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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099817/applying-proteomics-to-tick-vaccine-development-where-are-we
#1
Margarita Villar, Anabel Marina, José de la Fuente
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as a vector of human diseases and are the first vector of animal diseases with a great impact on livestock farming. Tick vaccines represent a sustainable and effective alternative to chemical acaricides for the control of tick infestations and transmitted pathogens. The application of proteomics to tick vaccine development is a fairly recent area, which has resulted in the characterization of some tick-host-pathogen interactions and the identification of candidate protective antigens...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097845/-fatal-case-of-rickettsiosis-in-a-toddler-from-southeastern-mexico
#2
César Lugo-Caballero, Karla Dzul-Rosado, Georgina Rodríguez-Moreno, Raúl Tello-Martín, Karina López-Ávila, Jorge Zavala-Castro
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a bacteria transmitted by infected ticks. It is characterized by fever, exanthema, arthralgias and myalgias; but sometimes its clinical presentation is non specific. Due to its similarities with other exanthematic diseases like dengue or chikungunya, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is not a first line diagnosis, even though countries like Mexico show the ecologic and socioeconomic characteristics that favor its transmission, with a 30% mortality rate among pediatric patients...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096621/multiple-infections-of-anaplasma-platys-variants-in-philippine-dogs
#3
Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan Ybañez, Naoaki Yokoyama, Hisashi Inokuma
AIM: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096609/studies-on-alterations-of-clinical-and-hemato-biochemical-parameters-before-and-after-treatment-in-calves-naturally-infected-with-theileriosis
#4
J P Kachhawa, Surender Kumar, Ankita Sharma, A P Singh, Anil Ahuja
AIM: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical alterations and to determine the better treatment of theileriosis in naturally infected calves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 74 Holstein crossbred calves below 6 months of age, of either sex were included for present investigation in Bikaner. Based on the clinical examinations and laboratory results, 20 calves included for hemato-biochemical studies (before and after treatment) and divided into two groups (having 10 calves each)...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096607/diagnosis-and-management-of-bovine-babesiosis-outbreaks-in-cattle-in-punjab-state
#5
Mandeep Singh Bal, Vishal Mahajan, Gursimran Filia, Paramjit Kaur, Amarjit Singh
AIM: The aim of the present study was to diagnose severe outbreaks of bovine babesiosis in Punjab state, in the year 2015 and to suggest control and preventive measures to animal owners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mortality of animals was recorded in two cattle herd comprising a total of 465 cattle in Sangrur (n=125) and Faridkot (n=340) districts. There was a history of purchase of animals at one farm. 23 blood samples were collected from diseased (n=15) and healthy animals (n=8) for hematological analysis, parasitological, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096373/pathogen-mediated-manipulation-of-arthropod-microbiota-to-promote-infection
#6
Nabil M Abraham, Lei Liu, Brandon Lyon Jutras, Akhilesh K Yadav, Sukanya Narasimhan, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Juliana M Ansari, Kimberly K Jefferson, Felipe Cava, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Erol Fikrig
Arthropods transmit diverse infectious agents; however, the ways microbes influence their vector to enhance colonization are poorly understood. Ixodes scapularis ticks harbor numerous human pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. We now demonstrate that A. phagocytophilum modifies the I. scapularis microbiota to more efficiently infect the tick. A. phagocytophilum induces ticks to express Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (iafgp), which encodes a protein with several properties, including the ability to alter bacterial biofilm formation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095423/influences-of-host-community-characteristics-on-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-prevalence-in-blacklegged-ticks
#7
Holly B Vuong, Grace S Chiu, Peter E Smouse, Dina M Fonseca, Dustin Brisson, Peter J Morin, Richard S Ostfeld
Lyme disease is a major vector-borne bacterial disease in the USA. The disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, and transmitted among hosts and humans, primarily by blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The ~25 B. burgdorferi genotypes, based on genotypic variation of their outer surface protein C (ospC), can be phenotypically separated as strains that primarily cause human diseases-human invasive strains (HIS)-or those that rarely do. Additionally, the genotypes are non-randomly associated with host species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093540/human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-as-a-cause-of-febrile-illness-in-korea-since-at-least-2006
