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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222893/postprandial-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-response-to-krill-oil-and-fish-oil-consumption-in-healthy-women-a-randomised-controlled-single-dose-crossover-study
#1
Hyunsin H Sung, Andrew J Sinclair, Paul A Lewandowski, Xiao Q Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) are good sources of health-benefiting long chain n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA and DHA. There are conflicting outcomes on the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA from KO compared with FO. This study investigated the postprandial incorporation of LC n- 3 PUFA into plasma lipids following consumption of 5 capsules of KO or FO in comparison with olive oil (OO) control in healthy women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 10 women (aged 18-45 years) consumed a high-fat (15 g) breakfast, supplemented with 5 g of KO, FO, or OO in a random order with a minimum seven-day washout period between the supplementations...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218019/dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-late-pregnancy-and-postpartum-depressive-symptom-among-japanese-women
#2
Minatsu Kobayashi, Kohei Ogawa, Naho Morisaki, Yukako Tani, Reiko Horikawa, Takeo Fujiwara
Background: The use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) in preventive or therapeutic modalities for postpartum depression, especially long-chain types such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is of considerable interest. High n-3PUFA consumption has been reported among pregnant Japanese women. Therefore, analysis of this group could provide important insights into the relationship between postpartum depression and dietary n-3PUFA consumption. To further examine the relationship between the risk of postpartum depression and n-3PUFA consumption, we conducted a prospective hospital-based birth cohort study in Japan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209497/long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-vegetarian-women-a-metabolic-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209405/retroconversion-is-a-minor-contributor-to-increases-in-eicosapentaenoic-acid-following-docosahexaenoic-acid-feeding-as-determined-by-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-in-rat-liver
#4
Adam H Metherel, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13C-enrichment...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208059/associations-of-the-serum-long-chain-n-3-pufa-and-hair-mercury-with-resting-heart-rate-peak-heart-rate-during-exercise-and-heart-rate-recovery-after-exercise-in-middle-aged-men
#5
Behnam Tajik, Sudhir Kurl, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Kai Savonen, Jyrki K Virtanen
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish have been associated with lower risk of CVD. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which may attenuate the inverse associations of the long-chain n-3 PUFA. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully known. We evaluated the associations of the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) and hair Hg with resting heart rate (HR), peak HR during cycle ergometer exercise and HR recovery after exercise. A total of 1008 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD, were studied...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207677/dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-fish-consumption-and-endometrial-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-of-epidemiological-studies
#6
Rui Hou, Shen-Shen Yao, Jia Liu, Lian-Lian Wang, Lang Wu, Luo Jiang
The relationship between intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk has not been consistent across epidemiological studies. We quantitatively assessed the aforementioned association through a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed and Embase were searched through March 2017 for eligible epidemiological studies. Fixed or random-effects models were used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The dose-response relationship was also evaluated. Based on the literature search, five prospective studies and 11 case-control studies were identified...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207553/determination-of-the-relative-efficacy-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-for-anti-cancer-effects-in-human-breast-cancer-models
#7
REVIEW
Laura VanderSluis, Vera C Mazurak, Sambasivarao Damaraju, Catherine J Field
Epidemiological studies have associated high fish oil consumption with decreased risk of breast cancer (BC). n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish and fish oils exert anti-cancer effects. However, few studies have examined the relative efficacy of EPA and DHA alone and in mixtures on BC subtypes. This was the objective of the present review, as this research is a necessity for the translation of findings to human health and disease...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206907/a-novel-bioactive-derivative-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-suppresses-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apc%C3%AE-14-mice
#8
Masako Nakanishi, Matthew P Hanley, Ruochen Zha, Yuichi Igarashi, Mark A Hull, Gary Mathias, Frank Sciavolino, James J Grady, Daniel W Rosenberg
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of polyps throughout the colon. Without prophylactic colectomy, most individuals with FAP develop colorectal cancer at an early age. Treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the free fatty acid form (EPA-FFA) has been shown to reduce polyp burden in FAP patients. Since high-purity EPA-FFA is subject to rapid oxidation, a stable form of EPA compound has been developed in the form of magnesium l-lysinate bis-eicosapentaenoate (TP-252)...
