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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528460/sensory-and-motoric-influences-on-attention-dynamics-during-standing-balance-recovery-in-young-and-older-adults
#1
Mark S Redfern, April J Chambers, J Richard Jennings, Joseph M Furman
This study investigated the impact of attention on the sensory and motor actions during postural recovery from underfoot perturbations in young and older adults. A dual-task paradigm was used involving disjunctive and choice reaction time (RT) tasks to auditory and visual stimuli at different delays from the onset of two types of platform perturbations (rotations and translations). The RTs were increased prior to the perturbation (preparation phase) and during the immediate recovery response (response initiation) in young and older adults, but this interference dissipated rapidly after the perturbation response was initiated (<220 ms)...
May 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528005/attentional-load-of-walking-in-children-aged-7-12-and-in-adults
#2
Guillaume Chauvel, Estelle Palluel, Arthur Brandao, Guillaume Barbieri, Vincent Nougier, Isabelle Olivier
The amount of attentional resources necessary to walk in children, and how they evolve during childhood remains unclear. This study examined children's gait parameters in different dual-task conditions. 53 children, divided into two age groups (7-9 and 10-12 years old), and 18 adults walked on a mat in three different cognitive conditions: watching a video (video condition), listening its soundtrack (audio condition), and without any additional task (control condition). Questions were asked at the end of the video and audio conditions to make sure that participants were paying attention to the stimuli...
May 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527748/high-levels-of-time-contraction-in-young-children-in-dual-tasks-are-related-to-their-limited-attention-capacities
#3
Quentin Hallez, Sylvie Droit-Volet
Numerous studies have shown that durations are judged shorter in a dual-task condition than in a simple-task condition. The resource-based theory of time perception suggests that this is due to the processing of temporal information, which is a demanding cognitive task that consumes limited attention resources. Our study investigated whether this time contraction in a dual-task condition is greater in younger children and, if so, whether this is specifically related to their limited attention capacities. Children aged 5-7years were given a temporal reproduction task in a simple-task condition and a dual-task condition...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521148/dual-task-interference-on-postural-sway-postural-transitions-and-gait-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait
#5
Ana Claudia de Souza Fortaleza, Martina Mancini, Patty Carlson-Kuhta, Laurie A King, John G Nutt, Eliane Ferrari Chagas, Ismael Forte Freitas, Fay B Horak
Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-...
May 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513170/a-phospholipid-biomimetic-fluorescent-mitochondrial-probe-with-ultrahigh-selectivity-enables-in-situ-and-high-fidelity-tissue-imaging
#6
Ruoyao Zhang, Yuming Sun, Minggang Tian, Ge Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Xuechen Li, Lifang Guo, Xiaoqiang Yu, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiuquan He
In-situ and directly imaging mitochondria in tissues instead of isolated cells can offer more native and accurate information. Particularly, in the clinical diagnose of mitochondrial diseases such as mitochondrial myopathy, it is a routine examination item to directly observe mitochondrial morphology and number in muscle tissues from patients. However, it's still a challenging task because the selectivity of available probes is inadequate for exclusively tissue imaging. Inspired by the chemical structure of amphiphilic phospholipids in mitochondrial inner membrane, we synthesized a phospholipid-biomimetic amphiphilic fluorescent probe (Mito-MOI) by modifying a C18-alkyl chain to the lipophilic side of carbazole-indolenine cation...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510495/fatigue-in-younger-and-older-drivers-effectiveness-of-an-alertness-maintaining-task
#7
Woojin Song, Fu L Woon, Alice Doong, Carol Persad, Louis Tijerina, Pooja Pandit, Carol Cline, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. BACKGROUND: Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509819/cortical-and-physical-function-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Alia L Yasen, David R Howell, Li-Shan Chou, Angela M Pazzaglia, Anita D Christie
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between intracortical inhibition and functional recovery after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Twenty individuals with mTBI and 20 matched control participants were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, the Attentional Network Test, and gait analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to longitudinally examine potential differences between groups and relationships in the pattern of recovery in cortical silent period (CSP) duration, cognitive reaction time, and single- and dual-task walking speeds across five testing time points...
June 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509631/improving-balance-mobility-and-dual-task-performance-in-an-adolescent-with-cerebral-palsy-a-case-report
#9
Sarah Fisher-Pipher, Lisa K Kenyon, Marci Westman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improving functional mobility is often a desired outcome for adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Traditional neurorehabilitation approaches are frequently directed at impairments; however, improvements may not be carried over into functional mobility. The purpose of this case report was to describe the examination, intervention, and outcomes of a task-oriented physical therapy intervention program to improve dynamic balance, functional mobility, and dual-task performance in an adolescent with CP...
May 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508890/attentional-requirements-of-postural-control-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-the-effect-of-dual-task
#10
C M Tse, M G Carpenter, T Liu-Ambrose, A E Chisholm, T Lam
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the attentional requirements for maintaining standing balance in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a dual-task paradigm and to compare standing balance performance between SCI and able-bodied (AB) controls. SETTING: LaboratoryMethods:Nine adults with incomplete SCI, who were able to stand unassisted were recruited, along with eight AB controls. Subjects performed a dual task involving counting backwards by 3 s out loud while standing with eyes open or closed...
