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DHA and EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463265/fatty-acids-modulate-the-expression-levels-of-key-proteins-for-cholesterol-absorption-in-caco-2-monolayer
#1
Fang Yang, Guoxun Chen, Meihu Ma, Ning Qiu, Lingjiao Zhu, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is mediated by several transporter proteins. Of these proteins, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a major contributor to this process. The current study investigates the unknown mechanism by which fatty acids modulate cholesterol absorption. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of six fatty acids palmitic acid (PAM), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cholesterol uptake and transport in human enterocytes Caco-2 cells, and on the mRNA expression levels of NPC1L1, others proteins (ABCG5, ABCG8, ABCA1, ACAT2, MTP, Caveolin 1, Annexin-2) involved in cholesterol absorption, and SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 that are responsible for lipid metabolism...
February 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459911/effects-of-a-12-week-high-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-intervention-on-epa-and-dha-concentrations-in-red-blood-cells-and-plasma-oxylipin-pattern-in-subjects-with-a-low-epa-and-dha-status
#2
Theresa Greupner, Laura Kutzner, Fabian Nolte, Alena Strangmann, Heike Kohrs, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb, Jan Philipp Schuchardt
The essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n3) can be converted into EPA and DHA. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a high-ALA diet on EPA and DHA levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and their oxylipins in the plasma of subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Fatty acid concentrations [μg mL-1 ] and relative amounts [% of total fatty acids] in the RBCs of 19 healthy men (mean age 26.4 ± 4.6 years) were analyzed by means of GC-FID. Free plasma oxylipin concentrations were determined by LC-MS based targeted metabolomics...
February 20, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459514/activation-of-macrophages-in-vitro-by-phospholipids-from-brain-of-katsuwonus-pelamis-skipjack-tuna
#3
Hang Lu, Li Zhang, Hui Zhao, Jingjing Li, Hailin You, Lu Jiang, Jianen Hu
The biological activities of phospholipids (PLs) have attracted people's attention, especially marine phospholipids with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA. In this study, we investigated the immunity activation of macrophages in vitro by phospholipids from skipjack brain. The phospholipids were extracted with hexane and ethanol ultrasonication instead of the traditional method of methanol and chloroform. The content of phospholipids from Skipjack brain was 19.59 g/kg by the method (the ratio of hexane and ethanol 2:1, 40 min, 35°C, 1:9 of the ratio of material to solvent, ultrasonic power 300W, ultrasonic extraction 2 times)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458842/cognitive-response-to-fish-oil-blueberry-and-combined-supplementation-in-older-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-impairment
#4
Robert K McNamara, Wilhelmina Kalt, Marcelle D Shidler, Jane McDonald, Suzanne S Summer, Amanda L Stein, Amanda N Stover, Robert Krikorian
Given evidence that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and anthocyanin-rich blueberries provide neurocognitive benefit, we investigated long-term supplementation in older adults with cognitive complaints. In a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, elderly men and women received daily fish oil (FO) or blueberry (BB) or both. Diet records confirmed that participants reduced background consumption of EPA, DHA, and anthocyanins as prescribed. Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition increased in the FO groups (p = 0...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458208/the-use-of-fatty-acids-as-absorption-enhancer-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#5
Maliheh Ghadiri, Finbarr Canney, Cristina Pacciana, Gaia Colombo, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
A limitation in the systemic uptake of many inhalable drugs is the restricted permeation through the pulmonary epithelial layer barrier. One strategy to bypass the epithelial layer when delivering non-permeable drugs is to alter the paracellular transport, allowing the uptake of drugs into the systemic circulation. In this study, the potential of sodium decanoate (Na dec), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as absorption enhancers has been investigated to increase pulmonary paracellular permeability by modulating epithelial cells' tight junctions...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452256/modulation-of-oxidative-stress-response-by-flaxseed-oil-role-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-underlying-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Manjari Singh, Subhadeep Roy, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Gaurav Kaithwas
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) are majorly classified as ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ω-3:20-5), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3:22-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3:18-3) are known ω-3 fatty acids, extracted from animal (e.g fish oil) and plant sources (e.g flaxseed oil). Furthermore, linoleic acid (LA, ω-6:18-2) is recognized as ω-6 fatty acid and the most prominent biological fatty acid with a pro-inflammatory response. Flaxseed oil has variety of biological roles, due to a significant amount of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids...
