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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316988/bioengineered-plants-can-be-a-useful-source-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#1
REVIEW
Waleed Amjad Khan, Hu Chun-Mei, Nadeem Khan, Amjad Iqbal, Shan-Wu Lyu, Farooq Shah
Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302406/docosahexaenoic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-a%C3%A2-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-cross-over-study-with-microalgae-vs-sunflower-oil
#2
C Dawczynski, M Dittrich, T Neumann, K Goetze, A Welzel, P Oelzner, S Völker, A M Schaible, F Troisi, L Thomas, S Pace, A Koeberle, O Werz, P Schlattmann, S Lorkowski, G Jahreis
The potential of fish or fish oil as supplier for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) for reducing cardiovascular risk factors and supporting therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases, has been investigated intensively, but our knowledge about the physiological effects of the individual compounds EPA and DHA are limited. STUDY DESIGN: In this double-blind pilot study, thirty-eight patients with defined RA were allocated to consume foods enriched with microalgae oil from Schizochytrium sp...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294174/docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-nafld-is-associated-with-improvements-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-a-pilot-study
#3
L Hodson, L Bhatia, E Scorletti, D E Smith, N C Jackson, F Shojaee-Moradie, M Umpleby, P C Calder, C D Byrne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Treatment of subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) suggests high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) tissue enrichment decrease liver fat content. We assessed whether changes in erythrocyte DHA enrichment (as a surrogate marker of changes in tissue enrichment) were associated with alterations in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), postprandial FA partitioning and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a sub-study of the WELCOME trial (Wessex Evaluation of fatty Liver and Cardiovascular markers in NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) with OMacor thErapy)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290259/synergistic-attenuation-of-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-by-combined-use-of-fish-oil-and-17%C3%AE-oestradiol
#4
Youri Jin, Myoungsook Lee, Yongsoon Park
Oestrogen and n-3 PUFA, especially EPA and DHA, have been reported to have beneficial effects on bone loss. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the synergistic bone-protective mechanism of combined treatments of EPA+DHA supplementation and oestrogen injection in ovariectomised rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0 %, 1 % or 2 % n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) relative to the total energy intake for 12 weeks. Rats were surgically ovariectomised at week 8, and after a 1-week recovery period rats were injected with either 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E2) or maize oil for the last 3 weeks...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287415/dietary-buglossoides-arvensis-oil-increases-circulating-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-a-dose-dependent-manner-and-enhances-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-whole-blood-interleukin-10-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Natalie Lefort, Rémi LeBlanc, Marc E Surette
Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286497/fine-flounder-paralichthys-adspersus-microbiome-showed-important-differences-between-wild-and-reared-specimens
#6
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285609/breast-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-fatty-acid-intake-of-lactating-mothers-in-south-korea
#7
Hyesook Kim, Sujeong Kang, Byung-Moon Jung, Hyunju Yi, Ji A Jung, Namsoo Chang
The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk, and its association with mothers' FA intake. Milk samples were obtained from 238 healthy lactating women who volunteered to participate in the Human Milk Micronutrients Analysis Research. Dietary intake during lactation was assessed using a 3-d food record, and fat content and FA composition of the breast milk samples were analysed by IR spectrometry using MilkoScan FT2 and GC flame ionisation detector, respectively. The fat content was 3·31 (sd 1·41) g/100 ml breast milk...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282585/improvement-of-cardiometabolic-markers-after-fish-oil-intervention-in-young-mexican-adults-and-the-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-l162v-and-ppar%C3%AE-2-p12a
#8
Aristea Binia, Carolina Vargas-Martínez, Mónica Ancira-Moreno, Laura M Gosoniu, Ivan Montoliu, Elí Gámez-Valdez, Diana C Soria-Contreras, Adriana Angeles-Quezada, Rocío Gonzalez-Alberto, Silvia Fernández, Diego Martínez-Conde, Brianda Hernández-Morán, Marisol Ramírez-Solano, Carlos Pérez-Ortega, Yanelli Rodríguez-Carmona, Isabelle Castan, Isabel Rubio-Aliaga, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Ricardo Márquez-Velasco, Rafael Bojalil, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga, Philippe Valet, Martin Kussmann, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, M Elizabeth Tejero
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contained in fish oil (FO) are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) that may induce changes in cardiometabolic markers. Variation in PPAR genes may influence the beneficial responses linked to FO supplementation in young adults. The study aimed to analyze the effect of FO supplementation on glucose metabolism, circulating lipids and inflammation according to PPARα L162V and PPARγ2 P12A genotypes in young Mexican adults. 191 young, non-smoking subjects between 18 and 40 years were included in a one-arm study...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280951/effects-of-dietary-n-3-fatty-acids-on-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-primary-leucocytes-from-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#9
Marianne Arnemo, Arturas Kavaliauskis, Adriana Magalhaes Santos Andresen, Marta Bou, Gerd Marit Berge, Bente Ruyter, Tor Gjøen
The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production...
March 9, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272299/evaluating-changes-in-omega-3-fatty-acid-intake-after-receiving-personal-fads1-genetic-information-a-randomized-nutrigenetic-intervention
#10
Kaitlin Roke, Kathryn Walton, Shannon L Klingel, Amber Harnett, Sanjeena Subedi, Jess Haines, David M Mutch
Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18-25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks)...
