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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#1
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805541/inulin-oligofructose-attenuates-metabolic-syndrome-in-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#2
Senthil A Kumar, Leigh C Ward, Lindsay Brown
Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively...
November 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677402/faim2-as-a-novel-diagnostic-maker-and-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-atypical-carcinoid
#3
Hio Chung Kang, Jong In Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Gavitt Woodard, Young Sik Choi, Ja-Lok Ku, David M Jablons, Il-Jin Kim
Lung neuroendocrine (NE) tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells that includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and large cell NE cancer. The subtyping of NE tumors is based on the number of mitoses per high powered field and the presences of necrosis. However, the best diagnostic criteria to differentiate various subtypes of lung NE tumors remains controversial and few diagnostic markers distinguish typical and atypical carcinoid. In this study, we show that FAIM2, an inhibitory molecule in the Fas-apoptosis pathway, is significantly overexpressed in SCLC compared to non-small cell lung cancer...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660075/hnf-4alpha-negatively-regulates-hepcidin-expression-through-bmpr1a-in-hepg2-cells
#4
Wencai Shi, Heyang Wang, Xuan Zheng, Xin Jiang, Zheng Xu, Hui Shen, Min Li
Hepcidin synthesis is reported to be inadequate according to the body iron store in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) undergoing hepatic iron overload (HIO). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) may negatively regulate hepcidin expression and contribute to hepcidin deficiency in NAFLD patients. The effect of HNF-4α on hepcidin expression was observed by transfecting specific HNF-4α small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmids into HepG2 cells...
September 23, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615393/combining-ptychographical-algorithms-with-the-hybrid-input-output-hio-algorithm
#5
A P Konijnenberg, W M J Coene, S F Pereira, H P Urbach
In this article we combine the well-known Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE) with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm. The important insight is that the HIO feedback function should be kept strictly separate from the reconstructed object, which is done by introducing a separate feedback function per probe position. We have also combined HIO with floating PIE (fPIE) and extended PIE (ePIE). Simulations indicate that the combined algorithm performs significantly better in many situations. Although we have limited our research to a combination with HIO, the same insight can be used to combine ptychographical algorithms with any phase retrieval algorithm that uses a feedback function...
August 31, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506198/panx3-links-body-mass-index-and-tumorigenesis-in-a-genetically-heterogeneous-mouse-model-of-carcinogen-induced-cancer
#6
Kyle D Halliwill, David A Quigley, Hio Chung Kang, Reyno Del Rosario, David Ginzinger, Allan Balmain
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a primary factor influencing cancer development. However, understanding the relationship between these two complex traits has been confounded by both environmental and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS: In order to gain insight into the genetic factors linking BMI and cancer, we performed chemical carcinogenesis on a genetically heterogeneous cohort of interspecific backcross mice ((Mus Spretus × FVB/N) F1 × FVB/N)...
2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159276/increased-upper-trapezius-muscle-stiffness-in-overhead-athletes-with-rotator-cuff-tendinopathy
#7
Hio Teng Leong, François Hug, Siu Ngor Fu
Although excessive tension of the upper trapezius (UT) is thought to contribute to rotator cuff tendinopathy, no study examined UT tension in athletes with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy. Here we used UT shear modulus measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography as an index of muscle stiffness/tension. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to determine whether the UT muscle shear modulus is altered in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared to asymptomatic athletes, and 2) to detect optimal cut-off points of UT shear modulus in identifying athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122995/pupil-size-in-relation-to-cortical-states-during-isoflurane-anesthesia
#8
Jeung Eun Kum, Hio-Been Han, Jee Hyun Choi
In neuronal recording studies on anesthetized animals, reliable measures for the transitional moment of consciousness are frequently required. Previous findings suggest that pupil fluctuations reflect the neuronal states during quiet wakefulness, whose correlation was unknown for the anesthetized condition. Here, we investigated the pupillary changes under isoflurane anesthesia simultaneously with the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG). The pupil was tracked by using a region-based active contour model...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102401/reduction-of-the-subacromial-space-in-athletes-with-and-without-rotator-cuff-tendinopathy-and-its-association-with-the-strength-of-scapular-muscles
#9
Hio Teng Leong, Sammi Sin Mei Tsui, Gabriel Yin-Fat Ng, Siu Ngor Fu
OBJECTIVES: To compare the reduction of subacromial space (SAS) during arm abduction between overhead athletes with and without rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy, and to explore the relationship between the strength of scapular muscles with the SAS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Sixty-six athletes (33 healthy and 33 with RC tendinopathy, mean age=22.3 years) participated in the study. Ultrasound measurement of the SAS with arm at 0°, 30° and 60° of shoulder abduction were taken, and the maximal isometric force in upper, middle and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior with manual muscle tests (MMT) were assessed using a handheld dynamometer...
December 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038128/value-of-severe-liver-iron-overload-for-assessing-heart-iron-levels-in-thalassemia-major-patients
#10
Xiaodong Chen, Hui Zhang, Qihua Yang, Zebin Luo, Zuoquan Zhang, Ziliang Cheng, Jiaji Mao, Queenie Chan, Honggui Xu, Biling Liang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: The relationship between severe liver iron overload (LIO) and heart iron overload (HIO) in transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major (TM) is uncertain. Whether severe LIO can serve as an index for assessing heart iron deposition has vital clinical significance. Therefore, our aim is to determine if a close relationship exists between severe LIO and HIO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 110 TM patients who underwent T2* measurement in the liver and heart on a 1...