February 13, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451828/the-effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-epa-and-or-dha-on-male-infertility-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Banafshe Hosseini, Mahdieh Nourmohamadi, Shima Hajipour, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Zatollah Asemi, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Sadegh Jafarnejad
The objective was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on sperm parameters including total sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm DHA, and seminal plasma DHA concentration in infertile men. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus from January 1, 1990 to December 20, 2017. The systematic review and meta-analysis were based on randomized controlled trials in infertile men with DHA or EPA treatments, either alone or in combination with other micronutrients...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428930/managing-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-through-personalized-care-a-case-report
#8
Keren Dolan, Heather Finley, Margo Gasta, Sasha Houseman
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) affects more than 14 million individuals in the United States, most of them women. Thyroid replacement therapy has long been the foundation of medical treatment for HT; however, recent research supports a role for nutritional approaches. This case report describes the management of a 34-y-old female with HT who declined thyroid replacement therapy and was successfully managed for a period of 5 mo. The patient was advised to follow a phytonutrient rich diet (eg, berries); avoid sensitive foods (gluten and soy); and consume quality fats, fermented foods, and filtered water...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425187/the-differential-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421481/the-different-effects-of-linseed-and-fish-oil-supplemented-diets-on-insulin-sensitivity-of-rabbit-does-during-pregnancy
#10
L Menchetti, C Canali, C Castellini, C Boiti, G Brecchia
This study investigates the effects of linseed (rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA)) and fish oil (rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) supplementation on the insulin resistance of pregnant rabbits. Two months before insemination, the rabbits (15 animals/group) were fed different diets: commercial standard (group C), supplemented with 10% extruded linseed (group L), and 3% fish oil (group FO). The L group does showed both the highest feed intake before AI (P < 0.01) and the highest body weight (BW) throughout pregnancy (P < 0...
February 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420061/fish-consumption-and-cardiovascular-disease-related-biomarkers-a-review-of-clinical-trials
#11
Filio Petsini, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Smaragdi Antonopoulou
The purpose of this review is to collect and compare fish intervention studies. Prospective studies have outlined the beneficial effect of frequent fish consumption on cardiovascular incidents that is attributed to n-3 fatty acids incorporated in fish, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. This outcome triggered clinical trials to examine the effect of either fish intake or consumption of n-3 fatty acids via capsules on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The absence of a recent review focusing on clinical trials regarding fish intake and not n-3 fatty acids supplements rendered necessary the composition of this article...
February 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413491/relative-levels-of-dietary-epa-and-dha-impact-gastric-oxidation-and-essential-fatty-acid-uptake
#12
Gabriel Dasilva, Mattew Boller, Isabel Medina, Judith Storch
Previous research showed that increasing the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine lipid supplements significantly reduces associated health benefits compared with balanced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):DHA supplementation Dasilva et al., 2015 [1]. It was therefore hypothesized that the EPA and DHA molecules might have differential resistance to oxidation during gastric digestion and that the oxidation level achieved could be inversely correlated with intestinal absorption and, hence, with the resultant health benefits...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413488/marine-fish-oil-is-more-potent-than-plant-based-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-mammary-tumors
#13
Jiajie Liu, Salma A Abdelmagid, Christopher J Pinelli, Jennifer M Monk, Danyelle M Liddle, Lyn M Hillyer, Barbora Hucik, Anjali Silva, Sanjeena Subedi, Geoffrey A Wood, Lindsay E Robinson, William J Muller, David W L Ma
Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. However, evidence regarding plant-based α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 PUFA in the Western diet, remains equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of lifelong exposure to plant- or marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on pubertal mammary gland and tumor development in MMTV-neu(ndl)-YD5 mice. It is hypothesized that lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA reduces terminal end buds during puberty leading to delayed tumor onset, volume and multiplicity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413361/fish-oil-supplemental-dose-needed-to-reach-1g-dha-epa-in-mature-milk
#14
E Stoutjesdijk, A Schaafsma, D A J Dijck-Brouwer, F A J Muskiet
INTRODUCTION: Erythrocyte (RBC) DHA+EPA is considered optimal at 8g%. Mothers with lifetime high fish intakes exhibiting this status produce milk with about 1g% DHA+EPA. We established DHA+EPA supplemental dosages needed to augment RBC DHA+EPA to 8g% and milk DHA+EPA to 1g%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly allocated to DHA+EPA dosages of: 225+90 (n=9), 450+180 (n=9), 675+270 (n=11) and 900+360 (n=7) mg/day. Samples were collected at 20 and 36 gestational weeks and 4 weeks postpartum...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413360/a-sixteen-week-three-armed-randomized-controlled-trial-investigating-clinical-and-biochemical-effects-of-targeted-alterations-in-dietary-linoleic-acid-and-n-3-epa-dha-in-adults-with-episodic-migraine-study-protocol
