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west syndrome

Nathan D Grubaugh, Kristian G Andersen
The epidemics of Ebola virus in West Africa and Zika virus in America highlight how viruses can explosively emerge into new territories. These epidemics also exposed how unprepared we are to handle infectious disease emergencies. This is also true when we consider hypothesized new clinical features of infection, such as the associations between Zika virus infection and severe neurological disease, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the surface, these pathologies appear to be new features of Zika virus infection, however, causal relationships have not yet been established...
2016: F1000Research
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
P Gouda, J Chua, D Langan, T Hannon, A Scott, A O'Regan
BACKGROUND: While domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was initially used in the treatment of respiratory failure resulting from chest wall deformity, the main indication is now chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with recurrent exacerbations associated with type 2 respiratory failure. A longitudinal study of domiciliary NIV provides insights into the evolution of this treatment in the west of Ireland. METHODS: The cohort of patients receiving new prescriptions for domiciliary NIV from Galway University Hospital from 2000 to 2012 was reviewed using study coordinator chart reviews and telephone follow-ups...
October 15, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
X Qi, G Han, X Guo, V De Stefano, K Xu, Z Lu, H Xu, A Mancuso, W Zhang, X Han, D C Valla, D Fan
BACKGROUND: China may have the largest number of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) cases in the world (at least 1914 original papers were published, and at least 20 191 BCS patients were reported). Considering the discrepancy in the clinical profiles and preferred treatment selection of primary BCS between the West and China, understanding its aetiology in these two different regions is very important. AIM: To review the data from large cohort studies and meta-analyses to illustrate the epidemiology of risk factors for BCS in the West and China...
October 13, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Satyendra Khichar, Shyama Choudhary, Veer Bahadur Singh, Priyanka Tater, Arvind Rv
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Rupsa Basu, Ebenezer Tumban
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1.62 million people suspected to be infected in more than 60 countries around the globe. The recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with guillain-barré syndrome, congenital syndrome (microcephaly, congenital central nervous system anomalies), miscarriages, and even death...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
R Hofmann-Lehmann, N Wagmann, M L Meli, B Riond, M Novacco, D Joekel, F Gentilini, F Marsilio, M G Pennisi, A Lloret, T Carrapiço, F S Boretti
'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic agent that primarily affects immunocompromised human patients. Dogs and foxes are frequently exposed to ticks, and both species are in close proximity to humans. This is the first study to systematically investigate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Canidae in Europa. We analyzed 1'739 blood samples from dogs in Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal and 162 blood samples from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Nuri Kodaman, Melinda C Aldrich, Rafal Sobota, Folkert W Asselbergs, Nancy J Brown, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the presence of at least 3 of the following: obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein. Individuals with MetS also typically have elevated plasma levels of the antifibrinolytic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but the relationships between PAI-1 and MetS diagnostic criteria are not clear. Understanding these relationships can elucidate the relevance of MetS to cardiovascular disease risk, because PAI-1 is associated with ischemic events and directly involved in thrombosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
E Jolivet, C Plavonil, M Sainte-Rose, B Schaub
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the screening for trisomy 21 (T21) between 2011 and 2013 on Martinique French West Indies after the decree of 23 June 2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Were used the prenatal data provided by accredited laboratories and the data from the Registry of Congenital French West Indies (REMALAN). RESULTS: A total of 85.9 % of patients underwent screening: 60.5 % on a combined calculation of risk (CRC), 14...
