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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428836/muscle-function-and-fatigability-of-trunk-flexors-in-males-and-females
#1
Rita E Deering, Jonathon W Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A Neumann, Sandra K Hunter
BACKGROUND: Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and back extensor muscles, but it is unknown if sex differences exist for the abdominal muscles despite their functional importance. METHODS: Eighteen females (24.3 ± 4.8 years) and 15 males (24.1 ± 6.6 years) performed (1) isometric trunk flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in a range of trunk positions to establish a torque-angle curve and (2) submaximal (50% MVC), intermittent isometric contraction (6 s on, 4 s off) until task failure to determine fatigability of the trunk flexor muscles...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428002/performance-during-competition-and-competition-outcome-in-relation-to-testosterone-and-cortisol-among-women
#2
Andrea Henry, Jason R Sattizahn, Greg J Norman, Sian L Beilock, Dario Maestripieri
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. This study investigated the relation between competition, testosterone (T), and cortisol (C) in women. One hundred and twenty female participants competed against a male confederate in a computerized laboratory task. The task was preprogrammed so that half the women won and half of the women lost the competition. T and C concentrations were measured in saliva samples collected at four time points before and after the competition. Accuracy and reaction time during the competition were recorded...
April 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427694/gait-pattern-in-patients-with-different-multiple-sclerosis-phenotypes
#3
Irena Dujmovic, Sasa Radovanovic, Vanja Martinovic, Jelena Dackovic, Gorica Maric, Sarlota Mesaros, Tatjana Pekmezovic, Vladimir Kostic, Jelena Drulovic
BACKGROUND: Gait pattern is frequently impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS), however gait characteristics in patients with different MS phenotypes have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed spatio-temporal gait pattern characteristics in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR, n=52) and primary-progressive (PP, n=18) MS in comparison with age-matched healthy controls (HC, n=40). All subjects performed a standardized simple walking task, a dual motor- motor task, a dual motor-mental task, and a triple combined motor-mental task at a GAITRite electronic walkway of 5...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421910/multi-step-treatment-for-acquired-alexia-and-agraphia-part-ii-a-dual-route-error-scoring-system
#4
Katrina Ross, Jeffrey P Johnson, Swathi Kiran
Dual-route neuropsychological models posit two distinct but interrelated pathways for reading and writing: the lexical and the sublexical. Individuals with reading/writing deficits often rely on the combined power of the integrated system to perform print-processing tasks. The resultant errors reflect varying degrees of lexical and sublexical accuracy in a single production; however, no system presently exists to analyze errors robustly in both routes. The goal of this project was to develop a system that simultaneously, quantitatively, and qualitatively captures changes in lexical and sublexical errors following treatment...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421180/usability-evaluations-of-a-wearable-inertial-sensing-system-and-quality-of-movement-metrics-for-stroke-survivors-by-care-professionals
#5
Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jeremia P Held, Jasper Reenalda, Fokke B van Meulen, Peter H Veltink, Hermie J Hermens
BACKGROUND: Inertial motion capture systems are used in many applications such as measuring the movement quality in stroke survivors. The absence of clinical effectiveness and usability evidence in these assistive technologies into rehabilitation has delayed the transition of research into clinical practice. Recently, a new inertial motion capture system was developed in a project, called INTERACTION, to objectively measure the quality of movement (QoM) in stroke survivors during daily-life activity...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421179/synergy-based-bilateral-port-a-universal-control-module-for-tele-manipulation-frameworks-using-asymmetric-master-slave-systems
#6
Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Giorgio Grioli, Nikos Tsagarakis
Endowing tele-manipulation frameworks with the capability to accommodate a variety of robotic hands is key to achieving high performances through permitting to flexibly interchange the end-effector according to the task considered. This requires the development of control policies that not only cope with asymmetric master-slave systems but also whose high-level components are designed in a unified space in abstraction from the devices specifics. To address this dual challenge, a novel synergy port is developed that resolves the kinematic, sensing, and actuation asymmetries of the considered system through generating motion and force feedback references in the hardware-independent hand postural synergy space...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421018/the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task-the-role-of-experienced-fluency-and-strength-of-representation
#7
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is an important paradigm to study the properties of unconscious learning processes. One specifically interesting and still controversially discussed topic are the conditions under which unconsciously acquired knowledge becomes conscious knowledge. The different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms can contrastively be separated into two accounts: single system views in which the strengthening of associative weights throughout training gradually turns implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and dual system views in which implicit knowledge itself does not become conscious...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420979/evidence-for-a-selectively-regulated-prioritization-shift-depending-on-walking-situations-in-older-adults
#8
Dina Salkovic, Markus A Hobert, Carolin Bellut, Florian Funer, Sarah Renno, Linda Haertner, Sandra E Hasmann, Jana Staebler, Johanna Geritz, Ulrike Suenkel, Andreas J Fallgatter, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from the first follow-up visit of the TREND (Tuebinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders) study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419851/an-emergent-functional-parcellation-of-the-temporal-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca L Jackson, Claude J Bajada, Grace E Rice, Lauren L Cloutman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The temporal lobe has been associated with various cognitive functions which include memory, auditory cognition and semantics. However, at a higher level of conceptualisation, all of the functions associated with the temporal lobe can be considered as lying along one major axis; from modality-specific to modality-general processing. This paper used a spectral reordering technique on resting-state and task-based functional data to extract the major organisational axis of the temporal lobe in a bottom-up, data-driven fashion...
