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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646593/mri-assisted-dual-motion-correction-for-myocardial-perfusion-defect-detection-in-pet-imaging
#1
Xinhui Wang, Arman Rahmim, Jing Tang
PURPOSE: Myocardial perfusion (MP) PET imaging is a powerful tool in risk assess-assessment and stratification of patients with coronary artery disease. Involuntary organmotion degrades cardiac PET image resolution while respiratory and/or cardiac gating to freeze the motion leads to noisier reconstructed images due to reduced counts in the gated frames. In this work, we propose an MRI assisted dual motion correction method to compensate for respiratory and cardiac motion in MP PET data and study the impact of dual motion correction on MP defect detection using systematically designed experiments...
June 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#2
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644768/error-feedback-frequency-affects-automaticity-but-not-accuracy-and-consistency-after-extensive-motor-skill-practice
#3
Daniel Krause, Manfred Agethen, Christina Zobe
Earlier studies addressed the effects of feedback frequency on movement accuracy and consistency. The authors additionally addressed the effects on motor automatization. High error feedback frequencies may induce attentional control processes and impede motor automatization. In a pre-post design, 42 participants were assigned to 2 groups with different feedback frequencies and practiced an arm movement sequence with 760 trials in 5 sessions. The 100% group practiced with feedback on 3 movement reversals of the sequence after each trial...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642466/cognitive-and-motor-dual-task-gait-training-improve-dual-task-gait-performance-after-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#4
Yan-Ci Liu, Yea-Ru Yang, Yun-An Tsai, Ray-Yau Wang
This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#5
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640006/poor-gait-performance-is-influenced-with-decreased-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-poststroke-patients
#6
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) exerts a significant influence on gait performance. Therefore, a decrease in VOR function could worsen gait impairments in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. The effects of decreased VOR function on gait performance could be further exacerbated by aging-related physical weakness and impaired motor function of the hemiparetic lower limb. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of aging and impairment in lower extremity function and the VOR on walking ability of poststroke hemiplegic patients...
June 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639324/a-retina-like-dual-band-organic-photosensor-array-for-filter-free-near-infrared-to-memory-operations
#7
Hanlin Wang, Hongtao Liu, Qiang Zhao, Zhenjie Ni, Ye Zou, Jie Yang, Lifeng Wang, Yanqiu Sun, Yunlong Guo, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu
Human eyes use retina photoreceptor cells to absorb and distinguish photons from different wavelengths to construct an image. Mimicry of such a process and extension of its spectral response into the near-infrared (NIR) is indispensable for night surveillance, retinal prosthetics, and medical imaging applications. Currently, NIR organic photosensors demand optical filters to reduce visible interference, thus making filter-free and anti-visible NIR imaging a challenging task. To solve this limitation, a filter-free and conformal, retina-inspired NIR organic photosensor is presented...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639175/valence-and-origin-of-emotional-words-influence-on-subsequent-perception-of-ambiguous-stimuli-in-terms-of-competence-versus-warmth
#8
Kamil K Imbir
The aim of this study was to examine whether the valence and origin of emotional words can alter perception of ambiguous objects in terms of warmth versus competence, fundamental dimensions of social cognition. 60 individuals were invited into the study focusing on the limits of intuition. They were asked to try to guess the meaning of Japanese pictorial signs in terms of their warmth versus competence connotations. Before each trial a subsequent memory load task was applied. Participants were supposed to read and remember words creating a factorial manipulation of valence (three levels) and origins (three levels: automatic, neutral and reflective) of affective connotations presenting to them for 500 ms...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638338/physical-exercise-with-music-reduces-gray-and-white-matter-loss-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-elderly-people-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project
#9
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637818/the-cerebellum-does-more-than-sensory-prediction-error-based-learning-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-tasks
#10
Peter A Butcher, Richard B Ivry, Sheng-Han Kuo, David Rydz, John W Krakauer, Jordan A Taylor
Individuals with damage to the cerebellum perform poorly in sensorimotor adaptation paradigms. This deficit has been attributed to impairment in sensory-prediction-error-based updating of an internal forward model, a form of implicit learning. These individuals can, however, successfully counter a perturbation when instructed with an explicit aiming strategy. This successful use of an instructed aiming strategy presents a paradox: In adaptation tasks, why don't individuals with cerebellar damage come up with an aiming solution on their own to compensate for their implicit learning deficit? To explore this question, we employed a variant of a visuomotor rotation task in which, prior to executing a movement on each trial, the participants verbally reported their intended aiming location...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#11
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#12
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632166/dual-channel-cosine-function-based-itd-estimation-for-robust-speech-separation
#13
Xuliang Li, Zhaogui Ding, Weifeng Li, Qingmin Liao
In speech separation tasks, many separation methods have the limitation that the microphones are closely spaced, which means that these methods are unprevailing for phase wrap-around. In this paper, we present a novel speech separation scheme by using two microphones that does not have this restriction. The technique utilizes the estimation of interaural time difference (ITD) statistics and binary time-frequency mask for the separation of mixed speech sources. The novelties of the paper consist in: (1) the extended application of delay-and-sum beamforming (DSB) and cosine function for ITD calculation; and (2) the clarification of the connection between ideal binary mask and DSB amplitude ratio...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628379/visuomotor-behaviors-and-performance-in-a-dual-task-paradigm-with-and-without-vibrotactile-feedback-when-using-a-myoelectric-controlled-hand
#14
Eitan Raveh, Jason Friedman, Sigal Portnoy
Prosthesis users allocate visual attention to their prosthetic hand while performing activities of daily living (ADLs), due to absence of sensory feedback. Dual-task assignments present competition for visual attention and may affect the performance of ADLs. Vibrotactile feedback (VTF) is a frequently-used method to provide prosthesis users with tactile feedback. However, the effect of adding VTF on visual attention and performance in a motor dual-task paradigm has not been investigated. Our aim was to compare visual attention and performance during ADLs in a motor dual-task paradigm when using binary VTF and without using VTF...
