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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#1
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211557/associations-of-selected-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-with-biographical-context-in-patients-of-a-day-hospital-for-neurotic-disorders
#2
Michał Skalski, Jerzy A Sobański, Tomasz Golabek, Agata Świerkosz, Katarzyna Klasa, Mikołaj Przydacz, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Edyta Dembińska, Michał Mielimąka, Katarzyna Cyranka, Piotr Chłosta, Dominika Dudek
OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlation of subjectively estimated biographical context and lower urinary tract symptoms reported by patients with neurotic and personality disorders. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the biographical context of co-existence of urinary frequency and urinary incontinence reported by 3,929 patients in a day hospital for treatment of neurotic disorders. The symptom checklists KO "0" were completed by patients prior to any treatment...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202457/gain-of-function-samd9l-mutations-cause-a-syndrome-of-cytopenia-immunodeficiency-mds-and-neurological-symptoms
#3
Bianca Tesi, Josef Davidsson, Matthias Voss, Elisa Rahikkala, Tim D Holmes, Samuel C C Chiang, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Sorina Gorcenco, Alexandra Rundberg Nilsson, Tim Ripperger, Hannaleena Kokkonen, David Bryder, Thoas Fioretos, Jan-Inge Henter, Merja Möttönen, Riitta Niinimäki, Lars Nilsson, Cornelis Jan Pronk, Andreas Puschmann, Hong Qian, Johanna Uusimaa, Jukka Moilanen, Ulf Tedgård, Jörg Cammenga, Yenan T Bryceson
Several monogenic causes of familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have recently been identified. We studied two families with cytopenia, predisposition to MDS with chromosome 7 aberrations, immunodeficiency, and progressive cerebellar dysfunction. Genetic studies uncovered heterozygous missense mutations in SAMD9L, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome arm 7q. Consistent with a gain-of-function effect, ectopic expression of the two identified SAMD9L mutants decreased cell proliferation relative to wild-type protein...
February 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190454/somatic-map2k1-mutations-are-associated-with-extracranial-arteriovenous-malformation
#4
Javier A Couto, August Y Huang, Dennis J Konczyk, Jeremy A Goss, Steven J Fishman, John B Mulliken, Matthew L Warman, Arin K Greene
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a fast-flow, congenital vascular anomaly that may arise anywhere in the body. AVMs typically progress, causing destruction of surrounding tissue and, sometimes, cardiac overload. AVMs are difficult to control; they often re-expand after embolization or resection, and pharmacologic therapy is unavailable. We studied extracranial AVMs in order to identify their biological basis. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on AVM tissue from affected individuals...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186702/direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-schwann-cells-that-facilitate-regeneration-of-injured-peripheral-nerve-in-vivo
#5
Yoshihiro Sowa, Tsunao Kishida, Koichi Tomita, Kenta Yamamoto, Toshiaki Numajiri, Osam Mazda
Schwann cells (SCs) play pivotal roles in the maintenance and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Although transplantation of SCs enhances repair of experimentally damaged peripheral and central nerve tissues, it is difficult to prepare a sufficient number of functional SCs for transplantation therapy without causing adverse events for the donor. Here, we generated functional SCs by somatic cell reprogramming procedures and demonstrated their capability to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. Normal human fibroblasts were phenotypically converted into SCs by transducing SOX10 and Krox20 genes followed by culturing for 10 days resulting in approximately 43% directly converted Schwann cells (dSCs)...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178074/a-common-pro-nociceptive-pain-modulation-profile-typifying-subgroups-of-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndromes-is-interrelated-with-enhanced-clinical-pain
#6
Grinberg Keren, Granot Michal, Lowenstein Lior, Abramov Liora, Weissman-Fogel Irit
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and painful bladder syndrome (PBS), subgroups of chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS), are considered to share common bio-physiological peripheral mechanisms. In addition, indications of a pro-nociceptive pain profile co-existing with psychological vulnerability suggests common dysfunctional pain processing and pain modulation in these two subgroups of CPPS. We therefore aimed at comparing the pain profile and psychological traits of PVD and PBS patients to see whether the pain profile contributes to inter-subject variability of clinical pain symptoms...
