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HIV associated nephropathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402929/kidney-disease-and-hiv-infection
#1
REVIEW
Christina M Wyatt
The risk of acute and chronic kidney disease remains higher in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, and kidney disease in HIV-infected persons is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. HIV-associated nephropathy occurs less frequently in the era of antiretroviral therapy. HIV immune complex kidney disease is being diagnosed more frequently, but the term is currently used to refer to a heterogeneous group of kidney diseases. Comorbid chronic kidney disease poses a growing burden in HIV-infected persons due to an overrepresentation of risk factors such as black race, diabetes, hypertension, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus...
February 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397817/tenofovir-and-adefovir-down-regulate-mitochondrial-chaperone-trap1-and-succinate-dehydrogenase-subunit-b-to-metabolically-reprogram-glucose-metabolism-and-induce-nephrotoxicity
#2
Xinbin Zhao, Kun Sun, Zhou Lan, Wenxin Song, Lili Cheng, Wenna Chi, Jing Chen, Yi Huo, Lina Xu, Xiaohui Liu, Haiteng Deng, Julie A Siegenthaler, Ligong Chen
Despite the therapeutic success of tenofovir (TFV) for treatment of HIV-1 infection, numerous cases of nephrotoxicity have been reported. Mitochondrial toxicity has been purported as the major target of TFV-associated renal tubulopathy but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this report, we use metabolomics and proteomics with HK-2 cells and animal models to dissect the molecular pathways underlying nephropathy caused by TFV and its more toxic analog, adefovir (ADV). Proteomic analysis shows that mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1 and mtDNA replicating protein SSBP1 were significantly down-regulated in TFV and ADV treated HK-2 cells compared with controls...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220029/a-novel-inhibitor-of-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-mitigates-kidney-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway
#3
Ruijie Liu, Bhaskar Das, Wenzhen Xiao, Zhengzhe Li, Huilin Li, Kyung Lee, John Cijiang He
Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a critical regulator of multiple profibrotic pathways, including that of TGF-β1/Smad3. Genetic ablation of HIPK2 was shown previously to significantly reduce renal fibrosis in the experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction model and Tg26 mice, a model of HIV-associated nephropathy. To develop specific pharmacologic inhibitors of HIPK2 for antifibrotic therapy, we designed and synthesized small molecule inhibitor compounds on the basis of the predicted structure of HIPK2...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#4
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196049/hiv-infection-in-the-native-and-allograft-kidney-implications-for-management-diagnosis-and-transplantation
#5
Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Christine Rouzioux, Christophe Legendre, Guillaume Canaud
The native kidney is a reservoir for HIV-1 and a site of viral replication, similar to lymphoid tissue, gut-associated lymphoid tissue or semen. The ability of the virus to persist may result from either a true latency or sequestration in an anatomic site that is not effectively exposed to antiretroviral therapy. The presence of HIV in kidney epithelial cells will lead progressively to end-stage renal disease. For decades, HIV-infected patients were excluded from consideration for kidney transplantation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were the only forms of treatment available to these patients...
February 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159470/hedgehog-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-hiv-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-podocyte
#6
Xiqian Lan, Hongxiu Wen, Kang Cheng, Andrei Plagov, Seyedeh Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized by heavy proteinuria, rapidly progressive renal failure, and distinct morphological features in the kidney. HIV-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critically important for the progression of kidney injury. In this study, we tested the role of hedgehog pathway in the HIV-induced EMT and fibrosis of kidney. We used the Tg26 mice, the abundantly used HIVAN mouse model, to investigate the activation of hedgehog pathway by HIV. Western blotting and real time PCR results showed that renal tissue expression of hedgehog pathway related molecules, including hedgehog homologous (Shh, Ihh, Dhh), PTCH, and Gli1, were increased in HIVAN (Tg26) mice; while immunofluorescent staining displayed localization PTCH expression in podocytes...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100445/apol1-variants-may-induce-hiv-associated-nephropathy-during-hiv-primary-infection
#7
Marine De Laroche, Geoffroy Desbuissons, Philippe Rouvier, Francis Barin, Gilbert Deray, Eric Caumes, Christine Katlama, Roland Tubiana, Corinne Isnard Bagnis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069873/hiv-1-infection-of-renal-cells-in-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#8
EDITORIAL
Leslie A Bruggeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994853/hiv-and-kidney-diseases-35-years-of-history-and-consequences
#9
REVIEW
Pedro Campos, Alberto Ortiz, Karina Soto
Kidney diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are often misdiagnosed. Despite reductions in morbidity and mortality owing to widespread use of highly effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still more common in these patients than in the general population, and are associated with poor health outcomes. HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune complex kidney diseases are the more recognizable HIV-related kidney diseases...
December 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932478/most-apol1-is-secreted-by-the-liver
#10
Khuloud Shukha, Jessica L Mueller, Raymond T Chung, Michael P Curry, David J Friedman, Martin R Pollak, Anders H Berg
Two coding sequence variants in the APOL1 gene (G1 and G2) explain much of the increased risk for FSGS, HIV-associated nephropathy, and hypertension-attributed ESRD among people of recent African ancestry. The ApoL1 protein is expressed in a wide variety of cell tissues. It has been assumed that the majority of circulating ApoL1 is produced by the liver, but this has not been shown. Using mass spectrometry, we genotyped and quantified the circulating ApoL1 in two liver transplant recipients whose native APOL1 genotype differed from the genotype of the deceased donors, allowing us to differentiate liver- from nonliver-produced ApoL1...
