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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690650/development-and-hybrid-position-force-control-of-a-dual-drive-macro-fiber-composite-microgripper
#1
Jin Zhang, Yiling Yang, Junqiang Lou, Yanding Wei, Lei Fu
This paper reports on the development, implementation and hybrid control of a new micro-fiber-composite microgripper with synchronous position and force control capabilities. In particular, the micro-fiber-composite actuator was composed of rectangular piezoelectric fibers covered by interdigitated electrodes and embedded in structural epoxy. Thus, the micro-fiber-composite microgripper had a larger displacement-volume ratio (i.e., the ratio of the output displacement to the volume of the microgripper) than that of a traditional piezoelectric one...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690496/dual-task-elderly-gait-of-prospective-fallers-and-non-fallers-a-wearable-sensor-based-analysis
#2
Jennifer Howcroft, Edward D Lemaire, Jonathan Kofman, William E McIlroy
Wearable sensors could facilitate point of care, clinically feasible assessments of dynamic stability and associated fall risk through an assessment of single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) walking. This study investigated gait changes between ST and DT walking and between older adult prospective fallers and non-fallers. The results were compared to a study based on retrospective fall occurrence. Seventy-five individuals (75.2 ± 6.6 years; 47 non-fallers, 28 fallers; 6 month prospective fall occurrence) walked 7...
April 21, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689184/development-and-pilot-testing-of-the-dual-task-screen-in-healthy-adolescents
#3
Jaclyn Stephens, Rachel Nicholson, Beth Slomine, Stacy Suskauer
Athletes with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) should refrain from high-risk activities until recovered (symptom free and cognitive and physical exam findings normalize). Studies have suggested that this examination may not be sufficiently sensitive because dual-task paradigms, which typically assess motor performance while a person simultaneously completes a distractor task, can detect residual deficits in athletes who otherwise appear recovered from mTBI. Paradigms used to date are time-intensive procedures conducted in laboratory settings...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688118/a-test-retest-assessment-of-the-effects-of-mental-load-on-ratings-of-affect-arousal-and-perceived-exertion-during-submaximal-cycling
#4
Jesús Vera, José C Perales, Raimundo Jiménez, David Cárdenas
This study aimed to test the effects of mental (i.e. executive) load during a dual physical-mental task on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affective valence, and arousal. The protocol included two dual tasks with matched physical demands but different executive demands (2-back and oddball), carried out on different days. The procedure was run twice to assess the sensitivity and stability of RPE, valence and arousal across the two trials. Linear mixed-effects analyses showed less positive valence (-0.44 points on average in a 1-9 scale; Rβ 2  = 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687355/the-detrimental-influence-of-attention-on-time-to-contact-perception
#5
Robin Baurès, Marianne Balestra, Maxime Rosito, Rufin VanRullen
To which extent is attention necessary to estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) of a moving object, that is, determining when the object will reach a specific point? While numerous studies have aimed at determining the visual cues and gaze strategy that allow this estimation, little is known about if and how attention is involved or required in this process. To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which the participants estimated the TTC of a moving ball, either alone (single-task condition) or concurrently with a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation task embedded within the ball (dual-task condition)...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684752/dynamic-semantic-cognition-characterising-coherent-and-controlled-conceptual-retrieval-through-time-using-magnetoencephalography-and-chronometric-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#6
Catarina Teige, Giovanna Mollo, Rebecca Millman, Nicola Savill, Jonathan Smallwood, Piers L Cornelissen, Elizabeth Jefferies
Distinct neural processes are thought to support the retrieval of semantic information that is (i) coherent with strongly-encoded aspects of knowledge, and (ii) non-dominant yet relevant for the current task or context. While the brain regions that support readily coherent and more controlled patterns of semantic retrieval are relatively well-characterised, the temporal dynamics of these processes are not well-understood. This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and dual-pulse chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTMS) in two separate experiments to examine temporal dynamics during the retrieval of strong and weak associations...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684527/co-delivery-of-docetaxel-and-gemcitabine-using-pegylated-self-assembled-stealth-nanoparticles-for-improved-breast-cancer-therapy
#7
Varun Kushwah, Sameer S Katiyar, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Ramesh C Gupta, Sanyog Jain
The present report deals with conjugation of dual drug; docetaxel (DTX) and gemcitabine (GEM) with linker poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) to develop amphiphilic molecule having self-assembled property. The synthesized conjugate (DTX-PEG-GEM) demonstrated critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range of 5-10μg/ml which self-assembled to form NPs with size 124.2±5.7. Remarkably higher coumarin-6 (C-6) fluorescence signals observed in case of C-6 loaded NPs, suggested enhanced cellular uptake via clathrin mediated endocytosis...
