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Landscape architect

Divya Vasudevan, Rhea C Bovee, Douglas D Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule with multiple regulatory functions in physiology and disease. The most studied molecular mechanisms underlying the biological functions of NO include its reaction with heme proteins and regulation of protein activity via modification of thiol residues. A significant number of transcriptional responses and phenotypes observed in NO microenvironments, however, still lack mechanistic understanding. Recent studies shed new light on NO signaling by revealing its influence on epigenetic changes within the cell...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jacob Deichmann
The topic of the presentation is the directional tactile pavings or tactile guidelines that are used by blind and visually impaired people for orientation, in this presentation primarily in the street environment. The focus is the difference between so-called natural and artificial tactile pavings, how they can and should be used, and how the tactile guidelines can be understood as devices of Universal Design. It is discussed whether guidelines based on foreign research can be transferred to the Danish context without additional Danish research...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Mireia Gascon, Payam Dadvand
Currently half the world population lives in cities, and this proportion is expected to increase rapidly to 70% over the next years. Over the years we have created large, mostly grey cities with many high-rise buildings and little green space. Disease rates tend to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. More green space in cities could reduce these rates. Here, we describe the importance of green space for health, and make recommendations for further research.Green space has been associated with many beneficial health effects, including reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and improved mental health, possibly through mediators such as reduced air pollution, temperature and stress and increased physical activity, social contacts and restoration...
August 12, 2016: Epidemiology
Mari Hvattum
The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution...
July 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Colleen L Barry, Howard H Goldman, Haiden A Huskamp
The intent of the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 is to eliminate differences between health insurance coverage of mental health and substance use disorder benefits and coverage of medical or surgical benefits. The Affordable Care Act significantly extended the reach of the Wellstone-Domenici law by applying it to new insurance markets. We summarize the evolution of legislative and regulatory actions to bring about federal insurance parity. We also summarize available evidence on how the Wellstone-Domenici law has contributed to addressing insurance discrimination; rectifying market inefficiencies due to adverse selection; and altering utilization, spending, and health outcomes for people with mental health and substance use disorders...
June 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Yujiao Chen, Holly W Samuelson, Zheming Tong
Low Impact Development (LID) practices provide more sustainable solutions than traditional piping and storm ponds in stormwater management. However, architects are not equipped with the knowledge to perform runoff calculations at early design stage. In response to this dilemma, we have developed an open-source stormwater runoff evaluation and management tool, Rainwater+. It is seamlessly integrated into computer-aided design (CAD) software to receive instant estimate on the stormwater runoff volume of architecture and landscape designs...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Wayne M Getz, Richard Salter, Dana Paige Seidel, Pim van Hooft
BACKGROUND: Darwin and the architects of the Modern Synthesis found sympatric speciation difficult to explain and suggested it is unlikely to occur. Increasingly, evidence over the past few decades suggest that sympatric speciation can occur under ecological conditions that require at most intraspecific competition for a structured resource. Here we used an individual-based population model with variable foraging strategies to study the evolution of mating behavior among foraging strategy types...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jonathan Baillie
Just a year after the centenary of the completion of the 1914-built children's hospital which it will soon replace, this autumn will see the opening of a new Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool, dubbed Alder Hey in the Park thanks to its attractive parkland setting. The 270-bedded hospital, designed by architects, landscape architects, and interior designers, BDP, and built by Laing O'Rourke, is located in Springfield Park on Liverpool's northern fringes, and features a highly striking external design, with the three distinctive 'fingers' housing the wards bordered by extensive greenery, and the buildings topped by green undulating roofs...
September 2015: Health Estate
Sohyun Park
Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient...
July 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Stevie Famulari, Kyla Witz
Designers, students, teachers, gardeners, farmers, landscape architects, architects, engineers, homeowners, and others have uses for the practice of phytoremediation. This research looks at the creation of a phytoremediation database which is designed for ease of use for a non-scientific user, as well as for students in an educational setting ( ). During 2012, Environmental Artist & Professor of Landscape Architecture Stevie Famulari, with assistance from Kyla Witz, a landscape architecture student, created an online searchable database designed for high public accessibility...
2015: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Robert Pepperell, Manuela Haertel
The question of how to accurately depict visual space has fascinated artists, architects, scientists, and philosophers for hundreds of years. Many have argued that linear perspective, which is based on well-understood laws of optics and geometry, is the correct way to record visual space. Others have argued that linear perspective projections fail to account for important features of visual experience, and have proposed various curvilinear, subjective, and hyperbolic forms of perspective instead. In this study we compare three sets of artistic depictions of real-world scenes with linear perspective versions (photographs) of the same scenes...
2014: Perception
Bo Yang, Ming-Han Li, Shujuan Li
Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach...
November 2013: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cathrine Schmidt
This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning...
September 2013: Journal of Interprofessional Care
D Luke Mahler, Travis Ingram, Liam J Revell, Jonathan B Losos
G. G. Simpson, one of the chief architects of evolutionary biology's modern synthesis, proposed that diversification occurs on a macroevolutionary adaptive landscape, but landscape models are seldom used to study adaptive divergence in large radiations. We show that for Caribbean Anolis lizards, diversification on similar Simpsonian landscapes leads to striking convergence of entire faunas on four islands. Parallel radiations unfolding at large temporal scales shed light on the process of adaptive diversification, indicating that the adaptive landscape may give rise to predictable evolutionary patterns in nature, that adaptive peaks may be stable over macroevolutionary time, and that available geographic area influences the ability of lineages to discover new adaptive peaks...
July 19, 2013: Science
Aviad Shapira, Maxim Shoshany, Sigal Nir-Goldenberg
Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria...
July 2013: Environmental Management
Haruki Kazano
The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment...
2012: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Graham McCorkindale
Graham McCorkindale, who heads the Health and Wellbeing strand at multi-disciplinary architecture, town planning, interior design, and landscape architecture practice, Keppie Design, examines how architects can best support the NHS at a time of major change by refocusing design skills hitherto focused on creating new healthcare facilities on the need to work within the existing estate--'maximising utilisation and getting best value from any available spend'.
October 2012: Health Estate
Brad E Davis
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand successes and weaknesses of a rooftop hospital garden used primarily for physical therapy. BACKGROUND: Literature on the healing benefits of nature and designed outdoor spaces in healthcare contexts continues to become more focused on specific patient populations. This study contributes to the knowledge of rooftop hospital gardens and gardens for physical rehabilitation. METHODS: A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted using interviews with a lead therapist and landscape architect, behavior mapping, a staff survey, and a patient questionnaire...
2011: HERD
Nitin K Ahuja
The 1917-25 planning and construction at the University of Michigan of a new University Hospital, later dubbed Old Main, offers a noteworthy case study of the formal convergence of hospital and factory in early twentieth-century America. Designed by Albert Kahn, the architect responsible for Ford Motor Company's archetypal automobile plants, and located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, less than forty miles from Detroit's burgeoning factory landscape, Old Main was well positioned to reflect the values of industry in both appearance and operation...
July 2012: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Marc Vooijs, Zhenyi Liu, Raphael Kopan
In the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the role of stem cells in physiologic tissue renewal and in pathologic processes such as cancer. These findings have shed light on the identity and biological properties of such cells and the intrinsic and extrinsic signals that balance stem cell self-renewal with differentiation. With its astonishing self-renewal capacity, the intestinal epithelium has provided a unique model to study stem cell biology, lineage specification, and cancer. Here we review the role of Notch signaling in physiologic cell renewal and differentiation in the intestine as well as during its malignant transformation...
August 2011: Gastroenterology
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