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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706517/liverwort-mimesis-in-a-cretaceous-lacewing-larva
#1
Xingyue Liu, Gongle Shi, Fangyuan Xia, Xiumei Lu, Bo Wang, Michael S Engel
Camouflage and mimicry are staples among predator-prey interactions, and evolutionary novelties in behavior, anatomy, and physiology that permit such mimesis are rife throughout the biological world [1, 2]. These specializations allow for prey to better evade capture or permit predators to more easily approach their prey, or in some cases, the mimesis can serve both purposes. Despite the importance of mimesis and camouflage in predator-avoidance or hunting strategies, the long-term history of these traits is often obscured by an insufficient fossil record...
April 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688481/neutral-theory-and-rapidly-evolving-viral-pathogens
#2
Simon D W Frost, Brittany Rife Magalis, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond
The evolution of viral pathogens is shaped by strong selective forces that are exerted during jumps to new hosts, confrontations with host immune responses and antiviral drugs, and numerous other processes. However, while undeniably strong and frequent, adaptive evolution is largely confined to small parts of information-packed viral genomes, and the majority of observed variation is effectively neutral. The predictions and implications of the neutral theory have proven immensely useful in this context, with applications spanning understanding within-host population structure, tracing the origins and spread of viral pathogens, predicting evolutionary dynamics, and modeling the emergence of drug resistance...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673873/before-the-beginning-nutrition-and-lifestyle-in-the-preconception-period-and-its-importance-for-future-health
#3
REVIEW
Judith Stephenson, Nicola Heslehurst, Jennifer Hall, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Jayne Hutchinson, Janet E Cade, Lucilla Poston, Geraldine Barrett, Sarah R Crozier, Mary Barker, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Janis Baird, Gita D Mishra
A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663671/exposing-the-origins-of-irreproducibility-in-fluorine-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Antonio Togni, Carl Philipp Rosenau, Benson J Jelier, Alvar D Gossert
Fluorine chemistry has taken a pivotal role in chemical reaction discovery, drug development, and chemical biology. NMR spectroscopy, arguably the most important technique for characterization of fluorinated compounds, is rife with highly inconsistent referencing of fluorine NMR chemical shifts, producing deviations larger than 1 ppm. Herein, we provide unprecedented evidence that both spectrometer design and the current unified scale system underpinning the calibration of heteronuclear NMR spectra has unintentionally led to widespread variation in the standardization of 19F NMR spectral data...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595408/an-electronic-intervention-to-improve-safety-for-pain-patients-co-prescribed-chronic-opioids-and-benzodiazepines
#5
Tauheed Zaman, Tessa L Rife, Steven L Batki, David L Pennington
BACKGROUND: Co-prescribing opioids and benzodiazepines increases overdose risk. A paucity of literature exists evaluating strategies to improve safety of co-prescribing. This study evaluated an electronic intervention to improve safety for patients co-prescribed chronic opioids for pain and benzodiazepines at 3- and 6-months. METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted December 2015 through May 2016 at San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System. A clinical dashboard identified 145 eligible patients prescribed chronic opioids and benzodiazepines...
March 29, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594934/variability-in-spousal-perceptions-of-caregiving-and-its-relationship-to-older-caregiver-health-outcomes
#6
Wesley B Godfrey, Jeremy B Yorgason, Yue Zhang, Bret L Hicken, Wei Chen, Randall W Rupper
BACKGROUND: The transition to later-life caregiving roles, especially for couples caring for each other, can be rife with ambiguity. The incident discordance in spousal perceptions of one another's role and its relationship to mental health outcomes have not been well-described. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe the range of daily agreement between older adult spouses' perceptions of care given and care received; (2) to explore associations between caregiving agreement and daily caregiver depression, anxiety, and marital satisfaction; and (3) to evaluate differential effects for male and female caregivers...
March 28, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544402/care-ethics-an-ethics-of-empathy
#7
Jolanda van Dijke, Inge van Nistelrooij, Pien Bos, Joachim Duyndam
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a contested concept in the field of care ethics. According to its proponents, empathy is a unique way to connect with others, to understand what is at stake for them, and to help guide moral deliberation. According to its critics, empathy is biased, inaccurate or a form of projection that does not truly grasp and respect the otherness of the other, and that may be distorted by prejudices. OBJECTIVES: We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of empathy in care ethics by reviewing both the functions and limitations of empathy in this field...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541448/multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#8
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467825/investigating-the-parameter-space-of-evolutionary-algorithms
#9
Moshe Sipper, Weixuan Fu, Karuna Ahuja, Jason H Moore
Evolutionary computation (EC) has been widely applied to biological and biomedical data. The practice of EC involves the tuning of many parameters, such as population size, generation count, selection size, and crossover and mutation rates. Through an extensive series of experiments over multiple evolutionary algorithm implementations and 25 problems we show that parameter space tends to be rife with viable parameters, at least for the problems studied herein. We discuss the implications of this finding in practice for the researcher employing EC...
