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Shinsuke Kato, Masako Kato, Teruo Kusano, Takeshi Nishino
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that involves both upper and lower motor neurons. We orally administered 4 xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitors to G1H-G93A mice carrying 25 transgene copy numbers of human mutant G93A superoxide dismutase 1, from 80 days of age. Three nonpurine-analogue inhibitors (TEI-6720: Febuxostat, Y-700 and FYX-051), but not allopurinol with a purine analogue ring (pyrazolo pyrimidine ring), significantly delayed disease onset, prolonged survival and the duration of disease stages, improved clinical signs, and alleviated weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Ken Okamoto, Teruo Kusano, Takeshi Nishino
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a complex flavoprotein, catalyzes the metabolic reactions leading from hypoxanthine to xanthine and from xanthine to urate, and both reactions take place at the molybdenum cofactor. The enzyme is a target of drugs for therapy of gout or hyperuricemia. We review the chemical nature and reaction mechanisms of the molybdenum cofactor of XOR, focusing on molybdenum-dependent reactions of actual or potential medical importance, including nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It is now generally accepted that XOR transfers the water-exchangeable -OH ligand of the molybdenum atom to the substrate...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Takeo Shimo, Mitsuyoshi Moto, Naoki Ashizawa, Kazuhiko Oba, Osamu Nagata
To clarify the toxicological aspects of crystal-mediated nephrotoxicity, we performed analysis concerning the correlation between representative kidney-related parameters and renal histopathology, using the individual data obtained from the 4-week toxicity studies of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, by oral administration at 1 and 3 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and at 3 and 10 mg/kg to F344 rats. In SD rats, the correlation coefficient on histopathology between the right and left kidneys was 0...
April 2011: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Naoki Ashizawa, Takeo Shimo, Koji Matsumoto, Tetsuya Taniguchi, Mitsuyoshi Moto, Osamu Nagata
As a precedent study for elucidating the mechanism of possible urinary bladder carcinogenesis due to xanthine crystals induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, we have determined the experimental conditions suitable for the 52-week simultaneous treatment with citrate in F344 rats. Simultaneous treatment with citrate and FYX-051 produced both increased urinary citrate excretion and suppression of urinary xanthine deposition at around 4 hours after a single dosing, but these effects disappeared 2 hours later, indicating a lack of the durability of citrate effects...
April 2011: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Koji Matsumoto, Ken Okamoto, Naoki Ashizawa, Takeshi Nishino
4-[5-(Pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]pyridine-2-carbonitrile (FYX-051) is a potent inhibitor of bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). Steady-state kinetics study showed that it initially behaved as a competitive-type inhibitor with a K(i) value of 5.7 × 10(-9) M, then after a few minutes it formed a tight complex with XOR via a Mo-oxygen-carbon atom covalent linkage, as reported previously (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:7931-7936, 2004). Thus, FYX-051 is a hybrid-type inhibitor exhibiting both structure- and mechanism-based inhibition...
January 2011: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Takeo Shimo, Naoki Ashizawa, Mitsuyoshi Moto, Takashi Iwanaga, Osamu Nagata
To clarify the toxicological aspects of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, which is currently being developed as a therapeutic agent against gout and hyperuricemia, we performed the study focused on species differences in FYX-051-induced nephropathy. In the repeated toxicology testing by oral administration, nephropathy was seen at 1 mg/kg and more in rats and at 100 mg/kg in dogs, in contrast to no toxicity even at the practical maximum dose (300 mg/kg) in monkeys. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses of intrarenal deposits in dogs have proven that the entity was xanthine...
May 2011: Archives of Toxicology
Takahiro Sato, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Tsutomu Inoue, Osamu Nagata
Our previous study identified 2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]-5-[5-(2-methyl-4-pyridyl)-1H-[1,2,4] triazol-3-yl]benzonitrile (2)[corrected]as a safe and potent xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Here, we synthesized a series of 3,5-dipyridyl-1,2,4-triazole derivatives and, in particular, examined their in vivo activity in lowering the serum uric acid levels in rats. As a result, we identified 3-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole (FYX-051, compound 39) [corrected] to be one of the most potent XOR inhibitors; it exhibited an extremely potent in vivo activity, weak CYP3A4-inhibitory activity and a better pharmacokinetic profile than compound 2...