February 7, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163917/mitochondrial-mutations-and-metabolic-adaptation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Rae-Anne Hardie, Ellen van Dam, Mark Cowley, Ting-Li Han, Seher Balaban, Marina Pajic, Mark Pinese, Mary Iconomou, Robert F Shearer, Jessie McKenna, David Miller, Nicola Waddell, John V Pearson, Sean M Grimmond, Leonid Sazanov, Andrew V Biankin, Silas Villas-Boas, Andrew J Hoy, Nigel Turner, Darren N Saunders
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a five-year survival rate of ~8%, with characteristic molecular heterogeneity and restricted treatment options. Targeting metabolism has emerged as a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for cancers such as pancreatic cancer, which are driven by genetic alterations that are not tractable drug targets. Although somatic mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) mutations have been observed in various tumors types, understanding of metabolic genotype-phenotype relationships is limited...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161329/mitochondria-and-cancer-chemoresistance
#8
REVIEW
Flora Guerra, Arnaldo A Arbini, Loredana Moro
Mitochondria, known for more than a century as the energy powerhouse of a cell, represent key intracellular signaling hub that are emerging as important determinants of several aspects of cancer development and progression, including metabolic reprogramming, acquisition of metastatic capability, and response to chemotherapeutic drugs. The majority of cancer cells harbors somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and/or alterations in the mtDNA content, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased mtDNA content is also detected in tumor-initiating cells, a subpopulation of cancer cells that are believed to play an integral role in cancer recurrence following chemotherapy...
February 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149160/immune-characteristics-study-of-ag490-a-signal-pathway-inhibitor-in-eae-model-mice
#9
Zhihua Zhao, Zhifeng Mao, Junjie Yin, Yaqing Shu, Wei Qiu, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by demyelination, axonal damage and progressive neurologic dysfunction in central nervous system (CNS). Many evidences show that B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) secrete IL-21 to prompt the proliferation and differentiation of B cells in germinal center (GC) through clonal proliferation, somatic hypermutation, antibody class switching, antibody affinity maturation process. AG490 is a synthetic inhibitor to JAK-STAT signal pathway, which has been studied in inflammatory, tumor and autoimmune diseases...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144278/altered-sympathovagal-balance-and-pain-hypersensitivity-in-tnbs-induced-colitis
#10
Katarzyna Ciesielczyk, Agata Furgała, Łukasz Dobrek, Kajetan Juszczak, Piotr Thor
INTRODUCTION: Pain hypersensitivity, abnormal motility and autonomic dysfunction contribute to functional symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess: nociceptive thresholds for mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH), intestinal motility (distal colonic transit and emptying), and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (indices of heart rate variability - HRV) in male Wistar rats with experimental trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134961/somatic-dysfunction-in-the-diagnosis-of-uncommon-ectopic-pregnancies-surgical-correlation-and-comparison-with-related-pathologic-findings
#11
Daniel Martingano, Hannah Canepa, Setareh Fararooy, Dmitriy Rybitskiy, Sam Shahem, Francis X Martingano, George Aglialoro
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancies occur when the implantation of a fertilized ovum occurs outside the endometrial cavity. Such pregnancies occur in approximately 1.5% to 2.0% of all pregnancies and cause 6% of maternal deaths. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate osteopathic structural examination (OSE) findings in patients with ectopic pregnancies of uncommon locations and to establish the utility of these findings in the diagnosis of these ectopic pregnancies. METHODS: In this prospective case series, a focused OSE was performed on each patient with an ectopic pregnancy at her initial presentation after the patient history but before other diagnostic or laboratory tests were performed and surgical treatment was initiated...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108416/symptoms-and-the-body-taking-the-inferential-leap
#12
REVIEW
Omer Van den Bergh, Michael Witthöft, Sibylle Petersen, Richard J Brown
The relationship between the conscious experience of physical symptoms and indicators of objective physiological dysfunction is highly variable and depends on characteristics of the person, the context and their interaction. This relationship often breaks down entirely in the case of "medically unexplained" or functional somatic symptoms, violating the basic assumption in medicine that physical symptoms have physiological causes. In this paper, we describe the prevailing theoretical approach to this problem and review the evidence pertaining to it...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#13
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099967/somatosensory-tinnitus-correlation-between-cranio-cervico-mandibular-disorder-history-and-somatic-modulation
#14
Massimo Ralli, Giancarlo Altissimi, Rosaria Turchetta, Filippo Mazzei, Massimo Salviati, Francesca Cianfrone, Maria Patrizia Orlando, Valeria Testugini, Giancarlo Cianfrone
In a subpopulation of patients, tinnitus can be modulated by movements of the jaw or head and neck due to complex somatosensory-auditory interactions. In some of these subjects, tinnitus could be related to an underlying temporomandibular (TMJ) or craniocervical (NECK) dysfunction that, if correctly identified, could streamline treatment and increase chances of tinnitus improvement. However, it is still unclear whether somatic modulation of tinnitus could be used as a screening tool for identifying such patients...
