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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331800/nucleus-accumbens-mu-opioid-receptors-regulate-context-specific-social-preferences-in-the-juvenile-rat
#1
Caroline J W Smith, Kevin B Wilkins, Sara Li, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
The μ opioid receptor (MOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in assigning pleasurable, or hedonic value to rewarding stimuli. Importantly, the hedonic value of a given rewarding stimulus likely depends on an individual's current motivational state. Here, we examined the involvement of MORs in the motivation to interact with a novel or a familiar (cage mate) conspecific in juvenile rats. First, we demonstrated that the selective MOR antagonist CTAP administered into the NAc reduces social novelty preference of juvenile males, by decreasing the interaction time with the novel conspecific and increasing the interaction time with the cage mate...
December 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330156/application-of-receptor-theory-to-the-design-and-use-of-fixed-proportion-mu-opioid-agonist-and-antagonist-mixtures-in-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Jeremy C Cornelissen, Samuel Obeng, Kenner C Rice, Yan Zhang, S Stevens Negus, Matthew Banks
Receptor theory predicts that fixed-proportion mixtures of a competitive, reversible agonist (e.g. fentanyl) and antagonist (e.g. naltrexone) at a common receptor (e.g. mu opioid receptors; MOR) will result in antagonist proportion-dependent decreases in apparent efficacy of the mixtures and downward shifts in mixture dose-effect functions. The present study tested this hypothesis by evaluating behavioral effects of fixed-proportion fentanyl/naltrexone mixtures in a warm-water tail-withdrawal procedure in rhesus monkeys (n=4)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324390/nfat-1-hyper-activation-by-methionine-enkephalin-menk-significantly-induces-cell-apoptosis-of-rats-c6-glioma-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#4
Wei-Cheng Lu, Hui Xie, Xin-Xin Tie, Ruizhe Wang, An-Hua Wu, Feng-Ping Shan
The aim of the work was to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of MENK on the growth of rat C6 glioma in vivo or in vitro. Our findings showed that MENK could inhibit the growth of rat C6 glioma, prolong median survival times in tumor-bearing rats, and induce glioma cell apoptosis. Moreover, MENK could increase the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. It also increased the expression of Fas, FasL, Bax, while decreased the expression of Bcl-2. We further confirmed that MENK could increase opioid receptors MOR and DOR expressions, Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm, and a substantial increase of NFAT1accumulation in the nuclei in C6 glioma cell...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319624/long-term-outcome-of-one-step-kidney-transplantation-and-bladder-augmentation-procedure-in-pediatric-patients
#5
R Cleper, D Ben Meir, I Krause, P Livne, E Mor, M Davidovits, A Dagan
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for bladder augmentation (BA) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients are not well-defined. In our center, simultaneous BA with KT (BA-KT) is performed. We assessed transplantation outcomes of this unique extensive procedure. METHODS: A case-control single center retrospective study. Transplantation outcomes were compared with those of KT recipients who did not need BA. RESULTS: Compared to 22 patients who underwent KT only, for 9 who underwent BA-KT, surgical complications and the need for revision in the early posttransplantation period were similar; early graft function was better: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 96...
January 10, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314761/keratinous-matrices-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#6
Delphine Cappelle, Steven De Keukeleire, Hugo Neels, Frederic Been, Mireille De Doncker, Geert Dom, Cleo L Crunelle, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Keratinous matrices - hair and nails - accumulate substances over time and allow retrospective investigation of past consumption. Analysis of these matrices can provide information complementary to blood and urine analysis or can be used as standalone. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of substances in hair, while studies in nails are scarce. In this study, we assessed concentrations of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in hair, finger- and toenails collected from the same individuals to evaluate differences and correlations between matrices...
January 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304818/proxy-and-patient-reports-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-a-national-cancer-survey
#7
Jessica K Roydhouse, Roee Gutman, Nancy L Keating, Vincent Mor, Ira B Wilson
BACKGROUND: Proxy respondents are frequently used in surveys, including those assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In cancer, most research involving proxies has been undertaken with paired proxy-patient populations, where proxy responses are compared to patient responses for the same individual. In these populations, proxy-patient differences are small and suggest proxy underestimation of patient HRQOL. In practice, however, proxy responses will only be used when patient responses are not available...