April 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414497/dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-consequences-while-walking
#10
Robert D Salazar, Xiaolin Ren, Terry D Ellis, Noor Toraif, Olivier J Barthelemy, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and exacerbate the functional limitations imposed by PD's hallmark motor symptoms, including impairments in walking. Though much research has addressed the effect of dual cognitive-locomotor tasks on walking, less is known about their effect on cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gait and executive function, with the hypothesis that dual tasking would exacerbate cognitive vulnerabilities in PD as well as being associated with gait disturbances...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414092/numbers-and-functional-lateralization-a-visual-half-field-and-dichotic-listening-study-in-proficient-bilinguals
#11
Michal Klichowski, Gregory Króliczak
Potential links between language and numbers and the laterality of symbolic number representations in the brain are still debated. Furthermore, reports on bilingual individuals indicate that the language-number interrelationships might be quite complex. Therefore, we carried out a visual half-field (VHF) and dichotic listening (DL) study with action words and different forms of symbolic numbers used as stimuli to test the laterality of word and number processing in single-, dual-language and mixed -task and language- contexts...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413999/improving-sensitivity-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-cognitive-load-dual-task-gait-speed-assessment
#12
Rebecca K MacAulay, Mark T Wagner, Dana Szeles, Nicholas J Milano
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412140/chronic-sleep-restriction-promotes-brain-inflammation-and-synapse-loss-and-potentiates-memory-impairment-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-in-mice
#13
Grasielle C Kincheski, Isabela S Valentim, Julia R Clarke, Danielle Cozachenco, Morgana T L Castelo-Branco, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Vivian M B D Rumjanek, José Donato, Fernanda G De Felice, Sergio T Ferreira
It is increasingly recognized that sleep disturbances and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share a bidirectional relationship. AD patients exhibit sleep problems and alterations in the regulation of circadian rhythms; conversely, poor quality of sleep increases the risk of development of AD. The aim of the current study was to determine whether chronic sleep restriction potentiates the brain impact of amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), toxins that build up in AD brains and are thought to underlie synapse damage and memory impairment...
April 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411444/continuous-and-difficult-discrete-cognitive-tasks-promote-improved-stability-in-older-adults
#14
Yves Lajoie, Deborah A Jehu, Natalie Richer, Alan Chan
Directing attention away from postural control and onto a cognitive task affords the emergence of automatic control processes. Perhaps the continuous withdrawal of attention from the postural task facilitates an automatization of posture as opposed to only intermittent withdrawal; however this is unknown in the aging population. Twenty older adults (69.9±3.5years) stood with feet together on a force platform for 60s while performing randomly assigned discrete and continuous cognitive tasks. Participants were instructed to stand comfortably with their arms by their sides while verbally responding to the auditory stimuli as fast as possible during the discrete tasks, or mentally performing the continuous cognitive tasks...
April 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410383/shared-processing-in-multiple-object-tracking-and-visual-working-memory-in-the-absence-of-response-order-and-task-order-confounds
#15
Mark D Lapierre, Simon J Cropper, Piers D L Howe
To understand how the visual system represents multiple moving objects and how those representations contribute to tracking, it is essential that we understand how the processes of attention and working memory interact. In the work described here we present an investigation of that interaction via a series of tracking and working memory dual-task experiments. Previously, it has been argued that tracking is resistant to disruption by a concurrent working memory task and that any apparent disruption is in fact due to observers making a response to the working memory task, rather than due to competition for shared resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409657/estimates-of-functional-cerebral-hemispheric-differences-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-people-who-stutter-dual-task-paradigm
#16
Myriam Kornisch, Michael P Robb, Richard D Jones
The inter-relationship of stuttering and bilingualism to functional cerebral hemispheric processing was examined on a dual-task paradigm. Eighty native German (L1) speakers, half of whom were sequential bilinguals (L2 = English), were recruited. The participants (mean age = 38.9 years) were organised into four different groups according to speech status and language ability: 20 bilinguals who stutter (BWS), 20 monolinguals who stutter (MWS), 20 bilinguals who do not stutter (BWNS), and 20 monolinguals who do not stutter (MWNS)...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400727/effects-of-aging-in-multisensory-integration-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Alix L de Dieuleveult, Petra C Siemonsma, Jan B F van Erp, Anne-Marie Brouwer
Multisensory integration (MSI) is the integration by the brain of environmental information acquired through more than one sense. Accurate MSI has been shown to be a key component of successful aging and to be crucial for processes underlying activities of daily living (ADLs). Problems in MSI could prevent older adults (OA) to age in place and live independently. However, there is a need to know how to assess changes in MSI in individuals. This systematic review provides an overview of tests assessing the effect of age on MSI in the healthy elderly population (aged 60 years and older)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394160/free-recall-test-experience-potentiates-strategy-driven-effects-of-value-on-memory
#18
Michael S Cohen, Jesse Rissman, Mariam Hovhannisyan, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton
People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#19
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391116/improving-cognitive-control-in-adolescents-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#20
Susanne Schweizer, Zobair Samimi, Jafar Hasani, Alireza Moradi, Fatemeh Mirdoraghi, Mohammad Khaleghi
The adverse impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the developing mind in adolescence can extend well into adulthood. The developmental malleability of cognitive control capacity in this age group, however, may hold particular promise for cognitive training interventions. The present study investigated the effects of affective working memory (aWMT) compared to placebo-training on cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents with PTSD. 30 treatment-seeking adolescents trained for 20 days on either an affective dual n-back task (aWMT; n = 15) or a feature match task (placebo; n = 15)...
April 2, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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