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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453743/neuromuscular-control-deficits-and-the-risk-of-subsequent-injury-after-a-concussion-a-scoping-review
#1
REVIEW
David R Howell, Robert C Lynall, Thomas A Buckley, Daniel C Herman
An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i...
February 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448162/cognitive-motor-dual-task-interference-modulates-mediolateral-dynamic-stability-during-gait-in-post-stroke-individuals
#2
R Tisserand, S Armand, G Allali, A Schnider, S Baillieul
Gait asymmetry and dynamic balance impairments observed in post-stroke individuals increase their risk of fall. Moreover, walking while performing a cognitive task (i.e. dual-task) disturbs the control of balance in post-stroke individuals. Here we investigated the mediolateral dynamic stability in twenty-two community-dwelling participants (12 post-strokes and 10 healthy controls) while walking in single-task (normal gait) and four different dual-tasks (cognitive-motor interference). Positions of the extrapolated center of mass and mediolateral widths of both margin of stability and base of support were extracted from 35 marker trajectories...
February 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445335/dual-tasking-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-a-cognitive-screening-instrument
#3
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Madlen Paucke, Tjalf Ziemssen
The monitoring of cognitive functions is central to the assessment and consecutive management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though, especially cognitive processes that are central to everyday behavior like dual-tasking are often neglected. We examined dual-task performance using a psychological-refractory period (PRP) task in N = 21 patients and healthy controls and conducted standard neuropsychological tests. In dual-tasking, MS patients committed more erroneous responses when dual-tasking was difficult. In easier conditions, performance of MS patients did not differ to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444400/chiral-nickel-ii-complex-catalyzed-enantioselective-doyle-kirmse-reaction-of-%C3%AE-diazo-pyrazoleamides
#4
Xiaobin Lin, Yu Tang, Wei Yang, Fei Tan, Lili Lin, Xiaohua Liu, Xiaoming Feng
Although high enantioselectivity of [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfonium ylides (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) has proven surprisingly elusive using classic chiral Rh(II) and Cu(I) catalysts, in principle it is due to the difficulty in fine discrimination of the heterotopic lone pairs of sulfur and chirality inversion at sulfur of sulfonium ylides. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of new α-diazo pyrazoleamides and chiral N,N'-dioxide-nickel(II) complex catalyst enables a highly enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436253/promoting-activity-independence-and-stability-in-early-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-praised-development-of-an-intervention-for-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#5
Vicky Booth, Rowan H Harwood, Victoria Hood-Moore, Trevor Bramley, Jennie E Hancox, Kate Robertson, Judith Hall, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Pip A Logan
This series of articles for rehabilitation in practice aims to cover a knowledge element of the rehabilitation medicine curriculum. Nevertheless, they are intended to be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience. The competency addressed in this article is an understanding of how to develop an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia to promote their independence, stability, and physical activity. INTRODUCTION: Older adults with dementia are at a high risk of falls...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435964/uncertainty-processing-in-bees-exposed-to-free-choices-lessons-from-vertebrates
#6
Patrick Anselme
Bees tend to avoid or to show indifference to uncertain ("risky") relative to certain ("safe") food rewards, whether in nectar volume or in nectar concentration. The unattractiveness of uncertain food rewards is also sometimes independent of the energy budget of bees. This pattern of responses seems to differ from that observed in mammals and birds, which may exhibit a strong preference for the uncertainty over the certainty of food delivery on a given trial in dual-choice tasks. Upon analysis of the conditions that determine preference and aversion for uncertain food rewards in "higher" vertebrates, I attempt to demonstrate that bees react to uncertainty in a similar way...