#8
Jongyoun Yi, Kye-Hyung Kim, Mee Kyung Ko, Eun Yup Lee, Su Jin Choi, Myoung-Don Oh
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial zoonosis with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. HGA has been reported in Korea in 2013 but it is uncertain how long it has existed. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent bone marrow examination due to fever and cytopenia, with no clear hematologic or microbiologic causes, from 2003 through 2012. Laboratory diagnosis was made by detecting 16S rRNA genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the stored blood samples. Among the 70 patients, five (7...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093109/neonatal-anaplasma-platys-infection-in-puppies-further-evidence-for-possible-vertical-transmission
#9
I A Matei, S Stuen, D Modrý, A Degan, G D'Amico, A D Mihalca
Anaplasma platys, the aetiological agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopaenia, infects platelets of dogs, usually causing mild or asymptomatic disease. Although A. platys is transmitted by ticks, as for other Anaplasma species, alternative modes of transmission may be involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of A. platys infection in litters of puppies, which could suggest possible vertical transmission. Twelve litters, together with the respective bitches, were included in the study for the detection of A...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092000/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-wastewater-use-and-herd-environment-on-the-occurrence-of-animal-diseases-and-animal-health-in-pakistan
#10
Ehsan Elahi, Liqin Zhang, Muhammad Abid, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Han Xinru
The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091959/genetic-variation-in-mitochondrial-genes-of-the-tick-haemaphysalis-flava-collected-from-wild-hedgehogs-in-china
#11
Zhong-Bo Li, Tian-Yin Cheng, Xing-Li Xu, Lu-Lin Song, Guo-Hua Liu
The tick Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important ectoparasite, which causes direct damage to their hosts and also acts as a vector of various infectious disease agents in China. Despite its significance, the epidemiology, genetics and biology of H. flava has not been studied in detail. In the present study, the genetic variation in three mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), was examined in H. flava ticks collected from wild hedgehogs in China...
January 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091958/identification-and-anticoagulant-activity-of-a-novel-kunitz-type-protein-ha11-from-the-salivary-gland-of-the-tick-hyalomma-asiaticum
#12
Houshuang Zhang, Ruiqiong Qiao, Haiyan Gong, Jie Cao, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, including inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. In this study, we identified a novel gene designated HA11 (Hyalomma asiaticum 11 kDa protein) from the salivary gland of the tick H. asiaticum. HA11 is encoded by a gene with an open reading frame of 306 bp that is translated into a deduced 101 amino acid 11 kDa protein that shares 27% sequence identity with a Kunitz-like protease inhibitor precursor in Amblyomma variegatum...
January 13, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091705/bacteria-of-the-family-candidatus-midichloriaceae-in-sympatric-zones-of-ixodes-ticks-genetic-evidence-for-vertical-transmission
#13
Tatyana A Mukhacheva, Sergey Y Kovalev
Ixodes ticks transmit infectious agents and also harbor their own parasites and symbionts. The presumptive endosymbiont of Ixodes ricinus, 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', has a unique ability to invade mitochondria within tick ovarian cells and is transovarially transmitted with 100% efficiency. A closely related bacterium, provisionally named Montezuma (now 'Candidatus Lariskella arthropodarum'), was isolated from the Ixodes persulcatus ticks and human blood in 2004 as well as from Ixodes pavlovskyi in 2015...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091384/determination-the-role-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-for-transmission-of-leishmania-major-to-reservoir-animals
#14
Hüseyin Bilgin Bilgiç, Serkan Bakırcı, Onur Köse, Ayça Aksulu, Selin Hacılarlıoğlu, Tülin Karagenç
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the transmission of Leishmania major, the etiological agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Ten gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected with promastigotes of L. major, and 10 gerbils were maintained as controls. In a controlled environment, 2000 R. sanguineus larvae were fed to two gerbils. Following feeding to gerbils, 65 tick pools were prepared from the engorged larvae and molted unfed nymphs...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089780/co-feeding-transmission-facilitates-strain-coexistence-in-borrelia-burgdorferi-the-lyme-disease-agent
#15
S L States, C I Huang, S Davis, D M Tufts, M A Diuk-Wasser
Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus...
