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Cerebral ischemia protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138801/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-influences-the-erk-pathway-and-protects-against-neurological-deficits-and-neuronal-death
#1
Jie Yuan, Xin Guo, Zhengang Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Yan Feng, Sixin Song, Changmeng Cui, Pei Jiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that global cerebral ischemia (GCI) causes neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Calcitriol, a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its endocrinological influence via nuclear vitamin D receptor. It is being assessed as an emerging therapeutic strategy in models of various medical conditions, including acute brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol on GCI and further refine the potential underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129468/inhibition-of-rac1-ameliorates-neuronal-oxidative-stress-damage-via-reducing-bcl-2-rac1-complex-formation-in-mitochondria-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#2
Yundan Pan, Na Wang, Pingping Xia, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128627/inhibition-of-jak1-by-microrna-708-promotes-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cell-survival-after-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation
#3
Chao Huang, Haitao Zhou, Xiangyang Ren, Junfang Teng
MicroRNAs mediates gene expression in various diseases. Studies have shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs affected cerebral protection. In this study, we have investigated the effects of microRNA-708 (miR-708) on cell survival of oxygen and glucose-deprived reoxygenation (OGD/R) human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and explored whether miR-708 inhibited neuronal death by targeting JAK1. In vitro model of ischemia was used to investigate the neuroprotective functions of miR-708. MiR-708 mimics/siJAK1 transfected SH-SY5Y cells were treated with OGD...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128104/effects-of-intermedin-on-autophagy-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Meng Wang, Jing Wang, Zhengang Liu, Xin Guo, Ning Wang, Nana Jia, Yanshu Zhang, Jie Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intermedin (IMD) on autophagy in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (CIRI). METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly averaged into four groups: sham, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), IMD, and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In the sham group, the right common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and internal carotid artery were detached, and no monofilament was inserted. In the other groups, two hours after cerebral ischemia, the rats were injected through the lateral ventricle with normal saline for I/R group, IMD for the IMD group, and 3-MA for the 3-MA group for 24h...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126723/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-ndga-analogues-as-potential-anti-ischemic-stroke-agents
#5
Lili Huang, Jiabing Wang, Liping Chen, Min Zhu, Shoubiao Wu, Shenghui Chu, Yuantie Zheng, Ziliang Fan, Jiafeng Zhang, Wulan Li, Dahui Chen, Xiufei Yang, Sicen Wang, Peihong Qiu, Jianzhang Wu
Exogenous supplementation of antioxidants with ROS scavenging activity would be a potential therapy to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in stroke. In the present study, a series of NDGA analogues with attenuation oxidative stress by directly scavenging ROS and indirectly through keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway activation were designed and synthesized. All analogues were found to effectively remove ROS directly by DPPH radical scavenging assay, and compound 3a conferred potent protection from the oxidative injury in PC12 cells via promoting Nrf2 to translocate into nucleus and increasing expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), where strongly reduced intracellular ROS level indirectly...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#6
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123977/sodium-hydrosulfide-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-overactivated-autophagy-in-rats
#7
Wen-Wu Jiang, Bai-Sheng Huang, Yang Han, Lv-Hong Deng, Li-Xiang Wu
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and autophagy may be involved in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter with protective effects against multiple diseases. Here, we tested the effect of H2S on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, improved neurological function and reduced the size of the infarcts induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122651/downregulation-of-lipocalin-2-and-bim-expression-after-remote-limb-preconditioning-in-the-ischemic-rat-brain
#8
Mingli Liu, Jing Chen, Shufan Zhang, Chuancheng Ren
Although it has been proved that remote limb preconditioning (RPC) can exert neurological protection effects after ischemic cerebral stroke (ICS), the underlying mechanisms of RPC still need to be elucidated for its better transformation to clinical application. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was upregulated after cerebral ischemia and mediated reperfusion injury in the models of ischemic stroke. So here, we investigated that whether RPC could downregulate the levels of LCN2 protein and its receptor resulting from cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119925/post-treatment-with-a-hydrogen-sulfide-donor-limits-neuronal-injury-and-modulates-potassium-voltage-gated-channel-subfamily-d-member-2-kv4-2-and-potassium-channel-interacting-protein-3-kchip3-during-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Cheng-Ping Bai, ChenLiang Zhao, Lijuan Shen
BACKGROUND: Although the neuroprotective effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor) pretreatment has been revealed, the effect of NaHS post-conditioning remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of NaHS post-conditioning against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI)-induced hippocampal CA1 injury and its underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: A tGCI rat model was established using the four-vessel occlusion method for 15 min of ischemia...
November 7, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115923/neuroprotective-effect-of-neuroserpin-in-non-tpa-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-mouse-models
#10
Wei Li, Tetsuya Asakawa, Sha Han, Baoguo Xiao, Hiroki Namba, Chuanzhen Lu, Qiang Dong, Liang Wang
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective effects of neuroserpin (NSP) have been well documented in both patients and animal models with cerebral ischemia; however, have never been investigated in hemorrhagic stroke. The aim of this study is to verify the neuroprotection of NSP in the non-tPA-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mouse model. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice (n = 198) were involved in this study. ICH models were established with infusion of autologous blood into the brain parenchyma...
