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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974702/human-intestinal-organoids-express-histo-blood-group-antigens-bind-norovirus-vlps-and-support-limited-norovirus-replication
#1
Dongsheng Zhang, Ming Tan, Weiming Zhong, Ming Xia, Pengwei Huang, Xi Jiang
Through pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology, human intestinal organoids (HIOs) with remarkably similarity to the fetal intestine in cellular composition, architecture, and absorptive/secretory functions have been successfully developed, providing a useful in vitro model system to study the structure and function of human congenital gut and intestinally related diseases. We report here the usefulness of HIOs as a model system to study intestinal carbohydrate expression, virus-host interaction, and replication of human noroviruses (huNoVs)...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945253/lgr6-is-a-stem-cell-marker-in-mouse-skin-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Phillips Y Huang, Eve Kandyba, Arnaud Jabouille, Jonas Sjolund, Atul Kumar, Kyle Halliwill, Melissa McCreery, Reyno DelRosario, Hio Chung Kang, Christine E Wong, Jost Seibler, Vincent Beuger, Maurizio Pellegrino, Adam Sciambi, Dennis J Eastburn, Allan Balmain
The G-protein-coupled receptors LGR4, LGR5 and LGR6 are Wnt signaling mediators, but their functions in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unclear. Using lineage tracing in Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Rosa26-Tomato and Lgr6-EGFP-CreERT2/Rosa26-Tomato reporter mice, we demonstrate that Lgr6, but not Lgr5, acts as an epithelial stem cell marker in SCCs in vivo. We identify, by single-molecule in situ hybridization and cell sorting, rare cells positive for Lgr6 expression in immortalized keratinocytes and show that their frequency increases in advanced SCCs...
September 25, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891224/smv1-an-extremely-stable-thermophilic-virus-platform-for-nanoparticle-trafficking-in-the-mammalian-gi-tract
#3
Kristine B Uldahl, Seth T Walk, Stephen C Olshefsky, Mark J Young, Xu Peng
AIMS: analysis of the stability and safety of Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) during passage through the mammalian GI tract. METHODS AND RESULTS: A major challenge of using nano-vectors to target gut microbiome is their survival during passage through the extremely acidic and proteolytic environment of the mammalian GI tract. Here we investigated the thermo-acidophilic archaeal virus SMV1 as a candidate therapeutic nano-vector for the distal mammalian GI tract microbiome...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875516/an-imide-based-pentacyclic-building-block-for-n-type-organic-semiconductors
#4
Fu-Peng Wu, Hio-Ieng Un, Yongxi Li, Hailiang Hu, Yi Yuan, Bin Yang, Kai Xiao, Wei Chen, Jie-Yu Wang, Zuo-Quan Jiang, Jian Pei, Liang-Sheng Liao
A new electron-deficient unit with fused 5-heterocyclic ring was developed by replacing a cyclopenta-1,3-diene from electron-rich donor indacenodithiophene (IDT) with cyclohepta-4,6-diene-1,3-diimde unit. The imide bridging endows BBI with fixed planar configuration and both low the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) energy levels. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on BBI polymers exhibit electron mobility up to 0.34 cm2 V-1 s-1, which indicates that the BBI is a promising n-type semiconductor for optoelectronics...
September 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866796/the-role-of-family-for-youth-friendships-examining-a-social-anxiety-mechanism
#5
Hio Wa Mak, Gregory M Fosco, Mark E Feinberg
The quality of family relationships and youth friendships are intricately linked. Previous studies have examined different mechanisms of family-peer linkage, but few have examined social anxiety. The present study examined whether parental rejection and family climate predicted changes in youth social anxiety, which in turn predicted changes in friendship quality and loneliness. Possible bidirectional associations also were examined. Data for mothers, fathers, and youth (M age at Time 1 = 11.27; 52.3% were female) from 687 two-parent households over three time points are presented...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864946/tmdim-an-improved-algorithm-for-the-structure-prediction-of-transmembrane-domains-of-bitopic-dimers
#6
Han Cao, Marcus C K Ng, Siti Azma Jusoh, Hio Kuan Tai, Shirley W I Siu
[Formula: see text]-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855280/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-imaging-and-tracking-of-intestinal-organoids-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Kwang Bo Jung, Hana Lee, Ye Seul Son, Ji Hye Lee, Hyun-Soo Cho, Mi-Ok Lee, Jung-Hwa Oh, Jaemin Lee, Seokho Kim, Cho-Rok Jung, Janghwan Kim, Mi-Young Son
Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters (KLF5(mCherry) and ISX(eGFP)). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which monomeric Cherry- or enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time...