January 19, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093890/long-term-follow-up-for-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-post-radical-prostatectomy-using-nerve-grafts-and-end-to-side-somatic-autonomic-neurorraphy-a-new-technique
#15
José Carlos Souza Trindade, Fausto Viterbo, André Petean Trindade, Wagner José Fávaro, José Carlos Souza Trindade Filho
: Radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer treatment, although effective, can lead to severe erectile dysfunction. This study describes a new technique, which aims to reestablish the nerve stimulus in penile erection by two sural nerve graft bridges bilaterally, using the end to side neurorraphy. The first bridge is between femoral nerve and dorsal nerve of penis and the second, is between the femoral nerve and the interior of the corpus cavernosum. In this neurorraphy the endings of the newly formed fibres, generated by the femoral nerve, release acetylcholine inside the cavernous bodies, beginning the erection mechanism...
January 17, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#16
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089558/startle-suppression-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-reactive-gliosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-caudal-pontine-reticular-nucleus
#17
Swamini P Sinha, Pelin Avcu, Kevin M Spiegler, Sreeya Komaravolu, Kevin Kim, Tara Cominski, Richard J Servatius, Kevin C H Pang
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can produce somatic symptoms such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, sleep disturbances and sensorimotor dysfunction. Sensorimotor function can be measured by tests such as the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), an evolutionarily conserved defensive response to a brief yet sharp acoustic stimulus. mTBI produces a long-lasting suppression of ASR in rodents and humans; however, the mechanism of this suppression is unknown. The present study examined whether inflammatory processes in the brainstem (particularly the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, PnC) could account for the suppression of ASR after mTBI, because the PnC is an essential nucleus of the ASR circuit...
January 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088988/clonal-hematopoiesis
#18
REVIEW
Max Jan, Benjamin L Ebert, Siddhartha Jaiswal
Cancer results from multistep pathogenesis, yet the pre-malignant states that precede the development of many hematologic malignancies have been difficult to identify. Recent genomic studies of blood DNA from tens of thousands of people have revealed the presence of remarkably common, age-associated somatic mutations in genes associated with hematologic malignancies. These somatic mutations drive the expansion from a single founding cell to a detectable hematopoietic clone. Owing to the admixed nature of blood that provides a sampling of blood cell production throughout the body, clonal hematopoiesis is a rare view into the biology of pre-malignancy and the direct effects of pre-cancerous lesions on organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076382/deregulated-expression-of-mitochondrial-proteins-mfn2-and-bcnl3l-in-placentae-from-sheep-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-scnt-conceptuses
#19
Marta Czernik, Paola Toschi, Federica Zacchini, Domenico Iuso, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069571/apc-c-dysfunction-limits-excessive-cancer-chromosomal-instability
#20
Laurent Sansregret, James O Patterson, Sally Dewhurst, Carlos López-García, André Koch, Nicholas McGranahan, William Chong Hang Chao, David J Barry, Andrew Rowan, Rachael Instrell, Stuart Horswell, Michael Way, Michael Howell, Martin R Singleton, René H Medema, Paul Nurse, Mark Petronczki, Charles Swanton
: Intercellular heterogeneity, exacerbated by chromosomal instability (CIN), fosters tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. However, extreme CIN correlates with improved cancer outcome, suggesting that karyotypic diversity required to adapt to selection pressures might be balanced in tumors against the risk of excessive instability. Here, we used a functional genomics screen, genome editing, and pharmacologic approaches to identify CIN-survival factors in diploid cells. We find partial anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) dysfunction lengthens mitosis, suppresses pharmacologically induced chromosome segregation errors, and reduces naturally occurring lagging chromosomes in cancer cell lines or following tetraploidization...
February 2017: Cancer Discovery
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