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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333958/focal-mri-guided-salvage-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-in-patients-with-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer
#1
Metha Maenhout, Max Peters, Marco van Vulpen, Marinus A Moerland, Richard P Meijer, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, Paul L Nguyen, Steven J Frank, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp
INTRODUCTION: Whole-gland salvage treatment of radiorecurrent prostate cancer has a high rate of severe toxicity. The standard of care in case of a biochemical recurrence is androgen deprivation treatment, which is associated with morbidity and negative effects on quality of life. A salvage treatment with acceptable toxicity might postpone the start of androgen deprivation treatment, might have a positive influence on the patients' quality of life, and might even be curative. Here, toxicity and biochemical outcome are described after magnetic resonance imaging-guided focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with radiorecurrent prostate cancer...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333127/quality-assurance-procedures-based-on-dosimetric-gamma-analysis-as-a-fast-reliable-tool-for-commissioning-brachytherapy-treatment-planning-systems
#2
Grzegorz Zwierzchowski, Grzegorz Bieleda, Janusz Skowronek
Background: Fast and easily repeatable methods for commissioning procedures for brachytherapy (BT) treatment planning systems (TPS) are needed. Radiochromic film dosimetry with gamma analysis is widely used in external beam quality assurance (QA) procedures and planar film dosimetry is also increasingly used for verification of the dose distribution in BT applications. Using the gamma analysis method for comparing calculated and measured dose data could be used for commissioning procedures of the newly developed TG-186 and MBDCA calculation algorithms...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332454/intrafractional-tracking-accuracy-of-a-transperineal-ultrasound-image-guidance-system-for-prostate-radiotherapy
#3
Amy S Yu, Mohammad Najafi, Dimitre H Hristov, Tiffany Phillips
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the tracking accuracy of a commercial ultrasound system under relevant treatment conditions and demonstrate its clinical utility for detecting significant treatment deviations arising from inadvertent intrafractional target motion. METHODS: A multimodality male pelvic phantom was used to simulate prostate image-guided radiotherapy with the system under evaluation. Target motion was simulated by placing the phantom on a motion platform...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331573/deformable-image-registration-based-contour-propagation-yields-clinically-acceptable-plans-for-mri-based-cervical-cancer-brachytherapy-planning
#4
Christina Hunter Chapman, Daniel Polan, Karen Vineberg, Shruti Jolly, Katherine E Maturen, Kristy K Brock, Joann I Prisciandaro
PURPOSE: To study the dosimetric impact of deformable image registration-based contour propagation on MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy planning. METHODS AND MATERIALS: High-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) contours were delineated on MR images of 10 patients who underwent ring and tandem brachytherapy. A second set of contours were propagated using a commercially available deformable registration algorithm. "Manual-contour" and "propagated-contour" plans were optimized to achieve a maximum dose to the most minimally exposed 90% of the volume (D90) (%) of 6 Gy/fraction, respecting minimum dose to the most exposed 2cc of the volume (D2cc) OAR constraints of 5...
January 10, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329997/clinical-log-data-analysis-for-assessing-the-accuracy-of-the-cyberknife-fiducial-free-lung-tumor-tracking-system
#5
Masao Nakayama, Hideki Nishimura, Hiroshi Mayahara, Masaki Nakamura, Kazuyuki Uehara, Shinji Tsudou, Aya Harada, Hiroaki Akasaka, Ryohei Sasaki
PURPOSE: The CyberKnife Xsight Lung Tracking (XLT) and 1-View tracking systems can synchronize beam targeting to a visible lung tumor with respiratory motion during irradiation without requiring internal fiducial markers. The systems use a correlation model that relates external marker positions to tumor positions as well as a prediction model that predicts the target's future position. In this study, the correlation and prediction model uncertainties related to the CyberKnife fiducial-free tumor tracking system were evaluated using clinical log data...
November 4, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329996/to-prep-or-not-to-prep-that-is-the-question-a-randomized-trial-on-the-use-of-antiflatulent-medication-as-part-of-bowel-preparation-for-patients-having-image-guided-external-beam-radiation-therapy-to-the-prostate
#6
Merrylee McGuffin, Naila Devji, Lyann Kehoe, Anne Carty, Steve Russell, Lisa Di Prospero, Carlo DeAngelis, Alex Kiss, Danny Vesprini, Andrew Loblaw, Laura D'Alimonte
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy is a standard treatment option for prostate cancer. With growing use of escalated doses and tighter margins, procedures to limit rectal size variation are needed to reduce prostate motion, increase treatment accuracy, and minimize rectal toxicity. This prospective study was done to determine whether the introduction of an antiflatulent medication would decrease rectal distention at computed tomography (CT) simulation and throughout a course of radiation therapy...