January 5, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302959/nano-engineered-ircore-ptshell-nanoparticles-with-controlled-pt-shell-coverages-for-direct-methanol-electro-oxidation
#8
Ehab El Sawy, Viola Birss
The design and application of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) for electrocatalytic applications are challenged by the need to clearly recognize the individual effect of each of component. In the present work, the focus has been on PtIr NPs, with alloyed NPs having been previously shown to be active towards the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), but for which the mode of action of the Ir component remains uncertain. We have therefore nano-engineered a family of Ircore@Ptshell NPs, formed using a modified polyol method, to control the Pt shell coverage (from 0 to 2 monolayers) and thus to allow the separation of the bifunctional and electronic effects of Ir on the Pt activity...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300115/association-between-anemia-at-three-different-time-points-and-new-onset-diabetes-after-kidney-transplantation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Alon Grossman, Irit Ayalon-Dangur, Lisa Cooper, Tzippy Shohat, Ruth Rahamimov, Eytan Mor, Anat Gafter-Gvili
PURPOSE: Anemia has been reported to be associated with diabetes, but the association between new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and anemia has not been reported. METHODS: Patients who underwent kidney transplantation and did not have diabetes prior to transplantation were included in this study. Hemoglobin levels and the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL in females and <13 g/dL in males) were evaluated at three time points (prior to transplantation, 6 months following transplantation or 1 month before the development of NODAT, 2 years following transplantation, or following the development of NODAT) and were compared between those who developed NODAT and those who did not...
January 4, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298176/untapped-potential-using-the-hrs-medicare-linked-files-to-study-the-changing-nursing-home-population
#10
Julie C Lima, Jessica Ogarek, Vincent Mor
BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) care in the United States now includes many short-term admissions to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for postacute care. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the potential of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to administrative data to study this group. RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective panel study. SUBJECTS: HRS respondents between 2002 and 2010 linked to administrative data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)...
January 2, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289778/dam-regulation-and-riverine-food-web-structure-in-a-mediterranean-river
#11
Jordi-René Mor, Albert Ruhí, Elisabet Tornés, Héctor Valcárcel, Isabel Muñoz, Sergi Sabater
Flow regimes are a major driver of community composition and structure in riverine ecosystems, and flow regulation by dams often induces artificially-stable flow regimes downstream. This represents a major source of hydrological alteration, particularly in regions where biota is adapted to strong seasonal and interannual flow variability. We hypothesized that dam-induced hydrological stability should increase the availability of autochthonous resources at the base of the food web. This, in turn, should favour herbivorous over detritivorous strategies, increasing the diversity of primary consumers, and the food-web width and length...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288446/western-blotting-against-tagged-virulence-determinants-to-study-bacterial-pathogenicity
#12
Gili Aviv, Ohad Gal-Mor
Western blotting is a common approach to detect the presence of a target protein in biological samples or proteins mixture using specific antibodies. This method is also useful to study regulation of virulence determinants by analyzing changes in protein expression between different genetic backgrounds or under varying environmental conditions. To avoid the need to raise specific antibodies for each studied protein, commercial antibody against commonly used peptidic epitopes can be utilized if the right target tagged version is constructed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288445/lacz-reporter-system-as-a-tool-to-study-virulence-gene-regulation-in-bacterial-pathogens
#13
Gili Aviv, Ohad Gal-Mor
β-galactosidase assay has been established as one of the most widely used reporters and can be effectually exploited to study promoter activity of Salmonella and other pathogens under various conditions. This method includes a preliminary stage of fusing the target promoter to a promoter-less lacZ gene encoding for the enzyme β-galactosidase. Supplementation of the synthetic ONPG substrate results in the accumulation of a chromogenic product proportionally to the activity of the fused promoter. Here we demonstrate the usage of this reporter system to study the regulation of the Salmonella Type three secretion system effector gene sseL in S...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288444/usage-of-a-bioluminescence-reporter-system-to-image-promoter-activity-during-host-infection
#14
Gili Aviv, Ohad Gal-Mor
Bioluminescence is the process of production and emission of light by a living organism, usually as the by-product of the oxidative enzyme, luciferase. Currently available technology allows for the exploitation of a bioluminescent reporter system to study bacterial gene regulation during rodent infection, in real time, over a large dynamic range. Here we show how this imaging system can be used to study virulence gene regulation during Salmonella enterica infection in the mouse model. To demonstrate this technique we show the ex vivo expression pattern of the gene dksA, encoding a conserved and pleotropic regulator, which plays a key role in Salmonella pathogenicity [1]...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288443/real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-as-a-tool-to-study-virulence-gene-regulation-in-bacterial-pathogens