September 29, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
James Rush Priest, Charles Gawad, Kristopher M Kahlig, Joseph K Yu, Thomas O'Hara, Patrick M Boyle, Sridharan Rajamani, Michael J Clark, Sarah T K Garcia, Scott Ceresnak, Jason Harris, Sean Boyle, Frederick E Dewey, Lindsey Malloy-Walton, Kyla Dunn, Megan Grove, Marco V Perez, Norma F Neff, Richard Chen, Katsuhide Maeda, Anne Dubin, Luiz Belardinelli, John West, Christian Antolik, Daniela Macaya, Thomas Quertermous, Natalia A Trayanova, Stephen R Quake, Euan A Ashley
Somatic mosaicism, the occurrence and propagation of genetic variation in cell lineages after fertilization, is increasingly recognized to play a causal role in a variety of human diseases. We investigated the case of life-threatening arrhythmia in a 10-day-old infant with long QT syndrome (LQTS). Rapid genome sequencing suggested a variant in the sodium channel NaV1.5 encoded by SCN5A, NM_000335:c.5284G > T predicting p.(V1762L), but read depth was insufficient to be diagnostic. Exome sequencing of the trio confirmed read ratios inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance only in the proband...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Takayuki Hatori, Yohei Sugiyama, Shinichiro Yamashita, Yuka Hirakubo, Kazuhito Nonaka, Ko Ichihashi
In a patient with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome complicated by intractable infantile spasms (West syndrome), cardiac hypertrophy developed during adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Various types of antiepileptic drugs, intravenous immunoglobulin, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and a ketogenic diet were ineffective in this case. However, vigabatrin both decreased clinical seizures and improved electroencephalogram findings. Although vigabatrin has not been approved for use in Japan, the results in the present case suggest that this drug should be considered as an alternative therapy for cases of infantile spasms associated with syndromes involving cardiomyopathy or its potential risk factors, such as cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome...
2016: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Karen Sousa, Natalia Decker, Thienne Rocha Pires, Débora Kuck Mausolff Papke, Vanessa Rodrigues Coelho, Pricila Pflüger, Patrícia Pereira, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
RATIONALE: Vigabatrin (VGB) is a drug indicated mostly for the treatment of spasms in childhood and West's syndrome patients. This drug inhibits irreversibly the enzyme GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), increasing GABA concentrations and enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain, which is known to induce behavioral changes. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of VGB in the short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), motivation, locomotion, and exploratory behavior tests and to detect deleterious or protective effects on DNA in target tissues of the drug...
September 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kyra Doumlele, Erin Conway, Julie Hedlund, Patricia Tolete, Orrin Devinsky
West Syndrome is characterized by infantile spasms, a hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern, and a poor neurodevelopmental prognosis. First-line treatments include adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin, but adverse effects often limit their use. CPP-115 is a high-affinity vigabatrin analogue developed to increase therapeutic potency and to limit retinal toxicity. Here, we present a child treated with CPP-115 through an investigational new drug protocol who experienced a marked reduction of seizures with no evidence of retinal dysfunction...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Andrew C Bjonnes, Richa Saxena, Corrine K Welt
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether European Americans with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit genetic differences associated with PCOS status and phenotypic features. DESIGN: Case-control association study in European Americans. SETTING: Academic center. SUBJECT(S): Women with PCOS diagnosed with the use of the National Institutes of Health criteria (n = 532) and control women with regular menstrual cycles and no evidence of hyperandrogenism (n = 432)...
September 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Wai-Kay Seto, Man-Fung Yuen
As in the West, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease in Asia, with a prevalence higher than 40 % in some countries. The risk factors for NAFLD development are similar to those in Western countries, including increased body mass index, diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD in Asians is associated with different extrahepatic manifestations involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal systems. A considerable proportion of Asians with NAFLD are described as having "lean" NAFLD...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Marissa Balmith, Mbuso Faya, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The Ebola virus (EboV), formally known as the Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute viral syndrome causing sporadic outbreaks that have ravaged West Africa. Due to its extreme virulence and highly transmissible nature, Ebola has been classified as a category A bioweapon organism. Only recently have vaccine or drug regimens for the EboV been developed, including Zmapp and peptides. In addition existing drugs which have been repurposed towards anti-EboV activity have been re-examined and are seen to be promising candidates towards combating Ebola...
September 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Sophie D West, Chris Turnbull
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing in prevalence due to rising obesity. Public awareness is also growing. Although OSA is a disorder primarily of the upper airway during sleep, its physiological impact on other parts of the body is now well recognized. There is increasing interest in the association of OSA with various eye disorders. Work in this field has been directed predominantly to OSA prevalence and association studies, but some authors have tried to elucidate the effect of OSA therapies on eye diseases, including continuous positive airway pressure, upper airway surgery or bariatric surgery...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
N B Cleton, K van Maanen, S A Bergervoet, N Bon, C Beck, G-J Godeke, S Lecollinet, R Bowen, D Lelli, N Nowotny, M P G Koopmans, C B E M Reusken
The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Roberto Cruz-Flores, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Monserrat Muñoz-Flores, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Mónica Hernández Rodriguez, Miguel Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Ernestina Castro-Longoria
Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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