November 4, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328262/wavelength-tunable-hermite-gaussian-modes-and-an-orbital-angular-momentum-tunable-vortex-beam-in-a-dual-off-axis-pumped-yb-calgo-laser
#7
Yijie Shen, Yuan Meng, Xing Fu, Mali Gong
A dual-off-axis pumping scheme is presented to generate wavelength-tunable high-order Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes in Yb:CaGdAlO4 lasers. The mode and wavelength can be actively controlled by the off-axis displacements and pump power. The purities of the output HG modes are quantified by intensity distributions and the measured M2 values. The highest order reaches m=15 for stable HGm,0 mode, and wavelength-tunable width is about 10 nm. Moreover, through externally converting the HGm,0 modes, the vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with a large OAM-tunable range from ±1ℏ to ±15ℏ are produced...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328198/stable-vortex-soliton-in-nonlocal-media-with-orientational-nonlinearity
#8
Yana V Izdebskaya, Vladlen G Shvedov, Pawel S Jung, Wieslaw Krolikowski
We report on the first experimental observation of stable vortex solitons in nematic liquid crystals with nonlocal nonlinear reorientational response. We show how these nonlinear vortex beams can be formed and confined in extraordinary optical waves by employing the cell with no lateral boundary conditions and the application of an external magnetic field that effectively controls the molecular direction and propagation of the self-trapped beams. We also find that these vortex solitons can be generated in certain ranges of the input beam power...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328136/beam-shaping-diffractive-wave-plates-invited
#9
Luciano De Sio, David E Roberts, Zhi Liao, Jeoungyeon Hwang, Nelson Tabiryan, Diane M Steeves, Brian R Kimball
We present and discuss opportunities opened up by a new generation of beam shaping optical elements that combine capabilities of digital spatial light polarization converters and diffractive properties of thin liquid crystalline films with patterned orientation of anisotropy axis (diffractive wave plates). Several functions of the new generation beam shapers are demonstrated, among them converting a laser beam of a Gaussian profile into a ring profile in the far field, a flattop profile, and into complex images...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328086/geometric-optics-of-a-refringent-sphere-illuminated-by-a-point-source-caustics-wavefronts-and-zero-phase-fronts-for-every-rainbow-k-order
#10
Paul-Étienne Ouellette
This study relates to a refringent sphere illuminated by a point source placed at a distance h from its center; for h→∞ the light beam becomes parallel. A selection of variables, principally angular with the center of the sphere as a common point, allows a global, straightforward, and geometrically transparent way to the rays, caustics, and wavefronts, internal as well as external, for every k order, k being the number of internal reflections. One obtains compact formulas for generating the rays and the wavefronts...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325690/dose-volume-effects-in-pathologic-lymph-nodes-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#11
Warren Bacorro, Isabelle Dumas, Alexandre Escande, Sebastien Gouy, Enrica Bentivegna, Philippe Morice, Christine Haie-Meder, Cyrus Chargari
OBJECTIVE: In cervical cancer patients, dose-volume relationships have been demonstrated for tumor and organs-at-risk, but not for pathologic nodes. The nodal control probability (NCP) according to dose/volume parameters was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with node-positive cervical cancer treated curatively with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and image-guided brachytherapy (IGABT) were identified. Nodal doses during EBRT, IGABT and boost were converted to 2-Gy equivalent (α/β = 10 Gy) and summed...