2018: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466899/kristeller-maneuvers-or-fundal-pressure-and-maternal-neonatal-morbidity-obstetric-and-judicial-literature-review
#10
Antonio Malvasi, Simona Zaami, Andrea Tinelli, Giuseppe Trojano, Gianluca Montanari Vergallo, Enrico Marinelli
AIM: A significant amount of data concerning maternal-fetal damage arising from the exertion of Kristeller maneuvers (KMs) or fundal pressure (FP) go unreleased due to medicolegal implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this reason, the paper gathers information as to the real magnitude of litigation related to FP-induced damages and injuries. The authors have undertaken a research in order to include general search engines (PubMed-Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Google, GyneWeb) and legal databases (De Jure, Italian database of jurisprudence daily update; Westlaw, Thomson Reuters, American ruling database and Bailii, UK Court Ruling Database)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435252/experimental-estimation-of-snare-detectability-for-robust-threat-monitoring
#11
Hannah J O'Kelly, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Sarah Durant, E J Milner-Gulland
Hunting with wire snares is rife within many tropical forest systems, and constitutes one of the severest threats to a wide range of vertebrate taxa. As for all threats, reliable monitoring of snaring levels is critical for assessing the relative effectiveness of management interventions. However, snares pose a particular challenge in terms of tracking spatial or temporal trends in their prevalence because they are extremely difficult to detect, and are typically spread across large, inaccessible areas. As with cryptic animal targets, any approach used to monitor snaring levels must address the issue of imperfect detection, but no standard method exists to do so...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411049/humanized-mice-as-unique-tools-for-human-specific-studies
#12
REVIEW
Kylie Su Mei Yong, Zhisheng Her, Qingfeng Chen
With an increasing human population, medical research is pushed to progress into an era of precision therapy. Humanized mice are at the very heart of this new forefront where it is acutely required to decipher human-specific disease pathogenesis and test an array of novel therapeutics. In this review, "humanized" mice are defined as immunodeficient mouse engrafted with functional human biological systems. Over the past decade, researchers have been conscientiously making improvements on the development of humanized mice as a model to closely recapitulate disease pathogenesis and drug mechanisms in humans...
February 7, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390713/real-time-and-high-accuracy-frequency-measurements-for-intermediate-frequency-narrowband-signals
#13
Jing Tian, Xiaofeng Meng, Jing Nie, Liwei Lin
Real-time and accurate measurements of intermediate frequency signals based on microprocessors are difficult due to the computational complexity and limited time constraints. In this paper, a fast and precise methodology based on the sigma-delta modulator is designed and implemented by first generating the twiddle factors using the designed recursive scheme. This scheme requires zero times of multiplications and only half amounts of addition operations by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the combination of the Rife algorithm and Fourier coefficient interpolation as compared with conventional methods such as DFT and Fast Fourier Transform...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344459/module-for-interns-in-medical-ethics-a-developmental-diegesis
#14
Rajiv Mahajan, Parmod Kumar Goyal, Tanvir Kaur Sidhu, Upinder Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Vitull Gupta
Background: Media report is rife with incidences of doctor-patients' conflict, and this partly is due to communication gap and unethical practices being adopted by the doctors. Our regular curriculum fails to impart any training in ethical issues in patient care. Imparting training to students in these soft-skills is the need of the hour. Aim and Objectives: To develop a module for interns in medical ethics (MIME) in patient care, validate it and pilot run the module for standardization...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246349/stippled-chondral-calcifications-of-the-patella-in-zellweger-syndrome
#15
Eileen Rife, Alston E Dunbar, Stephen L Nelson, Hans C Andersson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202081/phylodynamic-applications-in-21-st-century-global-infectious-disease-research
#16
Brittany D Rife, Carla Mavian, Xinguang Chen, Massimo Ciccozzi, Marco Salemi, Jae Min, Mattia Cf Prosperi
Background: Phylodynamics, the study of the interaction between epidemiological and pathogen evolutionary processes within and among populations, was originally defined in the context of rapidly evolving viruses and used to characterize transmission dynamics. The concept of phylodynamics has evolved since the early 21st century, extending its reach to slower-evolving pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, and to the identification of influential factors in disease spread and pathogen population dynamics...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173940/lymph-node-stromal-and-vascular-proliferations
#17
REVIEW
Mina L Xu, Dennis O'Malley
The recognition and reporting of stromal and vascular lesions of the lymph node is rife with difficulties including relative rarity, a lack of familiarity with lesions and the challenges of using ancillary studies appropriately. In this manuscript, we highlight a range of benign stromal and vascular abnormalities that can be identified in nodal specimens.
January 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160743/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-sensitivity-to-phonetic-competition-in-receptive-language-processing-a-comparison-of-clear-and-conversational-speech
#18
Xin Xie, Emily Myers
The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens...
March 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067346/phase-ii-clinical-trials-of-anti-amyloid-%C3%AE-antibodies-when-is-enough-enough
#19
REVIEW
Michael Gold
Efforts to develop new therapies to combat Alzheimer's disease suffer from extraordinarily high failure rates that make it difficult to justify continued investment in the field. Although there are a number of plausible explanations for this extremely high attrition rate, one of the explanations that has received little attention is the lack of compelling data from Phase II studies for compounds that have been pushed into Phase III trials and then have failed. An analysis of publicly available data from the Phase II studies for bapineuzumab and solanezumab indicates that neither compound produced compelling evidence of drug-like behavior that would justify their progression into pivotal trials...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019704/fair-is-fair-just-visiting-hours-and-reducing-inequities
#20
Giora Netzer, Theodore J Iwashyna
Although family is an essential unit of every society, many intensive care units continue to impose limitations on families' access to their loved ones. Unlimited family presence is backed both by data and the guidelines of multiple professional societies. We propose that the obligation to protect the integrity and needs of our patients and families extends past our immediate relationship to them at the bedside, and is also a societal imperative. In a society rife with implicit bias, restrictions on family visitation risk selective enforcement of these rules, and further propagate social injustice...
December 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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