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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228008/when-is-working-memory-important-for-arithmetic-the-impact-of-strategy-and-age
#1
Lucy Cragg, Sophie Richardson, Paula J Hubber, Sarah Keeble, Camilla Gilmore
Our ability to perform arithmetic relies heavily on working memory, the manipulation and maintenance of information in mind. Previous research has found that in adults, procedural strategies, particularly counting, rely on working memory to a greater extent than retrieval strategies. During childhood there are changes in the types of strategies employed, as well as an increase in the accuracy and efficiency of strategy execution. As such it seems likely that the role of working memory in arithmetic may also change, however children and adults have never been directly compared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222955/brain-comorbidities-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#2
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Frédéric Assal
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aims to compare gait changes after CSF tap test between normal pressure hydrocephalus patients with and without brain comorbidities (respectively NPH+ and NPH); and then identify significant contributors to poor CSF tap test among individuals with NPH+. METHODS: Gait changes (during single and dual task of backward counting) were quantified before and 24 hours after CSF tap test with an optoelectronic system in 52 NPH patients (77...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222763/designing-optimized-production-hosts-by-metabolic-modeling
#3
Christian Jungreuthmayer, Matthias P Gerstl, David A Peña Navarro, Michael Hanscho, David E Ruckerbauer, Jürgen Zanghellini
Many of the complex and expensive production steps in the chemical industry are readily available in living cells. In order to overcome the metabolic limits of these cells, the optimal genetic intervention strategies can be computed by the use of metabolic modeling. Elementary flux mode analysis (EFMA) is an ideal tool for this task, as it does not require defining a cellular objective function. We present two EFMA-based methods to optimize production hosts: (1) the standard approach that can only be used for small and medium scale metabolic networks and (2) the advanced dual system approach that can be utilized to directly compute intervention strategies in a genome-scale metabolic model...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222695/the-effects-of-enhanced-attention-and-working-memory-on-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#4
Jacob L Stubbs, Sherryse L Corrow, Benjamin Kiang, William J Panenka, Jason J S Barton
It has long been suggested that increasing attentional demands can alter smooth pursuit eye movements, but the precise nature of the changes generated is not clear. Our goal was to examine smooth pursuit with a task that enhanced attention to the target and that increased demands on working memory, without distracting from the target. 15 subjects tracked a target moving around a predictable circular trajectory at a constant tangential velocity. An n-back task with two levels of additional working memory load was integrated into the pursuit target to increase cognitive demands...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#5
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215039/semantic-discrimination-impacts-tdcs-modulation-of-verb-processing
#6
Valentina Niccolai, Anne Klepp, Peter Indefrey, Alfons Schnitzler, Katja Biermann-Ruben
Motor cortex activation observed during body-related verb processing hints at simulation accompanying linguistic understanding. By exploiting the up- and down-regulation that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exert on motor cortical excitability, we aimed at further characterizing the functional contribution of the motor system to linguistic processing. In a double-blind sham-controlled within-subjects design, online stimulation was applied to the left hemispheric hand-related motor cortex of 20 healthy subjects...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212319/discriminating-live-and-dead-cells-in-dual-color-mode-with-a-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-based-on-esipt-mechanism
#7
Minggang Tian, Jie Sun, Yonghe Tang, Baoli Dong, Weiying Lin
Discrimination of live and dead cells is an important task in biological, pathological, medical, and pharmaceutical studies. In this work, we have developed a novel fluorescent probe DACA that can discriminate live and dead cells in a dual-color mode for the first time. DACA can stain dead cells with blue fluorescence peaked at 440 nm, while it can also label live cells with orange emission peaked at 570 nm. Compared with one-color fluorescent probes, such a dual-color probe can efficiently avoid false positive results from cellular autofluorescence and misleading signals brought by inhomogeneous staining, and thus can supply more accurate information in biological applications...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209240/different-bilingual-experiences-might-modulate-executive-tasks-advantages-comparative-analysis-between-monolinguals-translators-and-interpreters
#8
Sébastien Henrard, Agnès Van Daele
Many studies have shown that being bilingual presents an advantage in executive control. However, it appears that knowing two (or more) languages is not enough to improve executive control. According to the adaptive control hypothesis (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), the interactional context in which bilinguals behave is a key factor that modulates cognitive advantage in executive control. Translation and simultaneous interpretation are performed in a dual-language context: professional bi- and multilinguals use two or more languages within the same context (at work)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203336/spontaneous-recovery-of-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-functional-deficits-is-not-hindered-by-daily-administration-of-lorazepam
#9
Jeffrey P Cheng, Jacob B Leary, Darik A O'Neil, Elizabeth A Meyer, Kristin E Free, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Agitation and aggression are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pose a challenge to physicians and other health providers during acute patient care and subsequent neurorehabilitation. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are routinely administered to manage TBI patients displaying such maladaptive behaviors despite several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrating that they hinder recovery. A potentially viable alternative to APDs may be the benzodiazepines, which have differing mechanisms of action...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198058/analyzing-gait-variability-and-dual-task-interference-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-by-means-of-the-word-color-stroop-test
#10
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Aline S Pagnussat, Giulia di Prisco, Alessandro Vagnini, Fabrizio Stocchi, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Manuela Galli
The ability to carry out two tasks at once is critical to effective functioning in the real world and deficits are termed Dual-task interference or effect-DTE. DTE substantially compromised the gait of subjects with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait (PD + FOG), leading to exaggerated slowing, increasing gait dysrhythmicity, and inducing FOG episodes. This study aimed to investigate the DTE in gait variability of subjects with PD and freezing of gait (PD + FOG). Thirty-three patients with PD + FOG and 14 healthy individuals (REFERENCE) took part at this study...
