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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040972/regulation-of-coronary-arterial-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel-protein-expression-and-function-by-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Xu Tang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang, Yong Yao, Shi-Peng Dang, Ying Wu, Wen Wang, Yuan Ji, Man-Qing Sun, Da-Yun Xia, Xiao-Yu Liu, Dai-Min Zhang, Qiang Chai, Tong Lu
AIM: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on coronary arterial large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel function in coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on coronary BK channel open probabilities were determined using the patch clamp technique. The mRNA and protein expressions of BK channel subunits were measured using qRT-PCR and Western blots...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039280/very-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-and-human-health-fact-fiction-and-the-future
#2
P C Calder
EPA and DHA appear to be the most important n-3 fatty acids, but roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid are now also emerging. Intakes of EPA and DHA are usually low, typically below those recommended. Increased intakes result in higher concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood lipids, cells and tissues. Increased content of EPA and DHA modifies the structure of cell membranes and the function of membrane proteins. EPA and DHA modulate the production of lipid mediators and through effects on cell signalling can alter the patterns of gene expression...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037249/a-novel-self-micro-emulsifying-delivery-system-smeds-formulation-significantly-improves-the-fasting-absorption-of-epa-and-dha-from-a-single-dose-of-an-omega-3-ethyl-ester-concentrate
#3
Yan Qin, Hilde Nyheim, Else Marie Haram, Joseph M Moritz, Svein Olaf Hustvedt
BACKGROUND: Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption...
October 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035816/docosahexaenoic-acid-attenuates-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-rats
#4
Jianlin He, Kaikai Bai, Bihong Hong, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to exert beneficial health effects, including hepatoprotection. However, the effect of DHA alone has not been well studied, and the mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we reported the protective effect of DHA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis. Compared with the control group, the CCl4 group showed hepatic damage as evidenced by histological changes and elevation in serum transaminase activity, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress levels...
October 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031899/synapse-formation-in-the-brain-can-be-enhanced-by-co-administering-three-specific-nutrients
#5
Richard J Wurtman
The memory impairments of early Alzheimer's disease [AD] are thought to result from a deficiency in synapses within the hippocampus and related brain regions. This deficiency could result from an acceleration in synapse turnover - perhaps caused by an endogenous neurotoxin like A-beta oligomers - or from a decrease in the production of the synaptic membrane needed to form new synapses. An AD-associated decrease in synaptogenesis almost certainly does occur, inasmuch as major decreases are also observed in the numbers of hippocampal dendritic spines, the immediate cytologic precursor of glutamatergic synapses...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031402/associations-between-maternal-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-and-child-cognition-at-7-years-of-age-the-mefab-birth-cohort
#6
E M Brouwer-Brolsma, O van de Rest, R Godschalk, M P A Zeegers, M Gielen, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences for fetal brain development and functioning. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using longitudinal observational data of 292 mother-child pairs participating in the MEFAB cohort...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031392/effects-of-aspirin-in-combination-with-epa-and-dha-on-hdl-c-cholesterol-and-apoa1-exchange-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Robert C Block, Ashley Holub, Amir Abdolahi, Xin M Tu, Shaker A Mousa, Michael N Oda
BACKGROUND/SYNOPSIS: Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031390/effects-of-postnatal-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-offspring-pro-resolving-mediators-of-inflammation-at-6-months-and-5-years-of-age-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
V H L See, E Mas, S L Prescott, L J Beilin, S Burrows, A E Barden, R C Huang, T A Mori