February 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435243/genotyping-strategy-matters-when-analyzing-hypervariable-major-histocompatibility-complex-experience-from-a-passerine-bird
#7
Silje L Rekdal, Jarl Andreas Anmarkrud, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld
Genotyping of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is challenging when they are hypervariable and occur in multiple copies. In this study, we used several different approaches to genotype the moderately variable MHC class I exon 3 (MHCIe3) and the highly polymorphic MHC class II exon 2 (MHCIIβe2) in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica). Two family groups (eight individuals) were sequenced in replicates at both markers using Ion Torrent technology with both a single- and a dual-indexed primer structure...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435086/influence-of-multiple-action-outcome-associations-on-the-transition-dynamics-toward-an-optimal-choice-in-rats
#8
Noha Mohsen Zommara, Muneyoshi Takahashi, Johan Lauwereyns
When faced with familiar versus novel options, animals may exploit the acquired action-outcome associations or attempt to form new associations. Little is known about which factors determine the strategy of choice behavior in partially comprehended environments. Here we examine the influence of multiple action-outcome associations on choice behavior in the context of rewarding outcomes (food) and aversive outcomes (electric foot-shock). We used a nose-poke paradigm with rats, incorporating a dilemma between a familiar option and a novel, higher-value option...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433963/pertuzumab-and-trastuzumab-with-or-without-metronomic-chemotherapy-for-older-patients-with-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-eortc-75111-10114-an-open-label-randomised-phase-2-trial-from-the-elderly-task-force-breast-cancer-group
#9
Hans Wildiers, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Lissandra Dal Lago, Peter Vuylsteke, Giuseppe Curigliano, Simon Waters, Barbara Brouwers, Sevilay Altintas, Nathan Touati, Fatima Cardoso, Etienne Brain
BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of metastatic breast cancer and its related mortality in the elderly population, our knowledge about optimal treatment for older patients with cancer is far from adequate. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dual anti-HER2 treatment with or without metronomic chemotherapy in older patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial in 30 centres from eight countries in Europe, in patients with histologically proven, HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, without previous chemotherapy for metastatic disease, who were 70 years or older, or 60 years or older with confirmed functional restrictions defined by protocol, and had a life expectancy of more than 12 weeks and a performance status according to WHO scale of 0-3...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431890/saccade-frequency-response-to-visual-cues-during-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-selective-role-of-attention
#10
Samuel Stuart, Sue Lord, Brook Galna, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role however the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430567/n-back-versus-complex-span-working-memory-training
#11
Kara J Blacker, Serban Negoita, Joshua B Ewen, Susan M Courtney
Working memory (WM) is the ability to maintain and manipulate task-relevant information in the absence of sensory input. While its improvement through training is of great interest, the degree to which WM training transfers to untrained WM tasks (near transfer) and other untrained cognitive skills (far transfer) remains debated and the mechanism(s) underlying transfer are unclear. Here we hypothesized that a critical feature of dual n-back training is its reliance on maintaining relational information in WM...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418004/spectral-resolution-and-high-flux-capability-tradeoffs-in-cdte-detectors-for-clinical-ct
#12
Scott S Hsieh, Paurakh L Rajbhandary, Norbert J Pelc
PURPOSE: Photon counting detectors using CdTe or CZT substrates are promising candidates for future CT systems but suffer from a number of non-idealities, including charge sharing and pulse pileup. By increasing the pixel size of the detector, the system can improve charge sharing characteristics at the expense of increasing pileup. The purpose of this work is to describe these considerations in the optimization of the detector pixel pitch. METHODS: The transport of x-rays through the CdTe substrate was simulated in a Monte Carlo fashion using GEANT4...
February 8, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417874/adaptive-working-memory-training-reduces-the-negative-impact-of-anxiety-on-competitive-motor-performance
#13
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J Smith, Nazanin Derakshan
Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412301/the-nurses-work-process-in-different-countries-an-integrative-review
#14
Juliana Alves Leite Leal, Cristina Maria Meira de Melo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of nurses' work process in different countries. METHOD: We have used the integrative review method and selected 84 publications (articles, theses and dissertations) in national and foreign thesis banks and databases. We analyzed the evidence based on dialectical materialism. RESULTS: The rejection of managerial tasks hides the singularity of nurses' work, due to the failure to understand the inseparable nature of managerial and healthcare tasks, given that it is what provides the expertise to coordinate the nursing work process and guide the healthcare work processes...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405831/do-attentional-capacities-and-processing-speed-mediate-the-effect-of-age-on-executive-functioning
#15
Jessica Gilsoul, Jessica Simon, Michaël Hogge, Fabienne Collette
The executive processes are well known to decline with age, and similar data also exists for attentional capacities and processing speed. Therefore, we investigated whether these two last nonexecutive variables would mediate the effect of age on executive functions (inhibition, shifting, updating, and dual-task coordination). We administered a large battery of executive, attentional and processing speed tasks to 104 young and 71 older people, and we performed mediation analyses with variables showing a significant age effect...