August 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819250/oblique-scanning-laser-microscopy-for-simultaneously-volumetric-structural-and-molecular-imaging-using-only-one-raster-scan
#8
Lei Zhang, Amalia Capilla, Weiye Song, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Ji Yi
Multi-modal three dimensional (3D) optical imaging combining both structural sensitivity and molecular specificity is highly desirable in biomedical research. In this paper, we present a method termed oblique scanning laser microscopy (OSLM) to combine optical coherence tomography (OCT), for simultaneously volumetric structural and molecular imaging with cellular resolution in all three dimensions. Conventional 3D laser scanning fluorescence microscopy requires repeated optical sectioning to create z-stacks in depth...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803915/neural-crest-cell-implantation-restores-enteric-nervous-system-function-and-alters-the-gastrointestinal-transcriptome-in-human-tissue-engineered-small-intestine
#9
Christopher R Schlieve, Kathryn L Fowler, Matthew Thornton, Sha Huang, Ibrahim Hajjali, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan Grubbs, Jason R Spence, Tracy C Grikscheit
Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735893/mechanistic-and-kinetic-study-on-the-reaction-of-methylperoxy-radical-with-atomic-iodine
#10
Yunju Zhang, Ruojing Song, Yuxi Sun, Jingyu Sun, Rongshun Wang
Singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces for the CH3O2 with I reaction have been investigated computationally to propose the reaction mechanisms and possible products. Multichannel RRKM theory and transition-state theory have been used to compute the overall and individual rate constants at 200-3000K and 10(-14)-10(14)Torr. On the singlet PES, addition-elimination, substitution and H-abstraction mechanisms are located, and the addition-elimination mechanism is dominant. At 70Torr with N2 as bath gas, IM1(CH3OOI) formed by collisional stabilization is dominated at 200-300K, whereas CH2O and HIO are the major products at the temperatures between 350 and 3000K; The title reaction exhibits the typical falloff behavior...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601313/a-propensity-score-analysis-of-two-methods-of%C3%A2-hepatic-vascular-occlusion-in-hepatectomy
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xin Luo, Lin Chen, Wenhua Liu, Shuilin Dong, Hongping Luo, Bixiang Zhang, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: The key points in hepatectomy are reducing blood loss and preservation of hepatic function. The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative outcomes of partial hepatectomy using two techniques of hepatic vascular inflow occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1817 patients were selected from our multi-institutional hepatectomy database in China and classified into two groups: the hemihepatic inflow occlusion (HIO) group (n = 1693) and the ipsilateral portal vein branch occlusion (IPVBO) group (n = 124)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595162/rotator-cuff-tendinopathy-alters-the-muscle-activity-onset-and-kinematics-of-scapula
#12
Hio Teng Leong, Gabriel Yin-Fat Ng, Shing Chung Chan, Siu Ngor Fu
Athletes with rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy demonstrate an aberrant pattern of scapular motion which might relate to deficits in the scapular muscles. This study aimed to determine whether alteration in scapular kinematics is associated with deficits in the activity onset of scapular muscles. Forty-three male volleyball players (17 asymptomatic and 26 with RC tendinopathy) joined the study. Three-dimensional scapular kinematics was quantified using an acromial marker cluster method. The activity onset of the upper (UT), middle (MT), and lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during arm abduction was assessed with electromyography...
August 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483679/sensitive-and-non-invasive-assessment-of-hepatocellular-iron-using-a-novel-room-temperature-susceptometer
#13
Johannes Mueller, Hanna Raisi, Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, David Simons, Christian Herbert Ziener, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Helmut Karl Seitz, Nina Waldburger, Thomas Longerich, Beate Katharina Straub, Sebastian Mueller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver iron accumulates in various chronic liver diseases where it is an independent factor for survival and carcinogenesis. We tested a novel room-temperature susceptometer (RTS) to non-invasively assess liver iron concentration (LIC). METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-four patients with or without signs of iron overload or liver disease were prospectively enrolled. Thirty-five patients underwent liver biopsy with semiquantitative iron determination (Prussian Blue staining), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, n=33), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, n=15)...