January 8, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325451/expression-of-sestrin-genes-in-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-and-its-association-with-fatigue-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
Velda J Gonzalez, Farnoosh Abbas-Aghababazadeh, Brooke L Fridley, Tomar Ghansah, Leorey N Saligan
Genetic factors that influence inflammation and energy production/expenditure in cells may affect patient outcomes following treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Sestrins, stress-inducible genes with antioxidant properties, have recently been implicated in several behaviors including fatigue. This proof-of-concept study explored whether the sestrin family of genes ( SESN1, SESN2, and SESN3) were differentially expressed from baseline to the midpoint of EBRT in a sample of 26 Puerto Rican men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324933/brachytherapy-in-soft-tissue-tumours-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#13
Silvanie Volz, Konstantinos Kalousis, Jung In Song, Tobias Kisch, Eike Wenzel, Peter Mailänder
OBJECTIVE: Interdisciplinary work including surgery and additive radiotherapy is often needed for the therapy of tumours. Beneath this, brachytherapy is an important part of the radiotherapy. It was first used over 100 years ago and is in regular use after the development of afterload technology in the early 1970s. Today it is often used in different tumour therapies, for example in soft tissue sarcoma or breast tumours, in order to decrease the risk of local recurrence. Concerning its benefits, higher doses could be used because of the localized effect with equivalent local control rate and less toxicity of treatment...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323427/duration-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-and-nadir-of-testosterone-at-20-ng-dl-predict-testosterone-recovery-to-supracastrate-level-in-prostate-cancer-patients-who-received-external-beam-radiotherapy
#14
Akinori Takei, Shinichi Sakamoto, Ken Wakai, Takaaki Tamura, Yusuke Imamura, Minhui Xu, Maihulan Maimaiti, Koji Kawamura, Takashi Imamoto, Akira Komiya, Koichiro Akakura, Tomohiko Ichikawa
OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictors of testosterone recovery after termination of androgen deprivation therapy in high/intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. METHODS: A total of 82 patients who underwent external beam radiation therapy with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Serum testosterone levels after androgen deprivation therapy terminations were studied...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323392/high-q-and-highly-reproducible-microdisks-and-microlasers
#15
Nan Zhang, Yujie Wang, Wenzhao Sun, Shuai Liu, Can Huang, Xiaoshun Jiang, Min Xiao, Shumin Xiao, Qinghai Song
High quality (Q) factor microdisks are fundamental building blocks of on-chip integrated photonic circuits and biological sensors. The resonant modes in microdisks circulate near their boundaries, making their performances strongly dependent upon surface roughness. Surface-tension-induced microspheres and microtoroids are superior to other dielectric microdisks when comparing Q factors. However, most photonic materials such as silicon and negative photoresists are hard to be reflowed and thus the realizations of high-Q microdisks are strongly dependent on electron-beam lithography...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322821/moderately-hypofractionated-prostate-external-beam-radiotherapy-an-emerging-standard
#16
Jarad M Martin, Stephane Supiot, Paul J Keall, Charles N Catton
Research over recent years has demonstrated that curative external beam radiotherapy can be safely and efficaciously delivered with roughly half the number of treatments which was previously considered standard. We review the data supporting this change in practice, methods for implementation, as well as emerging future directions.
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321667/the-management-of-retinoblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Ido D Fabian, Zerrin Onadim, Esin Karaa, Catriona Duncan, Tanzina Chowdhury, Irene Scheimberg, Shin-Ichi Ohnuma, M Ashwin Reddy, Mandeep S Sagoo
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood, but an uncommon paediatric cancer, with a constant incidence worldwide of 1:15,000-1:20,000 live births. Despite its rarity, Rb has served as a cornerstone in the field of oncology in many of the aspects that comprise cancer management, including classification schemes, treatment modalities, genetic testing and screening. Until just over half a century ago, the major treatment for Rb was eye removal, and prognosis was poor with outcome fatal for most children...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319919/outcomes-and-toxicities-in-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-brachytherapy-alone-or-brachytherapy-and-supplemental-external-beam-radiation-therapy
#18
Emily Schlussel Markovic, Michael Buckstein, Nelson N Stone, Richard G Stock
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cancer control outcomes and long-term treatment-related morbidity of brachytherapy as well as combination brachytherapy and EBRT in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in a prospectively collected database of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated either with brachytherapy or brachytherapy and EBRT, with or without ADT, from 1990-2014. Urinary and erectile dysfunction symptoms are measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Mount Sinai erectile function scale, and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), respectively...
January 10, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319640/orbital-extranodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-following-radiotherapy-a-report-of-2-cases
#19
Zujaja Tauqeer, Frederick A Jakobiec, Suzanne K Freitag, Michael K Yoon, Natalie Wolkow
PURPOSE: To present 2 patients in whom orbital radiation preceded the development of periorbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma by more than a decade and to investigate the likelihood of this representing irradiation-induced malignancy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry of 2 cases. RESULTS: The first patient was a 58-year-old woman who developed an orbital mass within the vicinity of the lateral rectus muscle 17 years after external beam proton radiation therapy for an inferotemporal choroidal melanoma...
January 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313835/in-situ-atomic-scale-observation-of-irradiation-induced-carbon-nanocrystalline-formation-from-dense-carbon-clusters
#20
Chengbing Wang, Zhengtong Li, San Ling, Tao Lei, Jinbu Su
We present direct observation of the transformation of dense amorphous carbon cluster into diamond nanocrystalline under electron beam irradiation by in situ transmission electron microscopy, whereas the surrounding carbon matrix hardly changed. Our findings provide clear and convincing evidence for the diamond nanocrystalline evolving from energetic amorphous carbon sites. Furthermore, graphitization of amorphous carbons usually demands a high temperature combined with high pressure (HTHP). Hence, graphitization of amorphous carbons at relatively lower temperatures is highly desired...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
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