#15
Gili Aviv, Ohad Gal-Mor
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a highly sensitive and reliable method for detection and quantification of DNA. When combined with a prior stage of RNA reverse transcription to generate complementary DNA (cDNA), this is a powerful approach to determine and analyze gene transcriptional expression. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR has become the gold standard method in studying genes expression and virulence regulation under various genetic backgrounds (e.g., in the absence of regulators) or environmental conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287695/pain-treatments-after-hip-fracture-among-older-nursing-home-residents
#16
Andrew R Zullo, Tingting Zhang, Francesca L Beaudoin, Yoojin Lee, Kevin W McConeghy, Douglas P Kiel, Lori A Daiello, Vincent Mor, Sarah D Berry
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between use of opioids versus other analgesics with death and functioning after hip fracture in older nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort using national Medicare fee-for-service claims linked to the Minimum Data Set. SETTING: US NHs. PARTICIPANTS: NH residents aged ≥65 years who became a long-stay resident (>100 days in the NH) between January 2008 and December 2009, had a hospitalized hip fracture, and returned to the NH...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287303/high-levels-of-dek-autoantibodies-in-sera-of-polyarticular-jia-patients-and-in-early-flare-following-cessation-of-anti-tnf-therapy
#17
Nirit Mor-Vaknin, Miguel Rivas, Maureen Legendre, Smriti Mohan, Ye Yuanfan, Theresa Mau, Anne Johnson, Bin Huang, Lili Zhao, Yukiko Kimura, Steven J Spalding, Paula W Morris, Beth S Gottlieb, Karen Onel, Judyann C Olson, Barbara S Edelheit, Michael Shishov, Lawrence K Jung, Elaine A Cassidy, Sampath Prahalad, Murray H Passo, Timothy Beukelman, Jay Mehta, Edward H Giannini, Barbara S Adams, Daniel J Lovell, David M Markovitz
OBJECTIVE: The nuclear oncoprotein DEK is an autoantigen associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), especially the oligoarticular subtype. DEK is a secreted chemoatactic factor. Abundant DEK and DEK autoantibodies are found in the inflamed JIA synovium. In screening sera samples from two different JIA patient cohorts for DEK autoantibodies, we now further characterize the nature of DEK autoantibodies. METHODS: DEK autoantibody levels were analyzed in sera from 33 JIA patients, 13 patients with other inflammatory conditions, and 11 healthy controls and 89 sera samples from JIA patients undergoing anti-TNF therapy...
December 29, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285641/core-body-temperature-but-not-intraabdominal-pressure-predicts-postoperative-complications-following-closed-system-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-administration
#18
M Goldenshluger, D Zippel, A Ben-Yaacov, J Dux, T Yalon, A Zendel, S Rayman, E Mor, H Berkenstadt, H Fogel-Grinvald, M Ventorrero, A Nissan
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) following cytoreductive surgery (CRS), performed using closed-abdomen technique (CAT), may affect intraabdominal pressure (IAP). High IAP may increase postoperative complications due to decreased venous return and hypoperfusion to vital organs. Elevated core body temperature (CBT) may cause multiorgan dysfunction. Low IAP or CBT could result in suboptimal HIPEC and potentially translate into early disease recurrence. The aim of the present study is to identify possible correlations between IAP or CBT and postoperative complications...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283565/shape-control-of-pt-ru-nanocrystals-tuning-surface-structure-for-enhanced-electrocatalytic-methanol-oxidation
#19
Liang Huang, Xueping Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Yujie Han, Youxing Fang, Shaojun Dong
Despite that both electrochemical experiments and density functional theory calculations have testified the superior electrocatalytic activity and CO-poisoning tolerance of platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) alloy nanoparticles toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), the facet-dependent electrocatalytic properties of PtRu nanoparticles are scarcely revealed because it is extremely difficult to synthesize well-defined facets enclosed PtRu nanocrystals. Herein, we for the first report a general synthesis of ultrathin PtRu nanocrystals with tuneable morphologies (nanowires, nanorods and nanocubes) through a one-step solvothermal approach, and systematically investigate the structure-directing effects of different surfactants and the formation mechanism by control experiments and time-dependent studies...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283226/synthetic-cells-synthesize-therapeutic-proteins-inside-tumors
#20
Nitzan Krinsky, Maya Kaduri, Assaf Zinger, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Mor Goldfeder, Itai Benhar, Dov Hershkovitz, Avi Schroeder
Synthetic cells, artificial cell-like particles, capable of autonomously synthesizing RNA and proteins based on a DNA template, are emerging platforms for studying cellular functions and for revealing the origins-of-life. Here, it is shown for the first time that artificial lipid-based vesicles, containing the molecular machinery necessary for transcription and translation, can be used to synthesize anticancer proteins inside tumors. The synthetic cells are engineered as stand-alone systems, sourcing nutrients from their biological microenvironment to trigger protein synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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