June 19, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627900/individual-versus-peer-grit-influence-on-later-individual-literacy-achievement-of-dual-language-learners
#15
Colleen R O'Neal
The objective of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine individual versus classroom peer effects of grit on later individual literacy achievement in elementary school. The dual language learner, largely Latina/o sample included students from the 3rd through the 5th grades. Participants completed a literacy achievement performance task at 3 time points over 4 months, in addition to student-reported grit at the first time point. Classroom peer grit, not individual grit, was a strong, significant predictor of an individual's later literacy achievement, adjusting for previous literacy achievement, age, gender, home language, and classroom clusters...
June 19, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624969/movement-timing-and-cognitive-control-adult-age-differences-in-multi-tasking
#16
Anne-Merel Meijer, Ralf T Krampe
Over the course of six sessions, 24 young (M = 19.40 years, SD 1.61) and 24 older participants (M = 71.48 years, SD 3.86) performed simple, repetitive tapping tasks at 300 and 600 ms target durations concurrently with two cognitive tasks under non-switch or switch conditions. Despite substantial improvements, over sessions, reliable switch costs remained, which were pronounced in older adults. Young and older adults alike showed increased drift in the tapping tasks under dual-task conditions. Under dual-task non-switch conditions, older adults maintained the same timing accuracy (variability) as in the single-task condition...
June 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624710/role-of-impaired-vision-during-dual-task-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#17
V Krishnan, Y Cho, O Mohamed
While cognitive-motor interference in dual-task activities is well established, it is still unknown how such interference is influenced by concurrent visual challenges. Nineteen community-dwelling healthy, cognitively intact, older adults (Mean±SD=71.45±1.25years, 6 males) and nineteen young adults (Mean±SD=22.25±0.68years, 4 males) performed a cognitive-single-task (serial subtraction by 3), a walking-single-task and a cognitive-walking-dual-task under normal, blurred and peripheral-vision-loss conditions (artificially imposed using goggles)...
June 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623036/-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-dysplasia-literature-review-and-case-report
#18
William Alejandro Camargo-Ariza, Silvia Juliana Galvis-Blanco, Tatiana Del Pilar Camacho-Enciso, Carlos Alberto Quiroz-Romero, Juan José Bermudez-Echeverry
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is an inherited autosomal dominant pathology with an estimated prevalence of 1:2,500 to 1:5,000, being higher in males (3:1). It is characterized histologically by replacement of cardiomyocytes by fibro-adipose tissue, which predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias, right ventricular failure, and sudden cardiac death. The main goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of sudden death and improve the quality of life of patients. We present the case of a 23 year old woman whose clinical symptoms started with palpitations, chest pain with physical activity, syncope and headache 6 years ago during her first pregnancy...
June 13, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620805/action-effect-features-but-not-anatomical-features-determine-the-backward-crosstalk-effect-evidence-from-crossed-hands-experiments
#19
Sandra Renas, Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
The Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) indicates that response features of Task 2 in a dual-task paradigm influence even Task 1 performance. However, it can be assumed that responses are represented with multiple features in the cognitive system. In this regard, Ideomotor Theory suggests action effects as one central response feature in human action control and an earlier study by Janczyk, Pfister, Hommel, and Kunde (Cognition 132: 30-43, 2014) already provided some evidence that action effects are a crucial determinant of the BCE...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620292/dynamic-responses-in-brain-networks-to-social-feedback-a-dual-eeg-acquisition-study-in-adolescent-couples
#20
Ching-Chang Kuo, Thao Ha, Ashley M Ebbert, Don M Tucker, Thomas J Dishion
Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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