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Jian Zhang
Transfer entropy from non-uniform embedding is a popular tool for the inference of causal relationships among dynamical subsystems. In this study we present an approach that makes use of low-dimensional conditional mutual information quantities to decompose the original high-dimensional conditional mutual information in the searching procedure of non-uniform embedding for significant variables at different lags. We perform a series of simulation experiments to assess the sensitivity and specificity of our proposed method to demonstrate its advantage compared to previous algorithms...
2018: PloS One
Huaqi Zhang, Song Lin, Tianlin Gao, Feng Zhong, Jing Cai, Yongye Sun, Aiguo Ma
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a systematic searched strategy using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for relevant observational studies investigating sarcopenia and MetS up to 11 May 2017. The polled prevalence of MetS and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as subgroup analyses were calculated using a random effects model...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Marcin Maździarz, Adam Mrozek, Wacław Kuś, Tadeusz Burczyński
A potentially new, single-atom thick semiconducting 2D- graphene -like material, called Anisotropic-cyclicgraphene , has been generated by the two stage searching strategy linking molecular and ab initio approach. The candidate was derived from the evolutionary-based algorithm and molecular simulations was then profoundly analysed using first-principles density functional theory from the structural, mechanical, phonon, and electronic properties point of view. The proposed polymorph of graphene ( rP16 -P1m1) is mechanically, dynamically, and thermally stable and can achieve semiconducting with a direct band gap of 0...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Franka Metzner, Stephanie Pahlke, Alice Diesing, Nina Marin, Fionna Klasen, Silke Pawils, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Hertha Richter-Appelt
Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Tinashe Mutize, Zibusiso Mkandla, Bongani B Nkambule
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (global and gene-specific) has been reported as an epigenetic mechanism that could be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, epigenetic therapy has been suggested as a future possibility for T2DM treatment. Epigenetic changes illustrate the environmental link of the disease. Since some of the epigenetic modifications can be reversed, they could be used as potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the systematic review will be to synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the link between DNA methylation and T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Christian Leporini, Emilio Russo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Franco Arturi, Giovanni Tripepi, Rosario Peluso, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Ignazio Olivieri, Giovambattista De Sarro, Francesco Ursini
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR), a well-established pathophysiological feature of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that IR could be ameliorated by biological medications targeting TNFα. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of TNFα inhibitors (TNFi) on IR in RA patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in order to identify the available data on the effect of anti-TNFα medications on IR in RA patients...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Mosarrat J Qureshi, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Providing effective positive pressure ventilation is considered to be the single most important component of successful neonatal resuscitation. Ventilation is frequently initiated manually with bag and face mask (BMV) followed by endotracheal intubation if respiratory depression continues. These techniques may be difficult to perform successfully resulting in prolonged resuscitation or neonatal asphyxia. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may achieve initial ventilation and successful resuscitation faster than a bag-mask device or endotracheal intubation...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jacqueline Murphy, Mark G Pritchard, Lok Yin Cheng, Roshni Janarthanan, José Leal
INTRODUCTION: Hip and knee replacement represents a significant burden to the UK healthcare system. 'Enhanced recovery' pathways have been introduced in the National Health Service (NHS) for patients undergoing hip and knee replacement, with the aim of improving outcomes and timely recovery after surgery. To support policymaking, there is a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of enhanced recovery pathways across jurisdictions. Our aim is to systematically summarise the published cost-effectiveness evidence on enhanced recovery in hip and knee replacement, both as a whole and for each of the various components of enhanced recovery pathways...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
L Tagliaferri, C Casà, G Macchia, A Pesce, G Garganese, B Gui, G Perotti, S Gentileschi, F Inzani, R Autorino, S Cammelli, A G Morganti, V Valentini, M A Gambacorta
OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of the skin generally affecting the anogenital area. Because of the low-frequency of the disease, no specific guidelines about the treatment strategy are available. Surgery is the recommended therapy for resectable and localized disease, but several other local treatments have been reported such as radiotherapy (RT). Most articles report small retrospective studies, referring to patients treated decades ago with large heterogeneity in terms of RT dose and technique...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Chia-Ling Li, M Pilar Aivar, Matthew H Tong, Mary M Hayhoe
Search is a central visual function. Most of what is known about search derives from experiments where subjects view 2D displays on computer monitors. In the natural world, however, search involves movement of the body in large-scale spatial contexts, and it is unclear how this might affect search strategies. In this experiment, we explore the nature of memory representations developed when searching in an immersive virtual environment. By manipulating target location, we demonstrate that search depends on episodic spatial memory as well as learnt spatial priors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anthony Pease, Clement Lo, Arul Earnest, Danny Liew, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Technology has been implemented since the 1970s with the hope of improving glycaemic control and reducing the burden of complications for those living with type 1 diabetes. A clinical and cost-effectiveness comparison of all available technologies including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), sensor-augmented pump therapy (including either low-glucose suspend or predictive low-glucose suspend), hybrid closed-loop systems, closed-loop (single-hormone or dual-hormone) systems, flash glucose monitoring (FGM), insulin bolus calculators, and 'smart-device' applications is currently lacking...