April 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683918/detection-of-persisting-concussion-effects-on-neuromechanical-responsiveness
#8
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin C Nabhan, Chad J Prusmack, William J Moreau
PURPOSE: Assessment of various indices of neuromechanical responsiveness for association with concussion history. METHODS: An observational cohort study included 48 elite athletes (34 males: 23.8 ±4.4 years; 14 females: 25.4 ±4.5 years) who performed visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) tests involving rapid manual contact with illuminated target buttons that included 2 dual-task conditions: 1) simultaneous oral recitation of scrolling text (VMRT+ST) and 2) simultaneous verbal responses to identify the right or left direction indicated by the center arrow of the Eriksen flanker test (VMRT+FT)...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683705/the-motor-locus-of-no-go-backward-crosstalk
#9
Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
A frequent observation in dual-task studies is the backward crosstalk effect (BCE), meaning that aspects of a secondary Task 2 influence Task 1 performance. Up to this point, 2 major types of the BCE were investigated: a BCE based on dimensional overlap between both stimuli and/or responses (the compatibility-based BCE), and a BCE based on whether Task 2 is a go or no-go task (the no-go BCE). Recent evidence suggests that the compatibility-based BCE has its locus inside the response selection stage. The available evidence for the locus of the no-go BCE is still mixed, however...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680251/preparatory-brain-activity-in-dual-tasking
#10
Robert Steinhauser, Marco Steinhauser
Task preparation in dual-tasking is more complex than preparation for single tasks and involves additional factors such as task prioritization. Utilizing event-related potentials, we sought to disentangle preparatory processes involving preparation on the subtask level and the superordinate dual-task level. Participants worked on a psychological refractory period paradigm in which two temporally overlapping tasks have to be completed in a specified order. Whereas dual-task-related preparation was measured by comparing task-order switches and repetitions, subtask preparation was isolated through error precursors for the individual subtasks...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680203/cognitive-based-interventions-to-improve-mobility-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Uros Marusic, Joe Verghese, Jeannette R Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: A strong relation between cognition and mobility has been identified in aging, supporting a role for enhancement mobility through cognitive-based interventions. However, a critical evaluation of the consistency of treatment effects of cognitive-based interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to review the existing literature on cognitive-based interventions aimed at improving mobility in older adults and (2) to assess the clinical effectiveness of cognitive interventions on gait performance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677308/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#12
Leila C Kahwati, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Huiling Pan, Margaret Gourlay, Erin LeBlanc, Manny Coker-Schwimmer, Meera Viswanathan
Importance: Osteoporotic fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To update the evidence for benefits and harms of vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries through March 21, 2017; references; and experts. Surveillance continued through February 28, 2018...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673837/movements-of-older-adults-during-exergaming-interventions-that-are-associated-with-the-systems-framework-for-postural-control-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Robin Tahmosybayat, Katherine Baker, Alan Godfrey, Nick Caplan, Gill Barry
One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#14
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665760/nintendo-wii%C3%A2-versus-xbox-kinect%C3%A2-for-assisting-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Melissa L M Alves, Beatriz S Mesquita, Wenderson S Morais, Josevan C Leal, Corina E Satler, Felipe A Dos Santos Mendes
This study investigated changes in motor and cognitive skills, anxiety levels, and quality of life perception among patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) following training with different commercial gaming devices-Nintendo Wii™ and Xbox Kinect™. We used a quasi-experimental, simple blinded clinical trial, dividing 27 patients with PD into three equal groups of nine members: (a) Nintendo Wii™, (b) Xbox Kinect™, and (c) control group. After pretests, experimental group participants spent 10 sessions playing four games of the selected gaming device, while control group participants received no intervention...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#16
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663024/neural-motor-control-differs-between-bimanual-common-goal-vs-bimanual-dual-goal-tasks
#17
Wan-Wen Liao, Jill Whitall, Joseph E Barton, Sandy McCombe Waller
Coordinating bimanual movements is essential for everyday activities. Two common types of bimanual tasks are common goal, where two arms share a united goal, and dual goal, which involves independent goals for each arm. Here, we examine how the neural control mechanisms differ between these two types of bimanual tasks. Ten non-disabled individuals performed isometric force tasks of the elbow at 10% of their maximal voluntary force in both bimanual common and dual goals as well as unimanual conditions. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we concurrently examined the intracortical inhibitory modulation (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) as well as the interlimb coordination strategies utilized between common- vs...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660948/the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-response-to-different-daily-demands-among-patients-at-the-sub-acute-phase-post-ischemic-stroke-and-healthy-controls
#19
Noa Raphaely Beer, Nachum Soroker, Nathan M Bornstein, Michal Katz Leurer
BACKGROUND: Autonomic disturbances are a common phenomenon in patients' post-stroke, characterized by hypo function of the para-sympathetic and/or overactive sympathetic system. The impact of autonomic disturbances on physical therapy tasks during the rehabilitation period has not yet been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during different tasks, among patients and age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: 19 patients in the subacute phase post first-ever ischemic stroke, and 16 controls...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660087/older-adults-pay-an-additional-cost-when-texting-and-walking-effects-of-age-environment-and-use-of-mixed-reality-on-dual-task-performance
#20
Tal Krasovsky, Patrice L Weiss, Rachel Kizony
Background: Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
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