December 2, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196834/motor-cognitive-dual-task-performance-effects-of-a-concurrent-motor-task-on-distinct-components-of-visual-processing-capacity
#11
E C S Künstler, K Finke, A Günther, C Klingner, O Witte, P Bublak
Dual tasking, or the simultaneous execution of two continuous tasks, is frequently associated with a performance decline that can be explained within a capacity sharing framework. In this study, we assessed the effects of a concurrent motor task on the efficiency of visual information uptake based on the 'theory of visual attention' (TVA). TVA provides parameter estimates reflecting distinct components of visual processing capacity: perceptual threshold, visual processing speed, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage capacity...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190380/relationship-centered-health-care-as-a-lean-intervention
#12
Jennifer Dunsford, Laura E Reimer
Continuous improvement efforts, recognized in much literature as Lean management techniques have been used in efforts to improve efficiency in democratic health care contexts for some time to varying degrees of success. The complexity of the health care system is magnified by the sheer number of processes and sub processes required to deliver value within a bureaucratic environment, while maintaining some level of compassionate and personalized care. There is inherent tension between what is required to be efficient and what is required to be caring and this conflict presses against Lean practice at the level of delivery...
November 28, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188857/assessing-the-relationship-between-vitamin-d-status-and-impairments-in-cognitive-and-physical-performance-in-older-adults-using-a-dual-task-physical-performance-test
#13
J Lopez, A Campa, J E Lewis, F G Huffman, J P Liuzzi, T Li, A H Martinez, S M Ferris, A Rasul, A Farooqi, A M Lopez Medrano, S E Atlas, E Tiozzo, J Konefal, J M Woolger
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184311/dual-task-training-effects-on-balance-and-hand-functions-of-stroke-patients
#14
JuHyung Park
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of the dual task training on the hand function and the balance ability of the stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The dual task training was applied to 2 stroke hemiplegia patients. The dual task training had been carried out for 30 minutes by each session for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. The evaluations had been carried out 5 times for 3 weeks before and after the intervention. And the changes of the hand function had been measured by using the box and block test...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184310/effects-of-single-and-dual-tasks-during-walking-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-of-community-dwelling-older
#15
Kyeongjin Lee
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of single and dual motor tasks on walking in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Data of 308 community-dwelling elderly people were analyzed. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained using the OPTO Gait system. The gait ability test was conducted under single- and dual-task conditions. [Results] Age and task main effects showed significant difference. Interaction did not show any significant difference. [Conclusion] Our results showed that gait performance decreased during dual task compared to single task...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182460/balance-and-mobility-training-with-or-without-simultaneous-cognitive-training-reduces-attention-demand-but-does-not-improve-obstacle-clearance-in-older-adults
#16
Deborah A M Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or control group (n = 13; age: 66...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180106/the-influence-of-endogenous-attention-on-contrast-perception-contrast-discrimination-and-saccadic-reaction-time
#17
Madhumitha S Mahadevan, Harold E Bedell, Scott B Stevenson
Visual spatial attention has been shown to influence both contrast detection and suprathreshold contrast perception, as well as manual and saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Because SRTs are influenced also by stimulus contrast, we investigated if the enhancement of perceived contrast that accompanies attention could account for the shorter SRTs observed for attended targets locations. We conducted two dual-task experiments to assess psychophysical and oculomotor responses to non-foveal targets of various contrast for different spatial-attention-cueing conditions...
November 24, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177817/modulation-of-dual-task-control-with-right-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#18
Tilo Strobach, Daria Antonenko, Maral Abbarin, Malvin Escher, Agnes Flöel, Torsten Schubert
Executive functioning of two simultaneous component tasks in dual-task situations is primarily associated with activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), as demonstrated in functional imaging studies. However, the precise role of the lateral PFC and the causal relation between this area's activity and executive functioning in dual tasks has exclusively been demonstrated for the left lateral PFC so far. To investigate this relation for the right lateral PFC, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS; 1 mA, 20 min) in contrast to sham stimulation (1 mA, 30 s) in Experiment 1 (N = 30) as well as cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS; 1 mA, 20 min) in contrast to sham stimulation (1 mA, 30 s) in Experiment 2 (N = 25) over the right inferior frontal junction under conditions of random task order in dual tasks; random dual tasks require decisions on task order and thus high demands on executive functioning...
November 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176947/cortical-contribution-to-linear-non-linear-and-frequency-components-of-motor-variability-control-during-standing
#19
Niklas König Ignasiak, Lars Habermacher, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176675/strategic-inhibition-of-distractors-with-visual-working-memory-contents-after-involuntary-attention-capture
#20
Jiachen Lu, Lili Tian, Jiafeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu
Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding effect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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