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Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
Kurtesh Sherifi, Agim Rexhepi, Kristaq Berxholi, Blerta Mehmedi, Rreze M Gecaj, Zamira Hoxha, Anja Joachim, Georg G Duscher
Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Paweł Penza, Piotr Czupryna, Olga Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz, Renata Świerzbińska, Justyna Dunaj, Joanna Zajkowska
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine HMGB-1 concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and neuroborreliosis (NB). We focused on HMGB-1 measurement in CSF or sera in order to establish whether it could help to differentiate between NB and TBE. METHODS: 80 patients with meningitis and meningoencephalitis were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I - patients with NB (n=40) and Group II - patients with TBE (n=40)...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Rocío Checa, Ana María López-Beceiro, Ana Montoya, Juan Pedro Barrera, Nieves Ortega, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Julia González, Ángeles Sonia Olmeda, Luis Eusebio Fidalgo, Guadalupe Miró
Piroplasmosis is caused by several species of protozoa such as the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml), an emerging blood protozoan also known as Theileria annae or Babesia vulpes. Infection by Bml was first reported in dogs in Spain where it is endemic today. Recently, a high prevalence of Bml has been increasingly detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in European countries. The objective of this study was to determine infection levels of this parasite in foxes from Galicia, NW Spain, and ticks species infestation in these carnivores, where they are so far unknown...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ferda Sevinc, Mo Zhou, Shinuo Cao, Onur Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih Aydin, Mutlu Sevinc, Xuenan Xuan
Babesiosis, theileriosis, and anaplasmosis are the most common tick-borne diseases in sheep. The majority of anaplasmosis and theileriosis are subclinical; however, babesiosis causes severe infections in small ruminants. Although there are many reports of co-infections with the agents of these diseases, their clinical severity compared with either of the infections alone is unknown. Within the host, interactions between co-infecting species may cause variations in clinical presentation and response to therapy...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Amanda Figueiredo, Leonor M Nascimento, Louyse G Lopes, Rodrigo Giglioti, Ricardo D D G Albuquerque, Marcelo G Santos, Deborah Q Falcão, Jeane A P Nogueira, Leandro Rocha, Ana Carolina S Chagas
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for reducing animal welfare, causing a drop in productive performance and transmitting hemoparasites. The main strategy of tick control is application of synthetic acaricides. However, parasite resistance to these compounds is a major concern. Therefore, the acaricidal and repellent in vitro effect of the Ocotea elegans essential oil on larvae and adult females of R. (B.) microplus were evaluated. The larval packet test (LPT), larval repellency test (RT) and adult immersion test (AIT) were performed...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Florent Duplan, Saran Davies, Serina Filler, Swaid Abdullah, Sophie Keyte, Hannah Newbury, Chris R Helps, Richard Wall, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. METHODS: Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ioana Adriana Matei, Gianluca D'Amico, Angela Monica Ionică, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Alexandra Corduneanu, Attila D Sándor, Nicodim Fiţ, Liviu Bogdan, Călin M Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases pose a major threat in public health. The epidemiological dynamics of these diseases depends on the tick vector species and their hosts, as well as the geographical distribution and ecology of both. Among many possible hosts for ticks, small mammals have a major role in the development of immature stages of several tick species. Small mammals are also important reservoir hosts for several pathogenic agents and possible reservoirs for Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Telleasha L Greay, Alireza Zahedi, Anna-Sheree Krige, Jadyn M Owens, Robert L Rees, Una M Ryan, Charlotte L Oskam, Peter J Irwin
BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan tick-borne pathogens that cause disease in companion animals include species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893, Cytauxzoon Neitz & Thomas, 1948, Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 and Theileria Bettencourt, Franca & Borges, 1907. The only apicomplexan tick-borne disease of companion animals that is known to occur in Australia is babesiosis, caused by Babesia canis vogeli Reichenow, 1937 and Babesia gibsoni Patton, 1910. However, no molecular investigations have widely investigated members of Apicomplexa Levine, 1980 in Australian ticks that parasitise dogs, cats or horses, until this present investigation...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tarini Ullal, Adam Birkenheuer, Shelly Vaden
Babesiosis is a hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease that is commonly associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia; however, renal involvement has been documented in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to document azotemia and proteinuria in dogs infected with Babesia sp. and to describe the response to antiprotozoal therapy. The electronic database of the North Carolina State University Vector Borne Disease Laboratory was searched to identify dogs who were diagnosed with babesiosis and to determine if they had proteinuria and/or azotemia...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
A Portillo, P Santibáñez, A M Palomar, S Santibáñez, J A Oteo
' Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an uncultured emerging bacterium that is provisionally included in the family Anaplasmataceae. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Rodents are the reservoirs. It is widely distributed in mammals (both wild and domestic) and birds. It causes an inflammatory disease in humans with underlying diseases, but the microorganism also affects immunocompetent individuals in which asymptomatic infection has been recognized. A high degree of suspicion and the use of molecular tools are needed for the correct diagnosis...