October 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982490/geography-of-community-health-information-organization-activity-in-the-united-states-implications-for-the-effectiveness-of-health-information-exchange
#11
Joshua R Vest
BACKGROUND: The United States has invested nearly a billion dollars in creating community health information organizations (HIOs) to foster health information exchange. Community HIOs provide exchange services to health care organizations within a distinct geographic area. While geography is a key organizing principle for community HIOs, it is unclear if geography is an effective method for organization or what challenges are created by a geography-based approach to health information exchange...
March 15, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824986/whole-exome-and-targeted-deep-sequencing-identify-genome-wide-allelic-loss-and-frequent-setdb1-mutations-in-malignant-pleural-mesotheliomas
#12
Hio Chung Kang, Hong Kwan Kim, Sharon Lee, Pedro Mendez, James Wansoo Kim, Gavitt Woodard, Jun-Hee Yoon, Kuang-Yu Jen, Li Tai Fang, Kirk Jones, David M Jablons, Il-Jin Kim
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis, is mainly caused by exposure to asbestos or other organic fibers, but the underlying genetic mechanism is not fully understood. Genetic alterations and causes for multiple primary cancer development including MPM are unknown. We used whole exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in a patient with MPM and two additional primary cancers who had no evidence of venous, arterial, lymphovascular, or perineural invasion indicating dissemination of a primary lung cancer to the pleura...
February 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26698723/high-dynamic-range-coherent-imaging-using-compressed-sensing
#13
Kuan He, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Oliver Cossairt
In both lensless Fourier transform holography (FTH) and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI), a beamstop is used to block strong intensities which exceed the limited dynamic range of the sensor, causing a loss in low-frequency information, making high quality reconstructions difficult or even impossible. In this paper, we show that an image can be recovered from high-frequencies alone, thereby overcoming the beamstop problem in both FTH and CDI. The only requirement is that the object is sparse in a known basis, a common property of most natural and manmade signals...
November 30, 2015: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26577587/platelet-dynamics-in-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-patients-treated-with-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-oxaliplatin
#14
Carlos Pérez-Ruixo, Belén Valenzuela, José Esteban Peris, Pedro Bretcha-Boix, Vanesa Escudero-Ortiz, José Farré-Alegre, Juan José Pérez-Ruixo
The aim of the study was to characterize the platelet count (PLT) dynamics in peritoneal carcinomatosis patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (HIO). Data from patients treated with CRS alone (N = 18) or CRS and HIO (N = 62) were used to estimate the baseline platelet count (PLT0), rate constants for platelet maturation (k tr ) and platelet random destruction (k s ), feedback on progenitor cell proliferation (γ), and the drug-specific model parameters (α, β)...
January 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26533189/challenges-along-the-road-to-universal-health-coverage-in-egypt-an-hio-perspective
#15
A Hegazy, M George, Z Kalo, S Abaza, Y M Abbas, M Atef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468375/effects-of-humeral-intraosseous-versus-intravenous-epinephrine-on-pharmacokinetics-and-return-of-spontaneous-circulation-in-a-porcine-cardiac-arrest-model-a-randomized-control-trial
#16
Don Johnson, Jose Garcia-Blanco, James Burgert, Lawrence Fulton, Patrick Kadilak, Katherine Perry, Jeffrey Burke
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival...
September 2015: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26462903/the-effects-of-proximal-and-distal-routes-of-intraosseous-epinephrine-administration-on-short-term-resuscitative-outcome-measures-in-an-adult-swine-model-of-ventricular-fibrillation-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
James M Burgert, Arthur D Johnson, Jose Garcia-Blanco, Jacob Froehle, Todd Morris, Ben Althuisius, Jennifer Richards, Christopher Castano
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown if the anatomical distance of intraosseous (i.o.) epinephrine injection from the heart affects resuscitative outcome. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the anatomical distance of i.o. epinephrine injection and measures of resuscitative outcome in an adult swine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF). METHODS: Thirty-two Yorkshire-cross swine (60-80 kg) were randomly assigned to four groups: humeral i.o...
January 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459240/generation-of-tissue-engineered-small-intestine-using-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-human-intestinal-organoids
#18
Stacy R Finkbeiner, Jennifer J Freeman, Minna M Wieck, Wael El-Nachef, Christopher H Altheim, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Sha Huang, Rachel Dyal, Eric S White, Tracy C Grikscheit, Daniel H Teitelbaum, Jason R Spence
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary...
October 12, 2015: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412010/feasibility-of-30-day-hospital-readmission-prediction-modeling-based-on-health-information-exchange-data
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Matthew J Swain, Hadi Kharrazi
INTRODUCTION: Unplanned 30-day hospital readmission account for roughly $17 billion in annual Medicare spending. Many factors contribute to unplanned hospital readmissions and multiple models have been developed over the years to predict them. Most researchers have used insurance claims or administrative data to train and operationalize their Readmission Risk Prediction Models (RRPMs). Some RRPM developers have also used electronic health records data; however, using health informatics exchange data has been uncommon among such predictive models and can be beneficial in its ability to provide real-time alerts to providers at the point of care...
December 2015: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376710/the-feasibility-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-quantification-of-liver-pancreas-spleen-vertebral-bone-marrow-and-renal-cortex-r2-and-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-transfusion-related-iron-overload
#20
İlkay S İdilman, Fatma Gümrük, Mithat Haliloğlu, Muşturay Karçaaltıncaba
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of quantification of liver, pancreas, spleen, vertebral bone marrow, and renal cortex R2* and magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and to evaluate the correlations among them in patients with transfusion-related iron overload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 9 patients (5 boys, 4 girls) who were referred to our clinic with suspicion of hepatic iron overload were included in this study...
March 5, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
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