May 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508115/when-kinesthetic-information-is-neglected-in-learning-a-novel-bimanual-rhythmic-coordination
#11
Qin Zhu, Todd Mirich, Shaochen Huang, Winona Snapp-Childs, Geoffrey P Bingham
Many studies have shown that rhythmic interlimb coordination involves perception of the coupled limb movements, and different sensory modalities can be used. Using visual displays to inform the coupled bimanual movement, novel bimanual coordination patterns can be learned with practice. A recent study showed that similar learning occurred without vision when a coach provided manual guidance during practice. The information provided via the two different modalities may be same (amodal) or different (modality specific)...
May 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507300/minimum-toe-clearance-probing-the-neural-control-of-locomotion
#12
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, László Demkó, Linard Filli, Lilla Lőrincz, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Björn Zörner, Marc Bolliger
Minimum toe clearance (MTC) occurs during a highly dynamic phase of the gait cycle and is associated with the highest risk of unintentional contact with obstacles or the ground. Age, cognitive function, attention and visual feedback affect foot clearance but how these factors interact to influence MTC control is not fully understood. We measured MTC in 121 healthy individuals aged 20-80 under four treadmill walking conditions; normal walking, lower visual field restriction and two Stroop colour/word naming tasks of two difficulty levels...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506302/quantification-of-gait-in-mitochondrial-m-3243a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-g-patients-a-validation-study
#13
Rob Ramakers, Saskia Koene, Jan T Groothuis, Paul de Laat, Mirian Ch Janssen, Jan Smeitink
BACKGROUND: More than half of the patients harbouring the m.3243A > G mutation were found to have trouble maintaining balance when walking in a recent study by our group. Others demonstrated that these patients had an abnormal gait pattern, as quantified by gait analysis. Gait analysis is an emerging method to quantify subtle changes in walking pattern, also during therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we aimed to test the reliability and reproducibility of gait analysis and select the most suitable protocol for this group of patients using a GAITRite electronic walkway...
May 15, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505961/effects-of-dual-task-conditions-on-cervical-spine-movement-variability
#14
Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Johanna Vogel, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505243/association-of-dual-task-gait-with-incident-dementia-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#15
Manuel M Montero-Odasso, Yanina Sarquis-Adamson, Mark Speechley, Michael J Borrie, Vladimir C Hachinski, Jennie Wells, Patricia M Riccio, Marcelo Schapira, Ervin Sejdic, Richard M Camicioli, Robert Bartha, William E McIlroy, Susan Muir-Hunter
Importance: Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. Objective: To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#16
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501805/neurological-tests-improve-after-olympic-style-boxing-bouts-a-pretournament-and-post-tournament-study-in-the-2016-women-s-world-boxing-championships
#17
David R Howell, William P Meehan, Michael P Loosemore, Joseph Cummiskey, Jean-Paul Grabner von Rosenberg, David McDonagh
AIM: To prospectively examine the neurocognitive, postural, dual-task and visual abilities of female Olympic-style boxers before and after participation in a tournament. METHODS: Sixty-one females completed the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS), King-Devick test and 3 m timed-up-and-go test in single-task and dual-task conditions. A subset (n=31) completed the CogState computerised neurocognitive test. Initial testing was completed prior to the 2016 Women's World Boxing Championships; each participant repeated the testing protocol within a day of elimination...
May 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501675/predicting-heavy-episodic-drinking-using-an-extended-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#18
Nicola Black, Barbara Mullan, Louise Sharpe
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption contributes significantly to the global burden from disease and injury, and specific patterns of heavy episodic drinking contribute uniquely to this burden. Temporal self-regulation theory and the dual-process model describe similar theoretical constructs that might predict heavy episodic drinking. The aims of this study were to test the utility of temporal self-regulation theory in predicting heavy episodic drinking, and examine whether the theoretical relationships suggested by the dual-process model significantly extend temporal self-regulation theory...
April 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497928/effects-of-dual-and-complex-task-on-walking-ability-of-ambulatory-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Kitiyawadee Srisim, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Preeda Arrayawichanon, Pipatana Amatachaya, Lugkana Mato, Sugalya Amatachaya
BACKGROUND: Attempting to perform dual- and complex-tasks obviously reduces the walking ability of individuals with impaired cognitive functions. However, there is no clear evidence describing the effects of dual- and complex-tasks on the walking ability of ambulatory individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact cognitive functions, but suffer from various degrees of sensorimotor deterioration. AIM: To primarily investigate the effects of dual- and complex-task on the walking ability of ambulatory subjects with SCI as compared to healthy individuals...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495377/assembling-a-supercapacitor-electrode-with-dual-metal-oxides-and-activated-carbon-using-a-liquid-phase-plasma
#20
Seo Jin Ki, Ki-Joon Jeon, Young-Kwon Park, Hyunwoong Park, Sangmin Jeong, Heon Lee, Sang-Chul Jung
Developing supercapacitor electrodes at an affordable cost while improving their energy and/or power density values is still a challenging task. This study introduced a recipe which assembled a novel electrode composite using a liquid phase plasma that was applied to a reactant solution containing an activated carbon (AC) powder with dual metal precursors of iron and manganese. A comparison was made between the composites doped with single and dual metal components as well as among those synthesized under different precursor concentrations and plasma durations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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