November 1, 2009: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Takeo Shimo, Naoki Ashizawa, Mitsuyoshi Moto, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga, Osamu Nagata
The present studies were performed to investigate the possible mechanism of marked species differences on nephropathy found in the long-term toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor. In the twenty-six-week dose toxicity study in the rat, in which FYX-051 was administered by oral gavage at 0.04, 0.2, and 1 mg/kg, xanthine-mediated nephropathy was seen only at 1 mg/kg, despite the presence of xanthine crystals in urine at 0.2 mg/kg and more; however, in the fifty-two-week dose toxicity study in the monkey, in which FYX-051 was administered by oral gavage at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, no toxicities were seen, even at 300 mg/kg...
June 2009: Toxicologic Pathology
Kimiyoshi Ichida
An inhibitor of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), allopurinol, and uricosuric agents, probenecid and benzbromarone, have been used for more than 20 years in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. However, they are inconvenient in some situations. With regard to allopurinol, the dosage reduction is recommended in patients with renal insufficiency for preventing from rare adverse effect, bone marrow depression. Benzbromarone also has quite rare adverse effect, fulminant hepatitis. Recently several new therapies have been developed such as new XDH inhibitors urate transporter (URAT) 1 inhibitor, and a modified recombinant uricase...
April 2008: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Ken Okamoto, Takeshi Nishino
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the reaction of hypoxanthine to xanthine and of xanthine to uric acid. Inhibitors of XOR can thus decrease the concentration of uric acid in serum. Crystal structures of XOR bound with various inhibitors reveal that inhibitors can be categorized into three types, i.e. mechanism-based, structure-based, and hybrid types.
February 2008: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Koichi Omura, Takashi Nakazawa, Takahiro Sato, Takashi Iwanaga, Osamu Nagata
In humans, orally administered 4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl) pyridine-2-carbonitrile (FYX-051) is excreted mainly as triazole N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronides in urine. It is important to determine the enzyme(s) that catalyze the metabolism of a new drug to estimate individual differences and/or drug-drug interactions. Therefore, the characterization and mechanism of these glucuronidations were investigated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), human intestinal microsomes (HIMs), and recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms to determine the UGT isoform(s) responsible for FYX-051 N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation...
December 2007: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Naoki Ashizawa, Takeo Shimo, Koji Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Oba, Takashi Nakazawa, Osamu Nagata
To determine a rat strain appropriate for carcinogenicity testing of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, we performed a 4-week oral toxicity study by administering 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, and 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg of FYX-051 to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Fischer (F344) rats, respectively. Histopathology revealed that the degree of FYX-051-induced nephropathy was 3-fold stronger in SD rats than in F344 rats. Our previous study demonstrated that the key factor of species differences in FYX-051-induced nephropathy is purine metabolism...
December 15, 2006: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Takashi Nakazawa, Kengo Miyata, Koichi Omura, Takashi Iwanaga, Osamu Nagata
FYX-051, 4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile, is a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor that can be used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. We examined the metabolism of FYX-051 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and human volunteers after the p.o. administration of this inhibitor. The main metabolites in urine were pyridine N-oxide in rats, triazole N-glucoside in dogs, and triazole N-glucuronide in monkeys and humans, respectively. Furthermore, N-glucuronidation and N-glucosidation were characterized by two types of conjugation: triazole N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation and N(1)- and N(2)-glucosidation, respectively...
November 2006: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Takeo Shimo, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Nakazawa, Osamu Nagata
The possible mechanism of the underlying nephropathy found in the rat toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, was investigated. Rats received oral treatment of either 1 or 3 mg/kg of FYX-051, with and without citrate for four weeks to elucidate whether nephropathy could be caused by materials deposited in the kidney. Furthermore, analysis of the renal deposits in rats was also performed. Consequently, interstitial nephritis comprising interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, basophilia and epithelial necrosis of renal tubules and collecting ducts, deposits in renal tubules and collecting ducts, and so forth was seen in six of the eight rats and in all eight rats in the 1 and 3 mg/kg FYX-051 alone groups, respectively, with the intensity in the 3 mg/kg group being moderate to severe...
September 2005: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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