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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637313/trajectories-of-alcohol-use-disorders-and-their-differential-impact-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-goa-india
#1
Abhijit Nadkarni, Helen A Weiss, Bhargav Bhat, Vikram Patel
Aims: The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) over a 6 year period and compare the bio-psycho-social correlates between these trajectories. Methods: Community-based cohort of 1899 adult men were interviewed in 2006-2008 and 2012-2014. AUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and potential correlates including psycho-social problems, morbidity and physiological parameters were measured at follow-up...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637308/three-dimensional-right-ventricular-regional-deformation-and-survival-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
Pamela Moceri, Nicolas Duchateau, Delphine Baudouy, Elie-Dan Schouver, Sylvie Leroy, Fabien Squara, Emile Ferrari, Maxime Sermesant
Aims: Survival in pulmonary hypertension (PH) relates to right ventricular (RV) function. However, the RV unique anatomy and structure limit 2D analysis and its regional 3D function has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of global and regional 3D RV deformation on clinical condition and survival in adults with PH and healthy controls. Methods and results: We collected a prospective longitudinal cohort of 104 consecutive PH patients and 34 healthy controls between September 2014 and December 2015...
June 15, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637305/left-atrial-structure-and-function-in-cardiac-amyloidosis
#3
Kotaro Nochioka, Candida Cristina Quarta, Brian Claggett, Gabriela Querejeta Roca, Claudio Rapezzi, Rodney H Falk, Scott D Solomon
Aims: Although cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is characterized by significant left atrial (LA) dilatation, the characteristics of LA function remain to be fully investigated. Methods and results: We assessed LA function by speckle-tracking echocardiography in 124 patients with CA and sinus rhythm: 68 with light chain (AL), 29 with mutant (ATTRm), 27 with wild-type (ATTRwt) transthyretin amyloidosis. Conventional and strain-derived parameters, including LA peak longitudinal strain (LS) and strain rate (peak LSR: reservoir function; early LSR: conduit function; late LSR: active function), were assessed compared between CA patients and 20 healthy controls of similar age and gender...
June 16, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637199/first-ex-vivo-and-preliminary-sheep-model-results-of-the-new-tribio-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis-in-small-aortic-annuli
#4
Sina Stock, Hans-Hinrich Sievers, Doreen Richardt, Michael Scharfschwerdt
OBJECTIVES: : Small aortic annuli are challenging in aortic valve replacement. Prosthesis-patient mismatch, accompanied by high transvalvular gradients and small orifice area, is an often faced problem impairing postoperative outcome. The new TRIBIO bioprosthesis aims to enable enhanced haemodynamics, being increasingly important with decreasing annular size. This study compares ex vivo hydrodynamics of TRIBIO with 2 established bioprostheses in small annuli at different stroke volumes, simulating 'rest' and 'exercise', and evaluates haemodynamics of TRIBIO in a sheep model...
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637053/a-new-analytical-method-for-characterizing-nonlinear-visual-processes-with-stimuli-of-arbitrary-distribution-theory-and-applications
#5
Ryusuke Hayashi, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroki Yokoyama, Shin'ya Nishida
Characterization of the functional relationship between sensory inputs and neuronal or observers' perceptual responses is one of the fundamental goals of systems neuroscience and psychophysics. Conventional methods, such as reverse correlation and spike-triggered data analyses are limited in their ability to resolve complex and inherently nonlinear neuronal/perceptual processes because these methods require input stimuli to be Gaussian with a zero mean. Recent studies have shown that analyses based on a generalized linear model (GLM) do not require such specific input characteristics and have advantages over conventional methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637047/pleural-adhesion-assessment-as-a-predictor-for-pneumothorax-after-endobronchial-valve-treatment
#6
Wouter H van Geffen, Karin Klooster, Jorine E Hartman, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Huib A M Kerstjens, Rienhart F E Wolf, Dirk-Jan Slebos
BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax after bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way endobronchial valves (EBVs) in patients with advanced emphysema occurs in approximately 20% of patients. It is not well known which factors predict the development of pneumothorax. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether pleural adhesions on pretreatment high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans are associated with pneumothorax occurrence after EBV treatment. METHODS: HRCT scan analyses were performed on all patients who received EBV treatment in a randomized controlled trial...
June 22, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636815/accurate-characterization-of-the-pore-volume-in-microporous-crystalline-materials
#7
Daniele Ongari, Peter G Boyd, Senja Barthel, Matthew Witman, Maciej Haranczyk, Berend Smit
Pore volume is one of the main properties for the characterization of microporous crystals. It is experimentally measurable and it can also be obtained from the refined unit cell by a number of computational techniques. In this work we assess the accuracy and the discrepancies between the different computational methods which are commonly used for this purpose, i.e, geometric, helium and probe center pore volume, by studying a database of more than 5000 frameworks. We developed a new technique to fully characterize the internal void of a microporous material and to compute the probe accessible and occupiable pore volume...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636503/effects-of-instructional-physical-activity-courses-on-overall-physical-activity-and-mood-in-university-students
#9
James J Annesi, Kandice J Porter, Grant M Hill, Bernard D Goldfine
PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to assess the association between university-based instructional physical activity (PA) courses and changes in overall PA levels and negative mood and their interrelations. The study also sought to determine the amount of change in PA required to significantly improve mood in course enrollees. METHOD: Participants were university students initially completing PA below the level recommended for health who were either presently enrolled in an elective instructional PA course (treatment group, n = 52, 69% female) or not presently enrolled in such a course (comparison group, n = 32, 69% female)...
