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antibiotic in elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748440/pharmaceuticals-released-from-senior-residences-occurrence-and-risk-evaluation
#1
Silvia Lacorte, Silvia Luis, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Teresa Sala-Comorera, Audrey Courtier, Benoit Roig, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett, Claire Joannis-Cassan, Juan Ignacio Aragonés, Lucia Poggio, Thierry Noguer, Luisa Lima, Carlos Barata, Carole Calas-Blanchard
One of the main pursuits, yet most difficult, in monitoring studies is to identify the sources of environmental pollution. In this study, we have identified health-care facilities from south European countries as an important source of pharmaceuticals in the environment. We have estimated that compounds consumed in by the elderly and released from effluents of senior residences can reach river waters at a concentration higher than 0.01 μg/L, which is the European Medicines Agency (EMA) threshold for risk evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface waters...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740836/mycotic-aneurysm-with-aortoduodenal-fistula
#2
REVIEW
Bruno Kusznir Vitturi, Amanda Frias, Raphael Sementilli, Marcelo de Castro Jorge Racy, Roberto Augusto Caffaro, Geanete Pozzan
Firstly described in the 19th century by Sir William Osler, the mycotic aneurysm (MA) is a rare entity characterized by an abnormal arterial dilation, which is potentially fatal, and is associated with the infection of the vascular wall. Elderly patients are mostly involved, especially when risk factors like chronic diseases, immunosuppression, neoplasia, and arterial manipulation are associated. The authors report the case of a young male patient diagnosed with an aortic aneurysm of infectious origin in the presence of repeated negative blood cultures...
April 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#3
Rui Wang, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhea, toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735135/endoscope-assisted-abscess-drainage-secondary-to-endoscope-assisted-tlif-1-year-follow-up
#4
Karthik Madhavan, Steven Shelby Burks, Lee Onn Chieng, Anand Veeravagu, Michael Y Wang
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic discectomy and fusions have been gaining popularity in the recent past and are noted to be safe for its application in elderly population. It involves ultra-small incision for discectomy followed by placement of percutaneous screws in awake patients. Treatment of advanced spinal pathology using endoscope-assisted techniques are challenging. Although not common with endoscopic approach, post-operative infection can be problematic as there are no established guidelines on its management...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729804/a-case-of-tooth-fracture-occurred-upon-medicating-bisphosphonate-for-an-elderly-person-preservation-therapy-and-responses-for-stage-0-of-bisphosphonate-related-osteonecrosis-of-jaw
#5
Noriko Suzuki, Hitoshi Oguchi, Yu Yamauchi, Yasuyo Karube, Yukimi Suzuki, Noriyasu Hosoya
This case report aimed to report the progress of preservation therapy and response of symptoms and signs for Stage 0 of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ). A 68-year-old female was recognized having a tooth at the left upper first molar fracture upon medicating bisphosphonate (BP) in 2007. At that time, the extraction of the tooth was an absolute contraindication. Therefore, we performed preservation therapy. We observed the symptoms and signs every month. After 5 months, swelling and redness in the entire first molar tooth were seen and fistula formed partly...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716776/increased-risk-for-thionamide-induced-agranulocytosis-in-elderly-patients-a-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#6
Sumera Bukhari, Muhammad Khan, Naresh Kumar, Vinuta Mohan
Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, are used for the management of hyperthyroidism. Agranulocytosis is a rare adverse effect of thionamides and elderly patients are especially vulnerable. Here we discuss a case of an 80-year-old woman who developed agranulocytosis and pneumonia approximately 4 weeks after starting low dose methimazole therapy. Despite aggressive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, she developed multiorgan failure and died. Our goals are to identify risk factors common to elderly patients and hopefully improve outcomes in this population when prescribed thionamides...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712673/extract-critical-factors-affecting-the-length-of-hospital-stay-of-pneumonia-patient-by-data-mining-case-study-an-iranian-hospital
#7
Naghmeh Khajehali, Somayeh Alizadeh
MOTIVATION: Pneumonia is a prevalent infection of lower respiratory tract caused by infected lungs. Length of stay (LOS) in hospital is one of the simplest and most important indicators in hospital activity that is used for different purposes. The aim of this study is to explore the important factors affecting the LOS of patients with pneumonia in hospitals. METHODS: The clinical data set for the study were collected from 387 patients in a specialized hospital in Iran between 2009 and 2015...
July 13, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699771/comparative-effectiveness-of-surgery-versus-antibiotics-in-acute-appendicitis-a-systematic-review
#8
Stephanie D Talutis, Frederick Thurston Drake
AIM: To review outcomes of surgical and antibiotic management of acute appendicitis. METHODS: 11 prospective studies comparing surgical versus antibiotic management of acute appendicitis over a 21-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Antibiotic management is successful in most cases of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The need for crossover in management and recurrent appendicitis were low among all studies. For those patients who ultimately required surgery, no increased complications were observed...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699240/the-prevalence-of-peripheral-intravenous-cannulae-and-pattern-of-use-a-point-prevalence-in-a-private-hospital-setting
#9
Kelvin Wong, Alannah Cooper, Janie Brown, Leanne Boyd, Michele Levinson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) in hospital wards. BACKGROUND: PIVC are commonly used in acute health care to directly access the bloodstream for the administration of medications, intravenous fluids (IVF) and blood products. PIVC are associated with multiple adverse events including hospital acquired bloodstream infection, thrombophlebitis, and pain/discomfort. Administration of IVF is associated with impaired mobility and nocturia which may increase falls risk in the elderly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675267/-antimicrobials-some-practical-considerations
#10
Nadine Ngatchou, Véronique Masserey-Bonvin, Niels Gobin, Luc Barberini
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in hospitalized and in outpatients. We review four important aspects for their daily prescription. In elderly patients, the prescription should take into account changes in the volume of distribution and the usual decline in renal function even in the absence of chronic kidney disease. Particular antibiotics can trigger infection with Clostridium difficile. We discuss actual and novel strategies for its prevention. Renal toxicity of antibiotics includes acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and crystals obstructing renal tubule, depending on the class of antibiotics...