September 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361322/in-vivo-model-of-small-intestine
#14
Maxime M Mahe, Nicole E Brown, Holly M Poling, Michael A Helmrath
The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers new avenues in the generation of organs and opportunities to understand development and diseases. The hPSC-derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs) provide a new tool to gain insights in small intestinal development, physiology, and associated diseases. Herein, we provide a method for orthotropic transplantation of HIOs in immunocompromised mice. This method highlights the specific steps to successful engraftment and provides insight into the study of bioengineered human small intestine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361317/generation-of-gastrointestinal-organoids-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Jorge O Múnera, James M Wells
Over the past several decades, developmental biologists have discovered fundamental mechanisms by which organs form in developing embryos. With this information it is now possible to generate human "organoids" by the stepwise differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells using a process that recapitulates organ development. For the gastrointestinal tract, one of the first key steps is the formation of definitive endoderm and mesoderm, a process that relies on the TGFb molecule Nodal. Endoderm is then patterned along the anterior-posterior axis, with anterior endoderm forming the foregut and posterior endoderm forming the mid and hindgut...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270248/the-resuscitative-and-pharmacokinetic-effects-of-humeral-intraosseous-vasopressin-in-a-swine-model-of-ventricular-fibrillation
#16
James M Burgert, Arthur D Johnson, Jose Garcia-Blanco, Lawrence V Fulton, Michael J Loughren
Introduction The American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) and European Resuscitation Council (Niel, Belgium) cardiac arrest (CA) guidelines recommend the intraosseous (IO) route when intravenous (IV) access cannot be obtained. Vasopressin has been used as an alternative to epinephrine to treat ventricular fibrillation (VF). Hypothesis/Problem Limited data exist on the pharmacokinetics and resuscitative effects of vasopressin administered by the humeral IO (HIO) route for treatment of VF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of HIO and IV vasopressin, on the occurrence, odds, and time of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and pharmacokinetic measures in a swine model of VF...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252109/gamma-band-activities-in-mouse-frontal-and-visual-cortex-induced-by-coherent-dot-motion
#17
Hio-Been Han, Eunjin Hwang, Soohyun Lee, Min-Shik Kim, Jee Hyun Choi
A key question within systems neuroscience is to understand how the brain encodes spatially and temporally distributed local features and binds these together into one perceptual representation. Previous works in animal and human have shown that changes in neural synchrony occur during the perceptual processing and these changes are distinguished by the emergence of gamma-band oscillations (GBO, 30-80 Hz, centered at 40 Hz). Here, we used the mouse electroencephalogram to investigate how different cortical areas play roles in perceptual processing by assessing their GBO patterns during the visual presentation of coherently/incoherently moving random-dot kinematogram and static dots display...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176514/comparison-of-hepatectomy-with-or-without-hepatic-inflow-occlusion-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-single-center-experience
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jing-Hang Jiang, Kai-Xiu Wang, Ji-Ye Zhu, Pei-Pei Yang, Zhe Guo, Song-Lin Ma, Yang Lü, Bang-De Xiang, Jian-Hong Zhong, Le-Qun Li
BACKGROUND: The negative effects of hepatic inflow occlusion (HIO) on postoperative liver function of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver resection have been reported. Nevertheless, whether or not HIO could influence the long-term outcomes remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 396 patients were included in this study and divided into without occlusion (WO) group (N.=112) and HIO group (N.=284). Aiming to minimize influence of selection bias and confounding variables, we used propensity score matching (PSM) of a 0...
August 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140441/effects-of-humerus-intraosseous-versus-intravenous-amiodarone-administration-in-a-hypovolemic-porcine-model
#19
Cpt Monica M Holloway, Cpt Shannan L Jurina, Cpt Joshua D Orszag, Lt George R Bragdon, Lt Rustin D Green, Jose C Garcia-Blanco, Brian E Benham, Ltc Timothy S Adams, Don Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of amiodarone administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax), time to ROSC, and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. DESIGN: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design. SETTING: TriService Research Facility. SUBJECTS: Yorkshire-cross swine (n = 28)...
2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140439/effects-of-tibial-and-humerus-intraosseous-administration-of-epinephrine-in-a-cardiac-arrest-swine-model
#20
Ltc Denise Beaumont, Asal Baragchizadeh, Charles Johnson, Don Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Compare maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), mean serum concentration of epinephrine, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, and odds of survival relative to epinephrine administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine cardiac arrest model. DESIGN: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design. SETTING: TriService Research Facility...
2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
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