December 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199200/age-stratification-and-impact-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-to-arachidonic-acid-ratios-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#9
Yuji Ueno, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kenichiro Hira, Naohide Kurita, Mayu Sakurai, Takao Urabe, Kazunori Shimada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Daida, Nobutaka Hattori
AIM: We focused on the ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and explored the significance of these ratios relative to clinical characteristics by age in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent radiological investigations and laboratory examinations, including measurement of serum EPA, DHA, and AA levels, and controls. Patients were classified according to age (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) and the tertile of EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios, and clinical aspects were compared with these factors...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195133/effects-of-fish-oils-on-ex-vivo-b-cell-responses-of-obese-subjects-upon-bcr-tlr-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#10
William Guesdon, Rasagna Kosaraju, Patricia Brophy, Angela Clark, Steve Dillingham, Shahnaz Aziz, Fiona Moyer, Kate Willson, James R Dick, Shivajirao Prakash Patil, Nicholas Balestrieri, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdroph, Saame Raza Shaikh
The long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil have immunomodulatory properties. B cells are a poorly studied target of EPA/DHA in humans. Therefore, in this pilot study, we tested how n-3 LC-PUFAs influence B-cell responses of obese humans. Obese men and women were assigned to consume four 1-g capsules per day of olive oil (OO, n=12), fish oil (FO, n=12) concentrate or high-DHA-FO concentrate (n=10) for 12 weeks in a parallel design...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191085/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-anxiety-like-behavior-in-socially-isolated-rats
#11
Yasuyo Oshima, Tasuku Watanabe, Shun Endo, Shuichi Hata, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Kyoichi Osada, Asako Takenaka
The effects of fish oil for improving mental health have been reported. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on anxiety-like behavior using a rat model. Experimental diets enriched in EPA or DHA as glycerides were prepared. Rats were exposed to social isolation stress and fed the experimental diet for 14 days. The results of behavioral tests revealed that rats fed the EPA-enriched diet exhibited less anxiety-like behavior than rats fed the control or DHA-enriched diets...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186929/integrated-immunomodulatory-mechanisms-through-which-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-attenuate-obese-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Danyelle M Liddle, Amber L Hutchinson, Hannah R Wellings, Krista A Power, Lindsay E Robinson, Jennifer M Monk
Obesity is a global health concern with rising prevalence that increases the risk of developing other chronic diseases. A causal link connecting overnutrition, the development of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities is visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by changes in the cellularity of various immune cell populations, altered production of inflammatory adipokines that sustain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and, ultimately, dysregulated AT metabolic function. Therefore, dietary intervention strategies aimed to halt the progression of obese AT dysfunction through any of the aforementioned processes represent an important active area of research...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182647/influence-of-different-feeding-regimes-on-the-survival-growth-and-biochemical-composition-of-acropora-coral-recruits
#13
Jessica A Conlan, Craig A Humphrey, Andrea Severati, David S Francis
Heterotrophic feeding in newly-settled coral planulae can potentially improve survivorship and accelerate early development in some species; however, an optimal diet to facilitate this does not currently exist. This study evaluated the efficacy of three heterotrophic feeding regimes (enriched rotifers, unfiltered seawater, and a novel, particulate diet), against a wholly-phototrophic treatment on Acropora hyacinthus, A. loripes, A. millepora, and A. tenuis recruits, over 93 days post-settlement. The unfiltered seawater treatment recorded maximum survival for all species (A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182579/antarctic-krill-oil-diet-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment
#14
Ji Yeon Choi, Jun Sung Jang, Dong Ju Son, Hyung-Sik Im, Ji Yeong Kim, Joung Eun Park, Won Rak Choi, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the development and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of krill oil. Oil from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill), an Antarctic marine species, is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined whether krill oil diet (80 mg/kg/day for one month) prevents amyloidogenesis and cognitive impairment induced by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 µg/kg, seven times daily) injections in AD mice model and found that krill oil treatment inhibited the LPS-induced memory loss...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181705/coenzyme-q10-loaded-fish-oil-based-bigel-system-probing-the-delivery-across-porcine-skin-and-possible-interaction-with-fish-oil-fatty-acids
#15
Mohd Hanif Zulfakar, Lee Mei Chan, Khurram Rehman, Lam Kok Wai, Charles M Heard
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like oil-soluble molecule that has anti-oxidant and anti-ageing effects. To determine the most optimal CoQ10 delivery vehicle, CoQ10 was solubilised in both water and fish oil, and formulated into hydrogel, oleogel and bigel. Permeability of CoQ10 from each formulation across porcine ear skin was then evaluated. Furthermore, the effects of the omega-3 fatty eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids from fish oil on skin permeation were investigated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computerised molecular modelling docking experiments...