September 7, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653101/ct-guided-cement-sacroplasty-csp-as-pain-therapy-in-non-dislocated-insufficiency-fractures
#11
Reimer Andresen, Sebastian Radmer, Mathias Wollny, Julian Ramin Andresen, Urs Nissen, Hans-Christof Schober
INTRODUCTION: In elderly patients with reduced bone quality, insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are relatively common and are typically associated with severe disabling pain. The objective of the present study was to examine the feasibility of cement augmentation by CSP, to determine post-interventional leakages and other complications, and to present the outcome of pain over the course of 18 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 23 patients (20 women and 3 men) with an average age of 81...
June 26, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652125/probiotic-containing-lactobacillus-casei-lactobacillus-bulgaricus-and-streptococcus-thermophiles-actimel-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-the-elderly-with-proximal-femur-fractures
#12
Ravi Mallina, J Craik, N Briffa, Viren Ahluwalia, J Clarke, A G Cobb
The incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is greater in elderly patients. Probiotics may have a beneficial effect in the prevention of CDAD. However, their effect in elderly orthopaedic patients has not been previously reported. Between April 2013 and April 2014, 105 patients admitted with femoral neck fractures, and who required 3days of antibiotics for infection of any cause, were prescribed the probiotic ACTIMEL until 3days after the last antibiotic dose. The incidence of CDAD was compared with historical controls (April 2011-April 2012)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652113/early-versus-late-diagnosis-in-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Jacob Bodilsen, Christian Thomas Brandt, Andrew Sharew, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Thomas Benfield, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with late diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM). METHODS: We conducted a chart review of all adults with proven CABM in three centres in Denmark from 1998 through 2014. Patients were categorised as 1) early diagnosis of CABM immediately on admission or 2) late diagnosis if CABM was not listed in referral or admission records and neither lumbar puncture nor antibiotic therapy for meningitis was considered immediately on admission...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637845/successful-conservative-management-of-a-permanent-pacemaker-pocket-infection-a-less-invasive-approach
#14
Alexander James Keeley, Daniel Hammersley, Madhava Dissanayake
We present a successful conservative management strategy for a frail elderly patient with a cardiac resynchronisation pacemaker who presented with evidence of an Enterobacter cloacae pacemaker pocket infection. A device washout and debridement procedure was performed, with reburial of the device in a new prepectoral pocket and creation of a closed-loop continuous antibiotic infusion into the infected pacemaker pocket. This was followed by a 6-week course of ambulatory intravenous antibiotic therapy. This conservative management strategy avoided the need for a more invasive and high-risk full device extraction, which the patient clearly stated he did not wish to have...
June 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626858/antibiotics-for-acute-bronchitis
#15
REVIEW
Susan M Smith, Tom Fahey, John Smucny, Lorne A Becker
BACKGROUND: The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and to assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11 (accessed 13 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2017), Embase (1974 to 13 January 2017), and LILACS (1982 to 13 January 2017)...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#16
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621029/urinary-tract-infection-in-patients-with-hip-fracture-an-underestimated-event
#17
Christopher Bliemel, Benjamin Buecking, Juliana Hack, Rene Aigner, Daphne-Asimenia Eschbach, Steffen Ruchholtz, Ludwig Oberkircher
AIM: Urinary tract infections (UTI) represent a common perioperative complication among elderly patients with hip fracture. To determine the impact of UTI on the perioperative course of elderly patients with hip fractures, a prospective study was carried out. METHODS: A total of 402 surgically-treated geriatric hip fracture patients were consecutively enrolled at a level 1 trauma center. On admission, all patients received an indwelling urinary catheter. Clinically symptomatic patients were screened more closely for UTI...
June 16, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617807/treatment-with-macrolides-and-glucocorticosteroids-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-post-hoc-exploratory-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Adrian Ceccato, Catia Cilloniz, Otavio T Ranzani, Rosario Menendez, Carles Agusti, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Oriol Sibila, Michael S Niederman, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects, whereas macrolides also have immunomodulatory activity in addition to their primary antimicrobial actions. We aimed to evaluate the potential interaction effect between corticosteroids and macrolides on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia to determine if combining these two immunomodulating agents was harmful, or possibly beneficial. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606606/potential-risks-of-using-cement-augmented-screws-for-spinal-fusion-in-patients-with-low-bone-quality
#19
M Martín-Fernández, A López-Herrradón, A R Piñera, F Tomé-Bermejo, J M Duart, M D Vlad, M G Rodríguez-Arguisjuela, L Álvarez-Galovich
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Dramatic increases in the average life expectancy have led to increases in the variety of degenerative changes and deformities observed in the aging spine. The elderly population can present challenges for spine surgeons, not only because of increased comorbidities, but also because of the quality of their bones. Pedicle screws are the implants used most commonly in spinal surgery for fixation, but their efficacy depends directly on bone quality. While PMMA-augmented screws represent an alternative for patients with osteoporotic vertebrae, their use has raised some concerns due to the possible association between cement leakages (CLs) and other morbidities...
June 9, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605563/the-contribution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-factors-and-host-factors-in-the-establishment-of-urinary-tract-infections
#20
J W Newman, R V Floyd, J L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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