February 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403062/the-influence-of-spatial-frequency-content-on-facial-expression-processing-an-erp-study-using-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#16
Jinhua Tian, Jian Wang, Tao Xia, Wenshuang Zhao, Qianru Xu, Weiqi He
Spatial frequency (SF) contents have been shown to play an important role in emotion perception. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the time course of neural dynamics involved in the processing of facial expression conveying specific SF information. Participants completed a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, in which SF-filtered happy, fearful, and neutral faces were presented. The face-sensitive N170 component distinguished emotional (happy and fearful) faces from neutral faces in a low spatial frequency (LSF) condition, while only happy faces were distinguished from neutral faces in a high spatial frequency (HSF) condition...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399604/cognitive-motivational-interactions-beyond-boxes-and-arrows-models-of-the-mind-brain
#17
Luiz Pessoa
How do motivation and cognitive control interact in brain and behavior? The past decade has witnessed a steady growth in studies investigating both the behavioral and the brain basis of these interactions. In this paper, I describe such interactions in the context of the dual completion model, which proposes that motivational significance influences both perceptual and executive competition. Embracing a research agenda that attempts to understand cognition-motivation interactions highlights considerable challenges faced by investigators...
September 2017: Motivation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397191/modulation-of-intra-and-inter-hemispheric-connectivity-between-primary-and-premotor-cortex-during-speech-perception
#18
Helen E Nuttall, Dan Kennedy-Higgins, Joseph T Devlin, Patti Adank
Primary motor (M1) areas for speech production activate during speechperception. It has been suggested that such activation may be dependent upon modulatory inputs from premotor cortex (PMv). If and how PMv differentially modulates M1 activity during perception of speech that is easy or challenging to understand, however, is unclear. This study aimed to test the link between PMv and M1 during challenging speech perception in two experiments. The first experiment investigated intra-hemispheric connectivity between left hemisphere PMv and left M1 lip area during comprehension of speech under clear and distorted listening conditions...
January 31, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391243/incentives-facilitate-developmental-improvement-in-inhibitory-control-by-modulating-control-related-networks
#19
Michael N Hallquist, Charles F Geier, Beatriz Luna
Adolescence is a period of heightened sensitivity to incentives and relatively weak cognitive control, which may contribute to risky behaviors. Studies of brain activity have generally identified greater activation of the ventral striatum to rewards and less activation of prefrontal regions during control tasks in adolescents compared to adults. Little is known, however, about age-related changes in the functional brain networks underlying incentive processing and cognitive control. This cross-sectional study characterized the effects of incentives on inhibitory control during an oculomotor task using whole-brain functional connectivity analyses...
January 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383659/an-electrophysiological-study-of-cognitive-and-emotion-processing-in-type-i-chiari-malformation
#20
James R Houston, Michelle L Hughes, Mei-Ching Lien, Bryn A Martin, Francis Loth, Mark G Luciano, Sarel Vorster, Philip A Allen
Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the cervical spinal subarachnoid space resulting in cervico-medullary compression. Early case-control investigations have indicated cognitive deficits in the areas of attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial function. The present study further examined cognitive and emotional processing deficits associated with CMI using a dual-task paradigm. Nineteen CMI patients were recruited during pre-surgical consultation and 19 matched control participants identified emotional expressions in separate single and asynchronous dual-task designs...
January 30, 2018: Cerebellum
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