November 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115698/grading-scales-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-many-options-but-do-we-have-a-winner
#11
EDITORIAL
Venkatakrishna Rajajee
Grading the severity of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH) is essential, for several reasons- to provide a reliable prognosis, establish comparability across groups in research studies and quality assessments, follow the progress of an individual patient, and guide decisions on management. The Hunt-Hess and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scales are clinical scales, with a focus on symptoms and signs thought to reflect the extent of primary brain injury and, therefore, functional outcome...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115594/pentoxifylline-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion%C3%A2-induced-injury-in-a-rat-model-via-the-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#12
Jianqing Dong, Xinmei Yuan, Weiwei Xie
Pentoxifylline exhibits complex functions with extensive pharmacological effects and is used therapeutically due to its therapeutic effects and rapid metabolism in the body, with no cumulative effects and few side effects. The present study investigated the effects of pentoxifylline on cerebral ischemia reperfusion‑induced injury (IRI) through suppression of inflammation in rats. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the number of neurocytes, and ELISAs were applied to measure tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activities...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115424/cornin-protects-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-cells-against-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation%C3%A2-induced-autophagy-through-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#13
Changling Ding, Jie Zhang, Baoyuan Li, Zhaoxing Ding, Wenna Cheng, Fei Gao, Ye Zhang, Yangyang Xu, Shuping Zhang
It has been reported that cornin may reduce neuronal death during cerebral ischemia; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism of the role of corninin autophagy in SH‑SY5Y neuronal cells. In the present study, oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD)‑treated cells were used as a cerebral ischemia model in vitro. The results demonstrated that cornin was able to reduce neuronal cell loss, increase the apoptosis regulator Bcl‑2/apoptosis regulator BAX ratio, and decrease the protein levels of caspase‑3...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114096/fingolimod-protects-against-ischemic-white-matter-damage-by-modulating-microglia-toward-m2-polarization-via-stat3-pathway
#14
Chuan Qin, Wen-Hui Fan, Qian Liu, Ke Shang, Madhuvika Murugan, Long-Jun Wu, Wei Wang, Dai-Shi Tian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter (WM) ischemic injury, a major neuropathological feature of cerebral small vessel diseases, is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment in later life. The pathogenesis of demyelination after WM ischemic damage are often accompanied by microglial activation. Fingolimod (FTY720) was approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis for its immunosuppression property. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a WM ischemia model...
November 7, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114076/circular-rna-dlgap4-ameliorates-ischemic-stroke-outcomes-by-targeting-mir-143-to-regulate-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-associated-with-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#15
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Bing Han, Li Yang, Xufeng Chen, Rongrong Huang, Fangfang Wu, Jie Chao, Pei Liu, Gang Hu, John H Zhang, Honghong Yao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the potential role of circRNAs in stroke remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the circular RNA DLGAP4 (circDLGAP4) functions as an endogenous microRNA-143 (miR-143) sponge to inhibit miR-143 activity, resulting in the inhibition of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HECTD1) expression. CircDLGAP4 levels were significantly decreased in the plasma of acute ischemic stroke patients (13 females and 13 males) and in a mouse stroke model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113791/pd149163-induces-hypothermia-to-protect-against-brain-injury-in-acute-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#16
Teng-Fei Xue, Xu Ding, Juan Ji, Hui Yan, Ji-Ye Huang, Xu-Dong Guo, Jin Yang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising strategy for acute cerebral ischemia via physical or pharmacological methods. In this study, we pharmacologically induced hypothermia on Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneally injecting PD149163. We found that mild hypothermia was induced by PD149163 treatment without local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) alteration. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PD149163, TTC staining, HE staining and Nissl's staining were performed in our study. We found that PD149163 could prevent neuronal damage, and inhibit proliferation and activation of glial cells induced by ischemia...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111308/inhibition-of-microrna-210-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-acute-brain-injury-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#17
Lei Huang, Qingyi Ma, Yong Li, Bo Li, Lubo Zhang
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and chronic neurologic disability. Yet, the successful treatment remains limited. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and the mechanism of a novel treatment, microRNA-210 (miR-210) inhibition, in protecting acute ischemic brain injury in adult mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult male C57BL/6 mice. MiR-210-LNA (miR-210 inhibitor) or the negative control was administered via intracerebroventricular injection 24h prior or 4h after MCAO...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110213/correction-to-neuroimmune-response-in-ischemic-preconditioning
#18
Ashley McDonough, Jonathan R Weinstein
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has implicated cellular, molecular, and systemic elements of the immune response in this phenomenon. Potent molecular mediators of IPC include innate immune signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptors and type 1 interferons. Brain ischemia results in release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate the neuroinflammatory response, resolution of inflammation, and transition to neurological recovery and regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107612/the-protective-effect-of-2-2-benzonfu-ranyl-2-imidazoline-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-cultured-rat-cortical-astrocytes
#19
Jisha Tian, Rui Chen, Lan Hu, Linglei Zhang, Jiaou Chen, Yungang Cao, Xiaoling Guo, Longqing Wang, Zhao Han
Astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal survival in the setting of post-ischemic brain inflammation, but the astrocyte-derived mediators of ischemic brain injury remain to be defined. 2-(2-Benzofu-ranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI) is a newly discovered ligand for high-affinity imidazoline I2 receptors (I2Rs) mainly located on the mitochondrial outer membrane in astrocytes. We previously reported that in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, 2-BFI limits infarct volume, reduces neurological impairment scores, and inhibits neuronal apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104807/neural-vascular-mechanism-for-the-cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-after-hemorrhagic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Ming Xiao, Qiang Li, Hua Feng, Le Zhang, Yujie Chen
During the initial stages of hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, the reflex mechanisms are activated to protect cerebral perfusion, but secondary dysfunction of cerebral flow autoregulation will eventually reduce global cerebral blood flow and the delivery of metabolic substrates, leading to generalized cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and ultimately, neuronal cell death. Cerebral blood flow is controlled by various regulatory mechanisms, including prevailing arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, arterial blood gases, neural activity, and metabolic demand...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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