June 21, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636327/maldi-ms-guided-liquid-microjunction-extraction-for-ce-esi-ms-analysis-of-single-pancreatic-islet-cells
#10
Troy J Comi, Monika A Makurath, Marina C Philip, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler
The ability to characterize chemical heterogeneity in biological structures is essential to understanding cellular level function in both healthy and diseased states, but these variations remain difficult to assess using a single analytical technique. While mass spectrometry (MS) provides sufficient sensitivity to measure many analytes from volume-limited samples, each type of mass spectrometric analysis uncovers only a portion of the complete chemical profile of a single cell. Matrix-assisted laser desorp-tion/ionization (MALDI) MS and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE-ESI)-MS are complementary analytical platforms frequently utilized for single cell analysis...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636208/a-phase-i-trial-of-prn1008-a-novel-reversible-covalent-inhibitor-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-healthy-volunteers
#11
Patrick F Smith, Janakan Krishnarajah, Philip A Nunn, Ron J Hill, Dane Karr, D Tam, Mohammad Masjedizadeh, Jens O Funk, Steve G Gourlay
AIM: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and PK/PD of PRN1008, a novel BTK inhibitor, in healthy volunteers, and thus determine the dose range for future clinical studies. METHODS: This was a two-part randomized, placebo controlled study in healthy volunteers using a liquid formulation. Part I was a single ascending dose design with dose levels of 50 to 1200 mg (n=6 active, 2 placebo per cohort); Part II was a multiple ascending dose design, with dose regimens ranging from 300 mg to 900 mg daily, either qd or bd for 10 days...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635971/exercise-among-women-with-ovarian-cancer-a-feasibility-and-pre-post-test-exploratory-pilot-study
#12
Xiaochen Zhang, Daniel McClean, Emily Ko, Mark A Morgan, Kathryn Schmitz
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To establish the feasibility and acceptability of completing a higher dose of the planned physical activity volume among women with ovarian cancer, including those undergoing active treatment. 
. DESIGN: A pre-/post-test exercise intervention. All participants were asked to complete 225 minutes per week of physical activity for 26 weeks. Multiple supports were provided, including exercise DVDs, self-reported logs, and an objective physical activity tracker (Fitbit®)...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635665/towards-a-uniform-metrological-assessment-of-grating-based-optical-fiber-sensors-from-refractometers-to-biosensors
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Chiavaioli, Carlos A J Gouveia, Pedro A S Jorge, Francesco Baldini
A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility...
June 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635617/the-dosimetric-impact-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-media-in-gbm-brain-patient-plans-for-a-mri-linac
#14
Syed Bilal Ahmad, Moti Raj Paudel, Arman Sarfehnia, Anthony Kim, Geordi Pang, Mark Ruschin, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI Linear accelerator (MRL) using the research version of Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake it was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) of 6 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. More complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635141/high-sensitivity-non-invasive-detection-of-calcifications-deep-inside-biological-tissue-using-transmission-raman-spectroscopy
#15
Adrian Ghita, Pavel Matousek, Nick Stone
The aim of this research was to develop a novel approach to probe non-invasively the composition of inorganic chemicals buried deep in large volume biological samples. The method is based on advanced Transmission Raman Spectroscopy (TRS) permitting chemical specific detection within a large sampling volume. The approach could be beneficial to chemical identification of the breast calcifications detected during mammographic X-ray procedures. The chemical composition of a breast calcification reflects the pathology of the surrounding tissue, malignant or benign and potentially the grade of malignancy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634727/safety-and-efficacy-of-chemosaturation-in-patients-with-primary-and-secondary-liver-tumors
#16
Martha M Kirstein, Steffen Marquardt, Nils Jedicke, Silke Marhenke, Wolfgang Koppert, Michael P Manns, Frank Wacker, Arndt Vogel
BACKGROUND: Chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP; hepatic CHEMOSAT(®) delivery system; Delcath Systems Inc, USA) is a novel medical device, which delivers high doses of melphalan directly to the liver in patients with primary and secondary liver tumors while limiting systemic toxicity through hemofiltration of the hepatic venous blood. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of the second-generation CS-PHP after 54 treatments at Hannover Medical School, Germany...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634673/b-mode-and-doppler-ultrasound-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-dogs-and-cats
#17
REVIEW
Nathália Bragato, Naida Cristina Borges, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti
Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for renal evaluation, because it provides information about the position, size, shape, internal architecture and hemodynamics of the kidneys without harming the patient. In chronic kidney disease, the main findings observed in B-mode ultrasound images are increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced renal volume and irregular renal contour, and when these changes are associated, they are indicative of end-stage renal disease. However, the cause of kidney disease cannot be determined by ultrasonography, but must be confirmed by means of biopsy, although the presence of ultrasonographic changes indicative of the end-stage of the disease may contraindicate this procedure...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634090/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-3-month-bladder-basic-advice-in-children-with-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis
#19
Marcin Tkaczyk, Michał Maternik, Anna Krakowska, Agnieszka Wosiak, Monika Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Dariusz Runowski, Anna Jander, Dariusz Ratajczak, Agata Korzeniecka-Kozyrska, Izabella Mader-Wołyńska, Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska
INTRODUCTION: Advice (BBA) into the standards of patients' care in both monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Although the idea of this recommendation was clear and reflects clinical experience, duration and efficacy have not been definitely established. Recent data have demonstrated the lack of efficacy of BBA and a fierce discussion has ensued. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of BBA in a group of previously untreated children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634002/acupressure-therapy-for-acute-ankle-sprains-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Mingxing Zhao, Wei Gao, Long Zhang, Wei Huang, Sihua Zheng, Guanliang Wang, Brian Y Hong, Baoyong Tang
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains occur frequently among young and active people, accounting for almost two million injuries per year. Previous reports suggest that acupressure therapy for acute ankle sprains may shorten the recovery time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether acupressure therapy can improve ankle sprain recovery when compared to standard RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) treatment. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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