherent angiogenic potential. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in turn, specifically the omega-3 (N-3) are essential for growth and development. They are also recommended as dietary supplements during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that addition of N-3 PUFAs in P-MSC culture media may enhance their angiogenic potential. Hence we treated P-MSCs with omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids -Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations and tested their angiogenic potential...
April 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661555/directly-quantified-dietary-n-3-fatty-acid-intakes-of-canadian-toddlers-are-lower-than-current-dietary-recommendations
#8
R J Scott Lacombe, Richard J Kratz, Bruce J Holub
To date, few studies have evaluated the intake of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in young North American children and current estimates are based on indirect approaches which have concerning limitations. Furthermore, there is a lack of available knowledge regarding the proportion of children meeting current dietary recommendations for the consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFA as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective of the present study was to directly quantify the intake of n-3 PUFA in toddlers aged 2 to 3 years and determine if intakes met international recommendations...
March 2, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660334/fatty-acids-modulate-the-efficacy-of-lutein-in-cataract-prevention-assessment-of-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-rats
#9
Smitha Padmanabha, Vallikannan Baskaran
BACKGROUND: Effects of lutein (L) and fatty acids [linoleic acid (LA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and oleic acid (OA)] on oxidative stress and inflammation in cataract were assessed. METHODS: Cataract was induced in male Wistar rat pups (11 days old) by giving a single dose of sodium selenite (25 μM/kg body weight) by IP. Lutein (1.3 μmol/kg body weight) was given one day before and five days after selenite injection as a micelle with 7...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657077/reprint-of-marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
April 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652437/effect-of-thermal-processing-towards-lipid-oxidation-and-non-enzymatic-browning-reactions-of-antartic-krill-euphausia-superba-meal
#11
Yanzi Liu, Peixu Cong, Beijia Li, Yu Song, Yanjun Liu, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
BACKGROUND: Antarctic krill is a huge source of biomass and prospective high-quality lipid source. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), nutritionally important lipid components with poor oxidative stability, were used as markers of oxidation during thermal processing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal by evaluating the lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and non-enzymatic browning reactions. RESULT: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the phospholipids (PLs) and the main oxidation products of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was effective for evaluating the oxidation of EPA and DHA...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629537/different-associations-of-plasma-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-vascular-dementia-and-ischemic-stroke
#12
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yusuke Fukui, Dongjing Song, Xianghong Li, Yun Zhai, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive and cerebrovascular diseases are common in the elderly, but differences in the plasma levels and associations of plasma biomarkers in these diseases remain elusive. METHODS: The present study investigated differences in plasma fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], adiponectin, reptin, plasma markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and serum amyloid A (serum AA)], and plasma lipids [high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=266), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=33), and ischemic stroke (IS) (n=200) in comparison to normal controls (n=130)...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616321/saturated-mono-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-intake-and-cancer-risk-results-from-the-french-prospective-cohort-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3
#13
Laury Sellem, Bernard Srour, Françoise Guéraud, Fabrice Pierre, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Thibault Fiolet, Céline Lavalette, Manon Egnell, Paule Latino-Martel, Philippine Fassier, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Mélanie Deschasaux, Mathilde Touvier
PURPOSE: Lipid intakes such as saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids have been widely studied regarding cardiovascular health, but their relevance to cancer is unclear. Inconsistent epidemiological results may be explained by varied mechanisms involving PUFAs and redox balance, inflammatory status and cell signalling, along with interactions with other dietary components such as antioxidants, dietary fibre and more generally fruits and vegetable intakes...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606136/low-omega-3-index-values-and-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-levels-in-early-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-maternal-erythrocytes-fatty-acids
#14
Axelle Hoge, Florence Bernardy, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Nadia Dardenne, Sylvie Degée, Marie Timmermans, Michelle Nisolle, Michèle Guillaume, Vincenzo Castronovo
BACKGROUND: It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. METHODS: A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included...
April 2, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599053/the-omega-6-omega-3-ratio-a-critical-appraisal-and-possible-successor
#15
REVIEW
William S Harris
The well-known health effects of the long-chain, marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) has led to a growing interest in the prognostic value that blood levels of these FAs might have vis-à-vis cardiovascular and neurocognitive diseases. The measurement and expression of n-3 FA levels is not straight-forward, however, and a wide variety of means of expression of n-3 FA status have been used in research and clinical medicine. This has led to considerable confusion as to what "optimal" n-3 FA status is...
March 20, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597261/dietary-intakes-of-epa-and-dha-omega-3-fatty-acids-among-us-childbearing-age-and-pregnant-women-an-analysis-of-nhanes-2001-2014
#16
Zhiying Zhang, Victor L Fulgoni, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Susan Hazels Mitmesser
BACKGROUND: The 2015&ndash;2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8&ndash;12 oz. per week of seafood. METHODS: We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15&ndash;44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001&ndash;2002 through 2013&ndash;2014...
March 28, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594127/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-myogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biosynthesis-during-murine-skeletal-muscle-cell-differentiation
#17
Tun-Yun Hsueh, Jamie I Baum, Yan Huang
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580307/n-3-pufa-and-obesity-from-peripheral-tissues-to-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Aline Haas de Mello, Marcela Fornari Uberti, Bianca Xavier de Farias, Nathalia Alberti Ribas de Souza, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
The current paradigms of prevention and treatment are unable to curb obesity rates, which indicates the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. Obesity leads to several damages to the body and is an important risk factor for a number of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, despite the first alterations in obesity being observed and reported in peripheral tissues, studies indicate that obesity can also cause brain damage. Obesity leads to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, and the therapeutic manipulation of inflammation can be explored...
March 27, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579359/hepatic-lipogenesis-and-brain-fatty-acid-profile-in-response-to-different-dietary-n6-n3-ratios-and-dha-epa-supplementation-in-streptozotocin-treated-rats
#19
Kristina Starčević, Natalija Filipović, Asier Galan, Vedran Micek, Andrea Gudan Kurilj, Tomislav Mašek
SCOPE: We investigated the interaction between streptozotocin-induced diabetes and dietary n6/n3 ratio, and its influence on lipogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The animals were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) and fed with different dietary n6/n3 ratios: 1, 7 and 60, or supplemented with DHA/EPA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR and protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Fatty acid profile was determined by GC-MS. Pancreas and liver histology were assessed by H&E staining...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577973/the-effect-of-n-3-fatty-acids-and-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-neutrophil-leukotrienes-mediators-of-inflammation-resolution-and-myeloperoxidase-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Anne E Barden, Sujata Shinde, Valerie Burke, Ian B Puddey, Lawrence J Beilin, Ashley B Irish, Gerald F Watts, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils release leukotriene (LT)B4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) that may be important mediators of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have the potential to attenuate inflammation through production of LTB5 and the Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators (SPM) that promote the resolution of inflammation. In animal models, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) also attenuates inflammation by reducing MPO and LTB4 ...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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