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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055270/executive-functioning-concern-about-falling-and-quadriceps-strength-mediate-the-relationship-between-impaired-gait-adaptability-and-fall-risk-in-older-people
#1
Maria Joana D Caetano, Stephen R Lord, Matthew A Brodie, Daniel Schoene, Paulo H S Pelicioni, Daina L Sturnieks, Jasmine C Menant
BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. METHODS: Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment...
October 16, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054392/impairment-of-manual-but-not-saccadic-response-inhibition-following-acute-alcohol-intoxication
#2
Anne Eileen Campbell, Christopher D Chambers, Christopher P G Allen, Craig Hedge, Petroc Sumner
BACKGROUND: Alcohol impairs response inhibition; however, it remains contested whether such impairments affect a general inhibition system, or whether affected inhibition systems are embedded in, and specific to, each response modality. Further, alcohol-induced impairments have not been disambiguated between proactive and reactive inhibition mechanisms, and nor have the contributions of action-updating impairments to behavioural 'inhibition' deficits been investigated. METHODS: Forty Participants (25 female) completed both a manual and a saccadic stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) task before and after a 0...
September 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054259/enhancing-performance-of-p300-speller-under-mental-workload-by-incorporating-dual-task-data-during-classifier-training
#3
Yuqian Chen, Yufeng Ke, Guifang Meng, Jin Jiang, Hongzhi Qi, Xuejun Jiao, Minpeng Xu, Peng Zhou, Feng He, Dong Ming
As one of the most important brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms, P300-Speller was shown to be significantly impaired once applied in practical situations due to effects of mental workload. This study aims to provide a new method of building training models to enhance performance of P300-Speller under mental workload. Three experiment conditions based on row-column P300-Speller paradigm were performed including speller-only, 3-back-speller and mental-arithmetic-speller. Data under dual-task conditions were introduced to speller-only data respectively to build new training models...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052758/effects-of-trying-not-to-move-instruction-on-cortical-load-and-concurrent-cognitive-performance
#4
Christine Langhanns, Hermann Müller
Motor and cognitive tasks often interfere when performed concurrently. The amount of interference typically scales with difficulty of the tasks involved. Thus, supposedly 'easy' motor tasks with restricted movement amplitude, like sitting on a chair, should show little or no interference with cognitive tasks at all. We measured the processing load induced by different postural tasks and their effect on cognitive performance under cognitive-motor dual-task conditions. Sixteen subjects performed postural motor tasks in three different positions: 'Lying in a sun lounger', 'Sitting on a bike saddle', and 'Upright on feet'...
October 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050368/striatal-dysfunction-during-dual-task-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Peter T Bell, Moran Gilat, James M Shine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049888/closing-in-behavior-compensation-or-attraction
#6
Elisabetta Ambron, Nicoletta Beschin, Chiara Cerrone, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions...
October 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049479/dual-task-gait-and-incident-dementia-a-step-forward-but-not-there-yet-reply
#7
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Richard Camicioli, Susan W Muir-Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049450/dual-task-gait-and-incident-dementia-a-step-forward-but-not-there-yet
#8
Sirwan K L Darweesh, Vincentius J A Verlinden, M Arfan Ikram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047031/the-effect-of-phasic-alertness-on-temporal-precision
#9
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
Many previous studies have found that there is a close relationship between attention and temporal precision. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, alertness has beneficial influences on perceptual processing. However, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alertness affects temporal precision. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 used visual and auditory warning cues in a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task to investigate the phasic alerting effect on temporal precision...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045581/2017-esc-focused-update-on-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-coronary-artery-disease-developed-in-collaboration-with-eacts-the-task-force-for-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-coronary-artery-disease-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-and-of-the-european-association
#10
Marco Valgimigli, Héctor Bueno, Robert A Byrne, Jean-Philippe Collet, Francesco Costa, Anders Jeppsson, Peter Jüni, Adnan Kastrati, Philippe Kolh, Laura Mauri, Gilles Montalescot, Franz-Josef Neumann, Mate Petricevic, Marco Roffi, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Stephan Windecker, Jose Luis Zamorano, Glenn N Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042636/dysfunctional-early-processing-of-facial-expressions-in-hazardous-drinkers-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#11
Hui Zhang, Yi Jin, John S Y Chan, Feng-Chi Yang, Fang Cui
Chronic alcohol intoxication impairs multiple cognitive functions. According to the dual system model (DSM), the development of alcohol dependence (AD) involves the imbalance between the automatic-affective system and the reflective system. However, the cognitive functions of non-AD hazardous drinkers (HDs) remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore how the HDs process facial expressions differently from the healthy subjects. Sixteen HDs and seventeen control subjects (CSs) completed an emotional working memory (WM) task while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040780/fear-boosts-the-early-neural-coding-of-faces
#12
Maria Teresa Turano, Junpeng Lao, Anne-Raphaëlle Richoz, Peter de Lissa, Sarah Belinda Aimée Degosciu, Maria Pia Viggiano, Roberto Caldara
The rapid extraction of facial identity and emotional expressions is critical for adapted social interactions. These biologically relevant abilities have been associated with early neural responses on the face sensitive N170 component. However, whether all facial expressions uniformly modulate the N170, and whether this effect occurs only when emotion categorization is task-relevant, is still unclear. To clarify this issue, we recorded high-resolution electrophysiological signals while 22 observers perceived the six basic expressions plus neutral...