December 26, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089651/canine-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cyprus-and-a-unique-canine-case-of-multiple-co-infections
#16
Charalampos Attipa, Chelsea A E Hicks, Emily N Barker, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Kyriaki Neofytou, Mathios E Mylonakis, Victoria I Siarkou, Elpida I Vingopoulou, Francesca Soutter, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Anna Psaroulaki, Kostas Papasouliotis, Séverine Tasker
Canine tick-borne pathogens such as Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis are widespread in the Mediterranean basin but have never been reported or investigated in Cyprus. We describe herein the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens in three dogs with clinical signs compatible with vector-borne diseases from Paphos area of Cyprus. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, H. canis, Babesia vogeli and Mycoplasma haemocanis in Cyprus. One dog co-infected with E...
December 26, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089124/local-scale-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-questing-ixodes-ricinus-l-acari-ixodidae-a-case-study-from-a-riparian-urban-forest-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-sw-poland
#17
Dorota Kiewra, Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek, Mariusz Szymanowski, Anna Szczepańska
This paper presents the distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in suburban forest intensively visited by people. The local-scale observations conducted during a 4-year study at 99 plots (of 100m(2) each) located throughout the entire area of a riparian urban forest, showed a high variation in the density of ticks from year to year. Although I. ricinus is generally permanent in the study area, spatial distribution of sample plots harbouring I. ricinus is variable, i.e. mainly random for adults and larvae, and random or clustered for nymphs...
December 23, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089123/ticks-and-borrelia-in-urban-and-peri-urban-green-space-habitats-in-a-city-in-southern-england
#18
Kayleigh M Hansford, Manoj Fonville, Emma L Gillingham, Elena Claudia Coipan, Maaike E Pietzsch, Aleksandra I Krawczyk, Alexander G C Vaux, Benjamin Cull, Hein Sprong, Jolyon M Medlock
Ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. In the UK, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. In order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern England, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/2014 and screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato...
December 21, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088586/a-case-control-study-of-risk-sources-for-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-hubei-province-china
#19
Xuesen Xing, Xuhua Guan, Li Liu, Junqiang Xu, Guoming Li, Jianbo Zhan, Gongping Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Xingfu Shen, Yongzhong Jiang, Yang Wu, Hao Zhang, Jing Huang, Fan Ding, Sha Sha, Man Liu, Faxian Zhan
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus, was discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009. METHODS: A case-control study based on hospital data was applied to detect the potential risk sources for SFTS in SFTS-endemic counties in Hubei Province. Cases were defined as hospitalized SFTSV confirmed patients. Controls were randomly selected from non-SFTSV patients in the same hospital ward within 2 weeks of inclusion of the cases, and they were matched by age (+/- 5 years) and gender according to 1:2 matching condition...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088177/a-novel-quantitative-pcr-detects-babesia-infection-in-patients-not-identified-by-currently-available-non-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests
#20
Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Rasel Khan, Laura Alter, Albert D Rojtman, Kristine Gedroic, Purnima Bhanot, Nikhat Parveen
BACKGROUND: Ticks transmit Babesia microti, the causative agents of babesiosis in North America and Europe. Babesiosis is now endemic in Northeastern USA and affects people of all ages. Babesia species infect erythrocytes and can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Whole blood and blood products, which are not tested for Babesia, can cause transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) resulting in severe consequences in the immuno-compromised patients. The purpose of this study was epidemiological evaluation of babesiosis in a tick-infested state...
January 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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