#15
John Douglas Mann, Keturah R Faurot, Beth MacIntosh, Olafur S Palsson, Chirayath M Suchindran, Susan Ann Gaylord, Chanee Lynch, Angela Johnston, Kristen Maiden, David A Barrow, Joseph R Hibbeln, Christopher E Ramsden
Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder, affecting over 16% of adult women and 7% of adult men in the U.S., causing significant pain, disability, and medical expense, with incomplete benefits from conventional medical management. Migraine, as a chronic pain syndrome, provides a practical model for investigating the impact of dietary modifications in omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids. This paper reports the protocol of a trial to assess whether targeted dietary modifications designed to increase n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with or without concurrent reduction in n-6 linoleic acid (LA), will alter nociceptive lipid mediators and mediate decreases in frequency and severity of migraine...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407798/environmentally-realistic-concentration-of-cadmium-combined-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-enriched-diets-modulated-non-specific-immunity-in-rainbow-trout
#16
Valérie Cornet, Abderrahim Ouaach, S N M Mandiki, Enora Flamion, Aline Ferain, Mélusine Van Larebeke, Benjamin Lemaire, Felipe E Reyes López, Lluis Tort, Yvan Larondelle, Patrick Kestemont
Nutrition is crucial to grow healthy fish particularly in a context of pollution, overcrowding and pathogen risks. Nowadays, the search for food components able to improve fish health is increasingly developing. Here, the influence of four dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) on the sensitivity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles to environmentally realistic cadmium (Cd, 0...
February 1, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405230/trajectory-of-the-mapt-pacc-preclinical-alzheimer-cognitive-composite-in-the-placebo-group-of-a-randomized-control-trial-results-from-the-mapt-study-lessons-for-further-trials
#17
J K Chhetri, P de Souto Barreto, C Cantet, M Cesari, N Coley, S Andrieu, B Vellas
Defining the primary cognitive endpoint is a major decision for Alzheimer's disease preventive trials. As an example for further trials we present in detail the three-year cognitive decline in the placebo group of MAPT trial, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a cognitive composite score (MAPT-PACC). Participants were dementia-free adults 70 years or older, with subjective memory complaints. Our findings as expected showed subjects with older age (>75), higher beta amyloid brain deposition, APOE-ε4 allele carriers, with low RBC DHA+EPA levels and higher CDR level are at higher risk of cognitive decline...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397559/anti-oxidative-effects-of-melatonin-receptor-agonist-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-neuronal-sh-sy5y-cells-deciphering-synergic-effects-on-anti-depressant-mechanisms
#18
Senthil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Yin-Hwa Shih, Yu-Chuan Chien, Shih-Yi Huang, Piotr Gałecki, Siegfried Kasper, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Kuan-Pin Su
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 or omega-3 PUFAs) and melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon (RMT) both display antidepressant effects, while their cellular effects on anti-oxidative and neuroprotective mechanisms might be different. In this study, we aimed to decipher the individual and synergistic actions of n-3 PUFAs and RMT, as compared with the conventional antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX), in a cellular model of oxidative stress, which might play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and associated disorders...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396909/comparative-study-of-different-polar-groups-of-epa-enriched-phospholipids-on-ameliorating-memory-loss-and-cognitive-deficiency-in-aged-samp8-mice
#19
Miao-Miao Zhou, Hong-Xia Che, Jia-Qi Huang, Tian-Tian Zhang, Jie Xu, Chang-Hu Xue, Yu-Ming Wang
SCOPE: Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) have beneficial effects on memory and cognition. However, most reports only attribute the benefit to DHA and pay little attention to EPA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effect of EPA-enriched phospholipids on cognitive deficiency in SAMP8 mouse. Ten-month-old SAMP8 mice were fed with 2% (w/w) EPA-PC/PE (EPA: DHA = 46.8%: 3.01%) or 2% EPA-PS (biosynthesized from EPA-PC/PE) for 8 weeks; we then tested the behavioral performances in the Barnes maze test and Morris maze test; the changes of oxidative stress, apoptosis, neurotrophic factors, tau phosphorylation and Aβ pathology were also measured...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394279/characterisation-of-the-vasodilation-effects-of-dha-and-epa-n-3-pufas-fish-oils-in-rat-aorta-and-mesenteric-resistance-arteries
#20
Roshan Limbu, Graeme S Cottrell, Alister J McNeish
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are beneficial to cardiovascular health, promoting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasodilation. Numerous studies have attempted to study these responses, but to date there has not been a systematic characterisation of both DHA and EPA mediated vasodilation in conduit and resistance arteries. Therefore, we aimed to fully characterise the n-3 PUFA-induced vasodilation pathways in rat aorta and mesenteric artery...
2018: PloS One
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