BACKGROUND: Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) generated from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during infancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify SPMs and reduce oxidative stress. This study evaluates the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in infancy on SPMs and F2-isoprostanes from 6 months to 5 years of age. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study design, 420 infants were randomized to a daily supplement of omega-3 fatty acids (280mg DHA and 110mg EPA) or olive oil (control), from birth to age 6 months...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030883/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-influence-inflammatory-markers-in-a-cellular-model-for-canine-osteoarthritis
#9
N Adler, A Schoeniger, H Fuhrmann
Although it is well recognized that dietary supplementation with fish oil improves clinical symptoms in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis, the molecular basis for the dietary benefit is not yet completely resolved in dogs. This study was designed to further clarify how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) affect key factors of cartilage degeneration in a canine cell culture system mimicking osteoarthritis. Canine chondrocytes were incubated either without or with 10 μm of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) or 3...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030616/maternal-consumption-of-fish-oil-programs-reduced-adiposity-in-broiler-chicks
#10
Ronique C Beckford, Sarah J Howard, Suchita Das, Abigail T Farmer, Shawn R Campagna, Jiali Yu, Robert L Hettich, Jeanna L Wilson, Brynn H Voy
Maternal intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) has been associated with reduced adiposity in children, suggesting the possibility to program adipose development through dietary fatty acids before birth. This study determined if enriching the maternal diet in fish oil, the primary source of EPA and DHA, affected adipose development in offspring. Broiler chickens were used because they are obesity-prone, and because fatty acids provided to the embryo can be manipulated through the hen diet...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026429/markers-of-neuroprotection-of-combined-epa-and-dha-provided-by-fish-oil-are-higher-than-those-of-epa-nannochloropsis-and-dha-schizochytrium-from-microalgae-oils-in-wistar-rats
#11
Paula A Lopes, Narcisa M Bandarra, Susana V Martins, Joana Martinho, Cristina M Alfaia, Marta S Madeira, Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Maria C Paulo, Rui M A Pinto, José L Guil-Guerrero, José A M Prates
BACKGROUND: To overcome the current overexploitation of fish rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), microalgae have become a promising marine lipid source. The purpose of this study was to assess eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), isolated or combined from distinct marine origins, on the promotion of neuroprotective effects. METHODS: The experiment lasted for 10 weeks and involved 32 Wistar rats, divided into 4 diets (n = 8): a diet rich in milk fat was taken as control (Milk Fat) and compared to n-3 LCPUFA enriched diets, either in EPA + DHA form through fish oil (Fish Oil), or EPA through Nannochloropsis oil (Nanno), or DHA through Schizochytrium oil (Schyzo), while maintaining Milk Fat incorporation...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993963/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-trial-of-omega-3-supplementation-in-children-with-moderate-adhd-symptoms
#12
Catherine Cornu, Catherine Mercier, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Sandrine Masson, Julie Mouchet, Patrice Nony, Behrouz Kassai, Valérie Laudy, Patrick Berquin, Nathalie Franc, Marie-France Le Heuzey, Hugues Desombre, Olivier Revol
OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials and inconclusive meta-analyses have investigated the effects of omega-3 supplements in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We performed a randomised placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. METHODS: Children aged 6-15 years with established diagnosis of ADHD were randomised 1:1 to receive either supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or a placebo for 3 months...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989862/bioprospecting-north-atlantic-microalgae-with-fast-growth-and-high-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-pufa-content-for-microalgae-based-technologies
#13
Pia Steinrücken, Svein Rune Erga, Svein Are Mjøs, Hans Kleivdal, Siv Kristin Prestegard
Microalgae are considered to be an important and sustainable alternative to fish oil as a source for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Due to their health benefits, there is an increasing interest in the commercial application of these fatty acids (FA) to health and dietary products, and to aquaculture feeds. However, FA from microalgae are still expensive to produce compared to fish or plant oils. With only a few microalgal strains being cultivated on a large scale for commercial PUFA production, prospecting for new, robust and fast-growing strains with increased PUFA content is essential in order to reduce production costs...