April 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811066/transmembrane-tnf-%C3%AE-facilitates-hiv-1-infection-of-podocytes-cultured-from-children-with-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#11
Jinliang Li, Jharna R Das, Pingtao Tang, Zhe Han, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Patricio E Ray
Studies have shown that podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) express HIV-1 transcripts, suggesting that productive infection of renal epithelial cells precipitates development of HIVAN. However, podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells do not express CD4 receptors, and it is unclear how these cells become productively infected in vivo We investigated the mechanisms underlying the infection by HIV-1 of podocytes cultured from the urine of children with HIVAN...
March 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736906/refinement-of-the-hivan1-susceptibility-locus-on-chr-3a1-a3-via-generation-of-sub-congenic-strains
#12
Natalia Papeta, Ami Patel, Vivette D D'Agati, Ali G Gharavi
HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background (TgFVB) represent a validated model of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A major susceptibility locus, HIVAN1, was previously mapped to chromosome 3A1-A3 in a cross between TgFVB and CAST/EiJ (CAST) strains, and introgression of a 51.9 Mb segment encompassing HIVAN1 from CAST into TgFVB resulted in accelerated development of nephropathy. We generated three sub-congenic strains carrying CAST alleles in the proximal or distal regions of the HIVAN1 locus (Sub-II, 3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695357/update-on-current-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#13
REVIEW
Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621665/interstitial-nephritis-caused-by-hiv-infection-by-itself-a-case-report
#14
Asako Doi, Kentaro Iwata, Shigeo Hara, Yukihiro Imai, Toshikazu Hasuike, Hiroaki Nishioka
Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599995/impact-of-apol1-polymorphism-and-il-1%C3%AE-priming-in-the-entry-and-persistence-of-hiv-1-in-human-podocytes
#15
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Federica Portale, Paolo Tentorio, Xiqian Lan, Moin A Saleem, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C Singhal, Domenico Mavilio
BACKGROUND: Patients of African ancestry with untreated HIV-1 infection and carrying the G1 or G2 kidney disease risk variants (Vs) at the APOL1 gene have a tenfold higher risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) compared to those with the non-risk wild type (WT) G0 variant. However, the mechanistic contribution of the APOL1 allelic state to kidney injury in HIV-1 infection remains to be elucidated. RESULTS: Non-risk WT APOL1 is associated with lower intracellular levels of HIV-1 in conditionally immortalized human podocytes, while the over expression of G1 or G2 risk Vs significantly increases viral accumulation...
2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576285/-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-in-a-cocaine-consumer-man-with-hiv-infection-and-anca-p-positivity
#16
María C De Paoli, Dino Moretti, Carlos M Scolari Pasinato, Martín G Buncuga
The Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel vasculitis with IgA immune complex deposition. The presentation in adults is rare and severe. Reported cases of HSP in patients infected with HIV are scarce. Neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are commonly found in other systemic vasculitis, but rarely in HSP and even more unusual the perinuclear pattern. Beside small vessel vasculitis, positivity of ANCA can be detected in a number of different pathological conditions in association with infectious processes, including HIV, or cocaine use, and especially the pattern of ANCA-p, associated with drugs, inflammatory bowel or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557072/-patient-from-gambia-with-sonographic-white-kidneys
#17
Eva Aebert, Maike Büttner-Herold, Frederick Pfister, Thomas Mühlbacher, Christoph Berg, Martin Müller, Michael Haap, Ferruh Artunc
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 39-year-old male refugee from Gambia is admitted to the emergency room with fever, body aches and productive cough. INVESTIGATIONS: Laboratory, ultrasound and CT investigations show a sepsis due to Staphylcoccus aureus, a renal failure with the appearance of "snow-white" kidneys on ultrasound and a previously unknown acute HIV-infection. DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: Broad antibiotic treatment and an antiretroviral therapy (adapted to the impaired renal function) as well as hemodialysis are commenced...
August 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477363/ajkd-atlas-of-renal-pathology-hiv-associated-nephropathy%C3%A2-hivan
#18
Agnes B Fogo, Mark A Lusco, Behzad Najafian, Charles E Alpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469157/hiv-associated-renal-disease-an-overview
#19
Nicola Wearne, Ikechi G Okpechi
The cause of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa (SA) was worsened by the denial by key political players that HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). South Africa continues to have the highest rate of HIV world-wide, which has had a huge impact on the development of both chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. Fortunately, there is now an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out program. SA is also dealing with a collision of epidemics of HIV, tuberculosis, and non-communicable disease, particularly hypertension and diabetes...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335373/podocyte-injury-the-role-of-proteinuria-urinary-plasminogen-and-oxidative-stress
#20
Leopoldo Raij, Runxia Tian, Jenny S Wong, John C He, Kirk N Campbell
Podocytes are the key target for injury in proteinuric glomerular diseases that result in podocyte loss, progressive focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), and renal failure. Current evidence suggests that the initiation of podocyte injury and associated proteinuria can be separated from factors that drive and maintain these pathogenic processes leading to FSGS. In nephrotic urine aberrant glomerular filtration of plasminogen (Plg) is activated to the biologically active serine protease plasmin by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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