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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530595/comparison-of-solvents-for-extraction-of-krill-oil-from-krill-meal-lipid-yield-phospholipids-content-fatty-acids-composition-and-minor-components
#1
Dan Xie, Jun Jin, Jiang Sun, Li Liang, Xiaosan Wang, Wei Zhang, Xingguo Wang, Qingzhe Jin
The effects of seven different extraction solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane, n-hexane, and subcritical butane) on the lipid yield and quality of the oil extracted from krill meal were investigated in this study. Phospholipids (PL), fatty acids (FA) composition and minor components including sterols, astaxanthin, vitamin A and tocopherols in the extracted krill oil were analyzed. The results indicated that ethanol and isopropanol led to comparatively higher lipid yields (16.33 and 14...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529072/rescue-of-il-1%C3%AE-induced-reduction-of-human-neurogenesis-by-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-antidepressants
#2
Alessandra Borsini, Silvia Alboni, Mark A Horowitz, Luis M Tojo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia A Zunszain
Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β,a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway...
May 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528591/conversion-ratios-of-n-3-fatty-acids-between-plasma-and-erythrocytes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#3
Xue Feng Hu, Simran K Sandhu, William S Harris, Hing Man Chan
As biomarkers of dietary intake or disease risk factor, n-3 fatty acid (FA) can be measured in plasma phospholipids (PL), total lipids (TL) or erythrocytes. However, the numeric relationships between n-3 FA in these lipid pools are not clear. Our goal was to derive conversion ratios for plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA. Potential studies were identified through systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library of Systematic reviews (1950 to October 2014). In all, fifty-six studies reporting n-3 in healthy individuals were included, of which thirty-four articles reported plasma PL and erythrocytes, and twenty-two reported plasma TL and erythrocytes...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#4
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526351/docosahexaenoyl-serotonin-emerges-as-most-potent-inhibitor-of-il-17-and-ccl-20-released-by-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-a-series-of-n-acyl-serotonins-identified-in-human-intestinal-tissue
#5
Ya Wang, Michiel G J Balvers, Henk F J Hendriks, Tessa Wilpshaar, Tjarda van Heek, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, mono-amine neurotransmitters or amino acids are a class of molecules that display diverse functional roles in different cells and tissues. Recently we reported that one of the serotonin-fatty acid conjugates, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), previously found in gut tissue of mouse and pig, attenuates the IL-23-IL-17 signaling axis in LPS-stimulated mice macrophages. However, its presence and effects in humans remained to be elucidated...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526084/liver-phospholipids-fatty-acids-composition-in-response-to-different-types-of-diets-in-rats-of-both-sexes
#6
Slavica Ranković, Tamara Popović, Jasmina Debeljak Martačić, Snježana Petrović, Mirko Tomić, Đurđica Ignjatović, Gordana Tovilović-Kovačević, Maria Glibetić
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake influence changes in fatty acids (FA) profiles in liver which plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism, triacylglycerol synthesis and energy homeostasis. We investigated the effects of 4-weeks treatment with milk- and fish-based diet, on plasma biochemical parameters and FA composition of liver phospholipids (PL) in rats of both sexes. METHODS: Adult, 4 months old, Wistar rats of both sexes, were fed with different types of diets: standard, milk-based and fish-based, during 4 weeks...
May 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515020/supplementation-with-high-dose-docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-omega-3-index-more-than-high-dose-eicosapentaenoic-acid
#7
Janie Allaire, William S Harris, Cécile Vors, Amélie Charest, Johanne Marin, Kristina Harris Jackson, André Tchernof, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511049/the-omega-3-index-and-relative-risk-for-coronary-heart-disease-mortality-estimation-from-10-cohort-studies
#8
William S Harris, Liana Del Gobbo, Nathan L Tintle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent 19-cohort meta-analysis examined the relationships between biomarkers of omega-3 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). That study did not, however, report hazard ratios (HRs) specifically as a function of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic (DHA) levels, a metric called the Omega-3 Index in which EPA + DHA content is expressed as a percent of total fatty acids. The Omega-3 Index has been used in several recent studies and is a validated biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid tissue levels, but additional data are needed to confirm (or refute) the originally-proposed clinical cut-points of <4% (higher risk) and 8%-12% (lower risk)...
May 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#9
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#10
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497479/proximate-composition-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-profiles-of-marine-snail-rapana-venosa-meat-visceral-mass-and-operculum
#11
Fenglei Luo, Ronge Xing, Xueqin Wang, Quancai Peng, Pengcheng Li
BACKGROUND: Rapana venosa (Rv), an important marine snail, presents increasing nutritional, and economic importance. However, there still has been limited information on their nutritional composition. This study highlighted and provided new information on the proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of Rv different body parts in order to its better application and research. RESULTS: The operculum contained high amount of protein and flavor amino acids...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495596/the-role-of-omega-3-and-omega-9-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-after-neurotrauma
#12
REVIEW
Iriana Galán-Arriero, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Carlos Goicoechea, Julian Taylor, Ana Velasco, Gerardo Ávila-Martín
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as Docosaexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as Oleic Acid (OA) and 2-Hydroxy Oleic Acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488194/replacement-of-fish-oil-with-soybean-oil-in-diets-for-juvenile-chinese-sucker-myxocyprinus-asiaticus-effects-on-liver-lipid-peroxidation-and-biochemical-composition
#13
Deng-Hang Yu, Jia-Zhi Chang, Gui-Fang Dong, Jun Liu
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P < 0...