October 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038006/role-of-ca1-gabaa-and-gabab-receptors-on-learning-deficit-induced-by-d-ap5-in-passive-avoidance-step-through-task
#13
Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Masoumeh Rostampour, Mehdi Jamshidi-Mehr, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
To investigate the interaction between hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid GABAA receptor (GABAAR) or GABAB receptor (GABABR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the acquisition of passive avoidance memory in rats, we used GABAA or GABAB agents, D-AP5 (as a NMDAR antagonist), and a combination of the mentioned drugs in a step-through task. All agents were microinjected into the intra-CA1 regions at a volume of 1 µl/rat, prior to training. GABAAR agonist muscimol (0.2 µg/rat), selective GABABR agonist baclofen (0...
October 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037639/reliability-of-kinematic-measures-in-subjects-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-during-dual-task-walking
#14
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
OBJECTIVE: To define the throughout within- and between-day reliability of gait parameters in single - and dual-task conditions in subjects with and without anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). METHODS: Fourteen subjects with ACLD and 14 healthy subjects completed a walking task on a treadmill with three levels of velocity (self-selected, high and low), with or without performing an auditory Stroop task over two sessions each 3-5 days apart. The gait kinematic parameters, including maximum and minimum hip flexion, total hip range of motion, maximum and minimum knee flexion and total knee range of motion were recorded using a motion analysis system...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036758/comparison-of-single-task-versus-dual-task-for-listening-effort
#15
Chanbeom Kwak, Woojae Han
Background and Objectives: Depending on the kind of task and/or material, listeners sometimes need to pay attention to understand communication. The present study aimed to estimate a listener's amount of effort needed to understand communication by using recognition score and response time as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to confirm his/ her task dependency for listening effort. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight young adults with normal hearing participated in the study...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032699/a-patient-with-aphasia-using-the-nonsemantic-lexical-route-for-kanji-reading
#16
Kosei Hashimoto, Akira Uno, Ami Sambai, Go Mizumoto
We report a patient with aphasia, caused by cerebral hemorrhage, who probably used the nonsemantic lexical route when reading words aloud. To investigate the mechanisms underlying her reading dysfunction, we analyzed her reading abilities using the Dual-Route Cascaded Model. Language tests resulted in low correct percentages for both reading comprehension and reading nonwords aloud, suggesting problems in the semantic system and the nonlexical route. Conversely, the patient showed high scores on the reading words aloud task...
October 16, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032000/everyday-multitasking-habits-university-students-seamlessly-text-and-walk-on-a-split-belt-treadmill
#17
Dorelle Clare Hinton, Yeu-Yao Cheng, Caroline Paquette
With increasing numbers of adults owning a cell phone, walking while texting has become common in daily life. Previous research has shown that walking is not entirely automated and when challenged with a secondary task, normal walking patterns are disrupted. This study investigated the effects of texting on the walking patterns of healthy young adults while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Following full adaptation to the split-belt treadmill, thirteen healthy adults (23±3years) walked on a tied-belt and split-belt treadmill, both with and without a simultaneous texting task...
October 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030759/localizing-semantic-interference-from-distractor-sounds-in-picture-naming-a-dual-task-study
#18
Andreas Mädebach, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
In this study we explored the locus of semantic interference in a novel picture-sound interference task in which participants name pictures while ignoring environmental distractor sounds. In a previous study using this task (Mädebach, Wöhner, Kieseler, & Jescheniak, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 1629-1646, 2017), we showed that semantically related distractor sounds (e.g., BARKINGdog) interfere with a picture-naming response (e.g., "horse") more strongly than unrelated distractor sounds do (e...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023456/gait-parameters-are-differently-affected-by-concurrent-smartphone-based-activities-with-scaled-levels-of-cognitive-effort
#19
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023271/dual-task-tandem-gait-and-average-walking-speed-in-healthy-collegiate-athletes
#20
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, William P Meehan, Melissa S DiFabio, Thomas A Buckley
OBJECTIVES: To (1) examine the association between a commonly used concussion test, tandem gait, in single/dual-task conditions with single-task and dual-task average walking speed, (2) characterize the prevalence of tandem gait false positives, and (3) develop a normative reference range of dual-task tandem gait times. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two NCAA collegiate athletic facilities. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Athletes completed the tandem gait test and a gait evaluation in single/dual-task conditions during a preseason examination...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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