March 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Linda Rainey, Daniëlle van der Waal, Anna Jervaeus, Yvonne Wengström, D Gareth Evans, Louise S Donnelly, Mireille J M Broeders
BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new paradigm could present considerable challenges which the present review aims to explore. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies evaluating potential implications of the implementation of personalised risk-based screening and primary prevention for breast cancer...
March 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Deepa Singal, Chantalle Menard, Christine J Neilson, Marni Brownell, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Albert Chudley, Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed Abou-Setta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo/dummy interventions or usual standards of care in children and adolescents (<18 years old). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched: Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Plus with Full text (EBSCO), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library-Wiley), PsycINFO (ProQuest) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses will be searched from inception to March 2017 for relevant citations of published trials using individualised search strategies prepared for database...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Juan Ruano, Francisco Gómez-García, Jesús Gay-Mimbrera, Macarena Aguilar-Luque, José Luis Fernández-Rueda, Jesús Fernández-Chaichio, Patricia Alcalde-Mellado, Pedro J Carmona-Fernandez, Juan Luis Sanz-Cabanillas, Isabel Viguera-Guerra, Francisco Franco-García, Manuel Cárdenas-Aranzana, José Luis Hernández Romero, Marcelino Gonzalez-Padilla, Beatriz Isla-Tejera, Antonio Velez Garcia-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology and the reporting characteristics of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are well known. However, no study has analyzed the influence of protocol features on the probability that a study's results will be finally reported, thereby indirectly assessing the reporting bias of International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration records. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore which factors are associated with a higher probability that results derived from a non-Cochrane PROSPERO registration record for a systematic review will be finally reported as an original article in a scientific journal...
March 9, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Michael K Xu, Kathleen G Dobson, Lehana Thabane, Alison E Fox-Robichaud
BACKGROUND: Rapid response teams have been widely adopted across the world. Although evidence for their efficacy is not clear, they remain a popular means to detect and react to patient deterioration. This may in part be due to there being no standardized approach to their usage or implementation. A key component of their ability to be effective is the speed of response. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to evaluate the effect of delayed response by rapid response teams on hospital mortality (primary), cardiac arrest, and intensive care transfer rates (secondary)...
March 9, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Isabelle Scholl, Allison LaRussa, Pola Hahlweg, Sarah Kobrin, Glyn Elwyn
BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) is poorly implemented in routine care, despite being promoted by health policies. No reviews have solely focused on an in-depth synthesis of the literature around organizational- and system-level characteristics (i.e., characteristics of healthcare organizations and of healthcare systems) that may affect SDM implementation. A synthesis would allow exploration of interventions to address these characteristics. The study aim was to compile a comprehensive overview of organizational- and system-level characteristics that are likely to influence the implementation of SDM, and to describe strategies to address those characteristics described in the literature...
March 9, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Dale Weston, Katharina Hauck, Richard Amlôt
BACKGROUND: Given the importance of person to person transmission in the spread of infectious diseases, it is critically important to ensure that human behaviour with respect to infection prevention is appropriately represented within infectious disease models. This paper presents a large scale scoping review regarding the incorporation of infection prevention behaviour in infectious disease models. The outcomes of this review are contextualised within the psychological literature concerning health behaviour and behaviour change, resulting in a series of key recommendations for the incorporation of human behaviour in future infectious disease models...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Agathe D Jadczak, Naresh Makwana, Natalie Luscombe-Marsh, Renuka Visvanathan, Timothy J Schultz
OBJECTIVES: This umbrella review aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions, alone or in combination with other interventions, in improving physical function in community-dwelling older people identified as pre-frail or frail. INTRODUCTION: Exercise is said to have a positive impact on muscle mass and strength which improves physical function and hence is beneficial for the treatment of frailty. Several systematic reviews discuss the effects of exercise interventions on physical function parameters, such as strength, mobility, gait, balance and physical performance, and indicate that multi-component exercise, including resistance, aerobic, balance and flexibility training, appears to be the best way in which to improve physical function parameters in frail older people...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Elizabeth Curtis, Ritin Fernandez, Astin Lee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of topical medications on radial artery spasm (RAS) in patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary procedures. INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous coronary procedures were traditionally carried out via the femoral artery; however, over the last 20 years there has been a global increase in the number of proceduralists carrying out percutaneous coronary procedures via the transradial approach...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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