March 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260396/disorders-of-serum-omega-3-fatty-acid-composition-in-dialyzed-patients-and-their-associations-with-fat-mass
#11
Małgorzata Sikorska-Wiśniewska, Adriana Mika, Tomasz Śledziński, Sylwia Małgorzewicz, Piotr Stepnowski, Bolesław Rutkowski, Michał Chmielewski
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Lipid disorders, a constant feature of CKD, might contribute to this state. The aim of this study was to evaluate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) composition in CKD patients treated with dialysis, in comparison to the general population and to assess possible associations between the n-3 PUFA profile and anthropometric variables. Thirty-three prevalent dialysis patients were studied and compared with an age- and sex-adjusted control group of 22 patients...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254441/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-suppress-the-inflammatory-responses-of-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-mouse-microglia-by-activating-sirt1-pathways
#12
Takayuki Inoue, Masashi Tanaka, Shinya Masuda, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Hajime Yamakage, Kazuya Muranaka, Hiromichi Wada, Toru Kusakabe, Akira Shimatsu, Koji Hasegawa, Noriko Satoh-Asahara
Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for dementia, and it is speculated that chronic neuroinflammation contributes to this increased risk. Microglia are brain-resident immune cells modulating the neuroinflammatory state. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of fish oil, exhibit various effects, which include shifting microglia to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved, we examined the impact of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine profiles and the associated signaling pathways in the mouse microglial line MG6...
February 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250850/effect-of-different-concentrations-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-stimulated-thp-1-macrophages
#13
B Allam-Ndoul, F Guénard, O Barbier, M-C Vohl
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a central role in chronic diseases occurring in the contemporary society. The health benefits of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported. However, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We explored dose and time effects of EPA, DHA, and a mixture of EPA + DHA on the expression of inflammatory genes in stimulated macrophages. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide was used to stimulate human THP-1 macrophages...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245901/genetic-variants-in-the-elovl5-but-not-elovl2-gene-associated-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-han-chinese-breast-milk
#14
Xiang Li, Zhen Wei Gan, Zhen Ding, Yi Xia Wu, Xue Yan Chen, Hui Min Tian, Guo Liang Liu, Ye Tong Yang, Lin Xie
The present study was designed to examine the contributions of the fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) gene polymorphisms to the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast milk. Two hundred and nine healthy Han Chinese mothers were included in the study. Carriers of minor alleles of SNPs (rs2397142 and rs9357760) in ELOVL5 were associated with higher levels of linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), arachidonic acid (AA), docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), docosahexenoic acid (DHA), while in rs209512 of ELOVL5 the carriers of minor alleles had lower levels of DTA compared to major homozygote alleles (P ranged from 0...
January 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245632/omega-3-fatty-acid-intake-of-pregnant-women-and-women-of-childbearing-age-in-the-united-states-potential-for-deficiency
#15
Tara M Nordgren, Elizabeth Lyden, Ann Anderson-Berry, Corrine Hanson
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age...
February 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242361/the-dietary-replacement-of-marine-ingredients-by-terrestrial-animal-and-plant-alternatives-modulates-the-antiviral-immune-response-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#16
Albert Caballero-Solares, Jennifer R Hall, Xi Xue, Khalil Eslamloo, Richard G Taylor, Christopher C Parrish, Matthew L Rise
The effects of replacing marine ingredients by terrestrial ingredients on the health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are poorly understood. During a 14-week trial, Atlantic salmon fed a fish meal-fish oil based diet (MAR) showed similar growth performance to others fed a plant protein/vegetable oil based diet (VEG), whereas poorer performance was observed in those fed an animal by-product meal/vegetable oil based diet (ABP). At the end of the trial, salmon were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or the viral mimic polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) and sampled for head kidney RNA after 24 h...
February 24, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241993/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxina4-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5-f%C3%A2-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action. METHODS: RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237088/low-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acid-status-in-middle-aged-women
#18
Sandra Gellert, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: Long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive decline. Several studies have shown that the LC n-3 PUFA status in women in western countries is low. The aim of this study was to assess the LC n-3 PUFA status in middle-aged German women and to identify variables that might affect the status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the nationwide and cross-sectional German VitaMinFemin study, fatty acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane (% of total erythrocyte fatty acids) were ascertained for 446 women (40-60 years)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237087/e-configuration-structures-of-epa-and-dha-derived-from-euphausia-superba-and-their-significant-inhibitive-effects-on-growth-of-human-cancer-cell-lines-in-vitro
#19
Weilong Zheng, Xudong Wang, Wenjing Cao, Bowen Yang, Ying Mu, Yuesheng Dong, Zhilong Xiu
Many bioactive components such as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. EPA and DHA), phospholipids and astaxanthin are known in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil. The krill DHA and EPA are generally considered to be similar to natural ones. However, two chemical compounds which were separated from Antarctic krill oil and identified as EPA and DHA by HRESIMS and NMR acted much more effective inhibitive activities on growth of several cell lines (U937, K562, SMMC-7721, PC-3, MDA-MB-231, HL60 and MCF-7) than those from sturgeon liver and commercial fish oil...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236203/analysis-of-certain-fatty-acids-and-toxic-metal-bioaccumulation-in-various-tissues-of-three-fish-species-that-are-consumed-by-turkish-people
#20
Gökçe Kaya, Semra Türkoğlu
Concentrations of toxic metals (Mn, Ni, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr) in the muscle, skin, and liver of Mugil cephalus, Mullus barbatus, and Pagellus erythrinus which were purchased in large supermarkets of Elazig, and Mullus barbatus, which were caught on the sea of İskenderun Bay, Turkey, were analyzed. Fundamental analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after samples were prepared by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were varied in the ranges of Cd 4-426, Cr 116-4458, Mn 141-24774, Hg 9-471, Pb 96-695, and Ni 68-6581 μg kg(-1), for wet weight...
February 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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