November 27, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176006/gpr120-mechanism-of-action-role-and-potential-for-medical-applications
#16
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Joanna Róg, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate many cellular processes. GPR120/FFAR4, a receptor from this family that is activated by fatty acids, has received considerable attention recently. This paper presents a literature review concerning the role of GPR120 and its mechanism of action in animal and human studies as well as the potential use of GPR120 for the treatment of chronic diseases. Two electronic databases - Medline and Google Scholar - were searched for available studies addressing the review topic that were written in English and published from 2000 to June 2017...
November 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175671/dietary-omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-modulate-hepatic-pathology
#17
Saraswoti Khadge, John Graham Sharp, Geoffrey M Thiele, Timothy R McGuire, Lynell W Klassen, Michael J Duryee, Holly C Britton, Alicia J Dafferner, Jordan Beck, Paul N Black, Concetta C DiRusso, James Talmadge
Recent evidence has suggested that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate inflammation; however, few studies have focused on the pathobiology of PUFA using isocaloric and isolipidic diets and it is unclear if the associated pathologies are due to dietary PUFA composition, lipid metabolism or obesity, as most studies compare diets fed ad libitum. Our studies used isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets (35% of calories from fat), with differing compositions of omega (ω)-6 or long chain (Lc) ω-3 PUFA that were pair-fed and assessed hepatic pathology, inflammation and lipid metabolism...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173690/omega-3-fatty-acids-inflammatory-status-and-biochemical-markers-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-pilot-study
#18
Mariane Curado Borges, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Rosa Weiss Telles, Marcus Vinícius Melo de Andrade, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia, Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173215/quantity-and-species-of-fish-consumed-shape-breast-milk-fatty-acid-concentrations-around-lake-victoria-kenya
#19
Kathryn J Fiorella, Erin M Milner, Elizabeth Bukusi, Lia Ch Fernald
OBJECTIVE: Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) found in breast milk are derived from dietary sources and critical for optimal infant development. We examined associations between fish consumption and concentrations of LCPUFA and essential n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in breast milk among mothers living around Lake Victoria. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional analyses of associations between recent fish consumption and breast-milk fatty acid concentrations. SETTING: The study was conducted around Lake Victoria on Mfangano Island, Kenya, where multiple fish species are key dietary components and also are widely exported...
November 27, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173199/effects-of-prenatal-n-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-offspring-resolvins-at-birth-and-12-years-of-age-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Valene H L See, Emilie Mas, Susan L Prescott, Lawrence J Beilin, Sally Burrows, Anne E Barden, Rae-Chi Huang, Trevor A Mori
Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) generated from the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify these novel SPM. This study aimed to assess the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on offspring SPM at birth and 12 years of age (12 years). In all, ninety-eight atopic pregnant women were randomised to 3·7 g daily n-3 fatty acids or a control (olive oil), from 20 weeks gestation until delivery...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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