May 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484978/effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-essential-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-edible-bivalve-donax-trunculus
#14
Isma Merad, Sandrine Bellenger, Aziz Hichami, Naim Akhtar Khan, Noureddine Soltani
Donax trunculus is the most consumed bivalve by the local population of the Northeast Algeria for its nutritional value. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the effects of cadmium (Cd), a known toxic metal, on the alterations in main essential omega-3 fatty acids, i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3), in male and female gonads of D. trunculus during the reproduction period at spring (before spawning). Additionally, this work seeks to describe the relation between EPA and DHA with non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) fatty acids, and explores their possible contribution of to protect against Cd stress...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482757/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-restored-impaired-memory-and-gabaergic-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus-of-stressed-rats
#15
Miguel Ángel Pérez, Valentín Peñaloza-Sancho, Juan Ahumada, Marco Fuenzalida, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
While chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy in the hippocampus and impairs learning and memory, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is known to improve learning and memory of control rats. Whether n-3 PUFA supplementation improves dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and memory of chronically stressed rats remains unknown. In this work, we randomly assigned male Sprague-Dawley rats in four experimental groups: two unsupplemented groups, control and stress, and two supplemented groups with n-3 PUFA (DHA and EPA mix), control + n-3 PUFA and stress + n-3 PUFA...
May 8, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476598/the-smooth-hound-lipolytic-system-biochemical-characterization-of-a-purified-digestive-lipase-lipid-profile-and-in-vitro-oil-digestibility
#16
Neila Achouri, Nabil Smichi, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled, Ahmed Fendri
In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we choose the common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus) as a starting biological material to characterize the digestive lipid hydrolyzing enzyme. A smooth-hound digestive lipase (SmDL) was purified from a delipidated pancreatic powder. The SmDL molecular weight was around 50kDa. Specific activities of 2200 and 500U/mg were measured at pH 9 and 40°C using tributyrin and olive oil emulsion as substrates, respectively. Unlike known mammal pancreatic lipases, the SmDL was stable at 50°C and it retained 90% of its initial activity after 15min of incubation at 60°C...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476426/description-of-the-composition-of-fatty-acids-and-lipids-in-the-breeders-muscle-oocytes-and-in-the-embryonic-development-of-brycon-orthotaenia-g%C3%A3-nther-1864
#17
Edenilce de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Larisa Magnone, Martin Bessonart, Deliane Cristina Costa, José Cláudio Epaminondas Dos Santos, Nilo Bazolli, Cintia Labussière Nakayama, Ronald Kennedy Luz
The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P<0.05) abundant in oocytes and larvae in different stages of development. The lowest content (P<0.05) of total lipids was found in the muscles, whereas total lipid content of oocytes, NHL and FFL did not show any significant difference. Polar lipid content was different (P<0...
April 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469193/omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-and-oxidation-state-of-fish-oil-supplements-in-new-zealand
#18
Gerard Bannenberg, Craig Mallon, Holly Edwards, Derek Yeadon, Kevin Yan, Holly Johnson, Adam Ismail
Forty-seven fish oil products available on the New Zealand market were analyzed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, as well as for oxidative status in a collaborative effort by several analytical laboratories. Of the tested products, 72%, 86% and 77% complied with voluntary industry-set maximum limits on Peroxide Value (PV), para-Anisidine Value (p-AV), and TOTOX, respectively. 91% of the products complied with EPA/DHA content claims. All fish oils complied with a p-AV limit of 30, 98% with a PV limit of 10 meq O2/kg, and 96% with a calculated TOTOX value of 50, which are less stringent limits used by the European and British Pharmacopeia and the Australian authorities...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466005/influence-of-supplementation-of-vegetable-oil-blends-on-omega-3-fatty-acid-production-in-mortierella-alpina-cfr-gv15
#19
Ganesan Vadivelan, Pamidighantam Prabhakara Rao, Govindarajulu Venkateswaran
Objectives of this study were designed for improved production of mycelial omega-3 fatty acids with particular reference to EPA and DHA from the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 under submerged low temperatures fermentation supplemented with linseed oil and garden cress oil as an additional energy source. The fungus was grown at 20°C temperature for four days initially followed by 12°C temperature for next five days. The basal medium contained starch, yeast extract, and a blend of linseed oil (LSO) and garden cress oil (GCO) in the ratio 1 : 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463780/a-novel-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms-based-bioanalytical-method-for-quantification-of-ethyl-esters-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-and-its-application-in-pharmacokinetic-study
#20
Sekarbabu Viswanathan, P R P Verma, Muniyandithevar Ganesan, Jeganathan Manivannan
Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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