September 2017: Algal research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987719/supplementation-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-in-a-ratio-of-1-1-3-during-the-last-trimester-of-pregnancy-results-in-epa-accumulation-in-cord-blood
#14
Nihal Büyükuslu, Sema Ovalı, Şükriye Leyla Altuntaş, Saime Batırel, Pakize Yiğit, Muazzez Garipağaoğlu
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), specifically DHA, are associated with fetal growth and development. We aimed to determine the levels of DHA and EPA in cord serum after n-3 FA supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy. Among 55 women, 23 were administered daily one capsule of n-3 FA supplement, involving DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3. Twenty nine women were enrolled as control group. Blood samples were collected at 22-24 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed with the method of GC-MS...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987470/potential-therapeutic-impact-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-inflammation-markers-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-double-blind-controlled-randomized-trial
#15
Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Oriana Del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán, Tomás Almeida-Becerril, Alan Donovan Solís-Serna, Salvador Atilano-Miguel, Juan Raúl Sánchez-González, Lourdes Barbosa-Cortés, Eugenia Dolores Ruíz-Cruz, Juan Carlos Huicochea, Alan Cárdenas-Conejo, Rosa Elena Escobar-Cedillo, Carlos Alberto Yam-Ontiveros, Edgar F Ricárdez-Marcial
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent dystrophy in childhood generated by a deficiency in dystrophin. DMD is a neuromuscular disease and its clinical course comprises chronic inflammation and gradual muscle weakness. Supplementation of omega-3 long chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 long chain-PUFA) reduces inflammatory markers in various disorders. The goal of this research was to analyze the influence of ω-3 long chain-PUFA intake on gene expression and blood inflammatory markers in boys with DMD...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981381/effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-serum-leptin-levels-appetite-sensations-and-intake-of-energy-and-macronutrients-in-obese-people-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
L Payahoo, A Ostadrahimi, N Farrin, Y Khaje-Bishak
Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m(2)) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975480/mechanism-of-phospholipid-hydrolysis-for-oyster-crassostrea-plicatula-phospholipids-during-storage-using-shotgun-lipidomics
#17
Qinsheng Chen, Xincen Wang, Peixu Cong, Yanjun Liu, Yuming Wang, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
A fast and efficient shotgun lipidomics strategy was applied to analyze phospholipids (PL) in the oyster Crassostrea plicatula, including 29 species of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), 23 species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), 11 species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), 6 species of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), and 17 species of lysophospholipids (Lyso-PL). During storage at 4 °C for 7 days, the PL content decreased by 68.08%, but a significant increase in the FFA content was observed (from 63.11 to 318...
October 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966307/low-serum-levels-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-are-risk-factors-for-cardiogenic-syncope-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#18
Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Daiju Fukuda, Takayuki Ise, Muneyuki Kadota, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Takeshi Tobiume, Koji Yamaguchi, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masashi Akaike, Masataka Sata
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antiarrhythmic effects, possibly via modulation of the cardiac ion channels. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether low serum levels of n-3 PUFAs are risk factors for ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 62 men with BrS and evaluated their serum levels of EPA and DHA, and the risk factors for sudden cardiac death, including a history of cardiogenic syncope...
September 30, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965211/fatty-acid-composition-and-contents-of-seven-commercial-fish-species-of-genus-coregonus-from-russian-subarctic-water-bodies
#19
Michail I Gladyshev, Nadezhda N Sushchik, Olesia N Makhutova, Larisa A Glushchenko, Anastasia E Rudchenko, Alexander A Makhrov, Elena A Borovikova, Yury Y Dgebuadze
In several Russian northern lakes and rivers, Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis, least cisco C. sardinella, peled C. peled, tugun C. tugun, broad whitefish C. nasus, whitefish C. lavaretus and vendace C. albula were sampled in periods of officially permitted commercial fishery. Special attention was paid to contents (mg g(-1) of wet weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in muscle tissues (filets), which are essential for human nutrition. The highest values of EPA + DHA content in semi-anadromous fish and freshwater fish were recorded for C...
September 30, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964873/marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
September 28, 2017: Fitoterapia
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