March 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Teresa C Assumpção, Daniella M Mizurini, Dongying Ma, Robson Q Monteiro, Sydney Ahlstedt, Morayma Reyes, Michail Kotsyfakis, Thomas N Mather, John F Andersen, Jan Lukszo, José M C Ribeiro, Ivo M B Francischetti
Tick saliva is a rich source of modulators of vascular biology. We have characterized Ixonnexin, a member of the "Basic-tail" family of salivary proteins from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ixonnexin is a 104 residues (11.8 KDa), non-enzymatic basic protein which contains 3 disulfide bonds and a C-terminal rich in lysine. It is homologous to SALP14, a tick salivary FXa anticoagulant. Ixonnexin was produced by ligation of synthesized fragments (51-104) and (1-50) followed by folding. Ixonnexin, like SALP14, interacts with FXa...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Marina Bentivoglio, Giuseppe Bertini
Rijo-Ferreira et al. report alterations of circadian rhythmicity at the behavioral, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels in mice after Trypanosoma brucei infection, showing that targeting cell clocks is a specific feature of these parasites. Thus, African trypanosomes cause a severe disease by disrupting time-keeping mechanisms and their synchrony.
March 16, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Silvia Ravagnan, Laura Tomassone, Fabrizio Montarsi, Aleksandra Iwona Krawczyk, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Hein Sprong, Adelaide Milani, Luca Rossi, Gioia Capelli
BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy. RESULTS: Three out of 405 nymphs (0...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Graziana Da Rold, Silvia Ravagnan, Fabio Soppelsa, Elena Porcellato, Mauro Soppelsa, Federica Obber, Carlo Vittorio Citterio, Sara Carlin, Patrizia Danesi, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli
BACKGROUND: Northeastern Italy is a hotspot for several tick-borne pathogens, transmitted to animals and humans mainly by Ixodes ricinus. Here we compare the results of molecular monitoring of ticks and zoonotic TBPs over a six-year period, with the monitoring of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an endemic area. RESULTS: In the period 2011-2016, 2,578 ticks were collected in 38 sites of 20 municipalities of Belluno Province. Individual adults (264), pooled larvae (n = 330) and nymphs (n = 1984) were screened for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (s...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Yury Yzabella da Silva, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia canis is a tick-borne bacterium that causes severe, life-threatening disease in dogs, being more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Randomized studies conducted in Brazil indicate that the prevalence of E. canis infection in dogs ranges from 0.7% to over 50.0%. In a study conducted in northern Brazil, the prevalence was higher in dogs from urban areas, as compared to dogs from rural areas. In the present study, we investigated the exposure to Ehrlichia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Martin O Andersson, Conny Tolf, Paula Tamba, Mircea Stefanache, Gabriel Radbea, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Herbert Tomaso, Jonas Waldenström, Gerhard Dobler, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler
BACKGROUND: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. RESULTS: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Cristina Oliveira, Maria Francisca Luz, Sara Granada, Hugo Vilhena, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Ana Patrícia Lopes, Luís Cardoso, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogen infection in cats from Africa is scarce. The presence of bacterial (Anaplasma and Ehrlichia) and protozoal (Babesia and Hepatozoon) agents was investigated in blood samples from 102 domestic cats from Luanda, Angola, by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Three cats (2.9%) were found infected with Ehrlichia canis, three (2.9%) with Hepatozoon felis and one (1.0%) with Anaplasma bovis...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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