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Joel N Meyer, Jessica H Hartman, Danielle F Mello
Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity...
January 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
E J Calabrese
In 2006, Henschler disputed the claim of Calabrese and Baldwin that Hugo Schulz should be considered the originator of the hormesis concept. Henschler cited an 1854 paper by Rudolf Virchow on the effects of two agents on the beating of cilia, which showed a hormetic-biphasic dose response. The interpretation of Henschler became broadly accepted over the past decade based on citations in the literature. However, a recent translation of the Virchow paper from German into English reveals that the claims of Henschler are not supported by the article...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Iavor K Vladimirov, Desislava Tacheva, Antonio Diez
Background: To create hypothesis, which can give a logical explanation related to the benefits of freezing/thawing embryos. Cryopreservation is not only a technology used for storing embryos, but also a method of embryo treatment that can potentially improve the success rate in infertile couples. Methods: From the analysis of multiple results in assisted reproductive technology, which have no satisfactory explanation to date, we found evidence to support a 'therapeutic' effect of the freezing/thawing of embryos on the process of recovery of the embryo and its subsequent implantation...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Jericó J Bello-Bello, Rocío A Chavez-Santoscoy, Carlos A Lecona-Guzmán, Nina Bogdanchikova, Josafhat Salinas-Ruíz, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Alexey Pestryakov
Background: Hormesis is considered a dose-response phenomenon characterized by growth stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. The hormetic response by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane was evaluated using a temporary immersion system. Methods: Sugarcane shoots were used as explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with AgNPs at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L. Shoot multiplication rate and length were used to determine hormetic response...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Luana Haselein Maurer, Andriely Moreira Bersch, Roberta Oliveira Santos, Simone Cezar Trindade, Eduarda Lasch Costa, Marcelle Moreira Peres, Carlos Augusto Malmann, Mauricio Schneider, Vivian Caetano Bochi, Claudia Kaehler Sautter, Tatiana Emanuelli
Ultraviolet light type C (UV-C) was studied as a tool to increase enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses and phytochemical levels in 'Isabel' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera L.). Grapes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0kJm-2 UV-C and stored for 1, 3, or 5days post-treatment. One day after UV-C irradiation, the activities of grape antioxidant enzymes and thiols were increased, especially at 1.0 and 2.0kJm-2. These doses increased total phenolic content by almost 20%, while 0.5 and 4.0kJm-2 had no effects...
December 2017: Food Research International
Antoni Sureda, Xavier Capó, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Silvia Tejada
The use of sunscreens to protect against ultraviolet radiation exposure progressively increases as result of a greater awareness of the people and the greater arrival of tourists. The components of these creams can end up in the waters affecting coastal species. Mediterranean mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) were subjected to an acute exposure of a sunscreen with TiO2 in their composition during 24h. The low and medium concentrations used in the assays contained a concentration of TiO2 in the range of values found in coastal waters of the Balearic Islands...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yanqun Xu, Marie Thérèse Charles, Zisheng Luo, Benjamin Mimee, Pierre-Yves Veronneau, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel
Preharvest ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation is an innovative approach for increasing the bioactive phytochemical content of strawberries to increase the disease resistance and nutritional value. This study investigated the changes in individual flavonoids in strawberry developed with three different cumulative doses of preharvest UV-C treatment (low, 9.6 kJ m(-2); middle, 15 kJ m(-2); and high , 29.4 kJ m(-2)). Significant accumulation (p < 0.05) of phenolics (25-75% increase), namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside/rutinoside, glucoside and glucuronide of quercetin and kaempferol, and ellagic acid, was found in the fruit subjected to low and middle supplemental doses of UV-C radiation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marcela Vargas-Hernandez, Israel Macias-Bobadilla, Ramon G Guevara-Gonzalez, Sergio de J Romero-Gomez, Enrique Rico-Garcia, Rosalia V Ocampo-Velazquez, Luz de L Alvarez-Arquieta, Irineo Torres-Pacheco
Over time plants developed complex mechanisms in order to adapt themselves to the environment. Plant innate immunity is one of the most important mechanisms for the environmental adaptation. A myriad of secondary metabolites with nutraceutical features are produced by the plant immune system in order to get adaptation to new environments that provoke stress (stressors). Hormesis is a phenomenon by which a stressor (i.e., toxins, herbicides, etc.) stimulates the cellular stress response, including secondary metabolites production, in order to help organisms to establish adaptive responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vittorio Calabrese, Aurelia Santoro, Daniela Monti, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Saverio Latteri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Mario Zappia, James Giordano, Edward J Calabrese, Claudio Franceschi
In order to better understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) it is important to consider possible contributory factors inherent to the aging process, as age-related changes in a number of physiological systems (perhaps incurred within particular environments) appear to influence the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, we posit that a principal mechanism underlying PD is inflammaging, i.e. the chronic inflammatory process characterized by an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms which has been recognized as operative in several age-related, and notably neurodegenerative diseases...
October 25, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Dali Wang, Edward J Calabrese, Baoling Lian, Zhifen Lin, Vittorio Calabrese
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments...
October 25, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Brendan Gongol, Traci L Marin, John D Jeppson, Karina Mayagoitia, Samuel Shin, Nicholas Sanchez, Wolff M Kirsch, Harry V Vinters, Christopher G Wilson, Othman Ghribi, Salvador Soriano
The function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in brain health remains unclear. This study elucidated a novel cytoprotective signaling pathway initiated by the APP transcriptionally active intracellular domain (AICD) in response to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC), an oxidized cholesterol metabolite associated with neurodegeneration. The cellular response to 27OHC was hormetic, such that low, but not high, doses promoted AICD transactivation of microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4 (MAST4)...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dingdong Liu, Huijun Liu, Shengtao Wang, Jiazheng Chen, Yilu Xia
Although ionic liquids (ILs) are unlikely to act as air contaminants, their high solubility and slow degradation make them a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The IL 1-decylpyridinium bromide ([DPy]Br) is a common type of pyridine IL, which has varied applications such as in extraction, separation, and catalytic synthesis. Herein, the toxicity of [DPy]Br to S. obliquus is determined. Growth was inhibited by high-concentration [DPy]Br, whereas it had a hormetic effect at low concentrations. The IC50-96h was approximately 0...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Hugo Fernando Escobar-Sepúlveda, Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez, Soledad García-Morales, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino
In acid soils, the solubilized form of aluminum, Al+3, decreases root growth and affects the development of most crops. However, like other toxic elements, Al can have hormetic effects on plant metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most tolerant species to Al toxicity, and when this element is supplied at low doses, growth stimulation has been observed, which could be due to combined mechanisms that are partly triggered by NAC transcription factors. This protein family can regulate vital processes in plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli, whether biotic or abiotic...
2017: PloS One
Christopher W Theodorakis, S Marshall Adams, Chandra Smith, Jamie Rotter, Ashley Hay, Joy Eslick
Department of Defense lands are essential for providing important habitat for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S). However, there is little information on the effects of military-related contaminants on TER-S on these lands in field situations. Thus, this study examined genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on Camp Shelby, MS-the largest known population of this species, which is listed as an "endangered species" in Mississippi and a "threatened species" by the U...
October 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Anne Granitzny, Jan Knebel, Meike Müller, Armin Braun, Pablo Steinberg, Clemens Dasenbrock, Tanja Hansen
Interactions between hepatocytes and immune cells as well as inflammatory episodes are frequently discussed to play a critical role in the alteration of the individual susceptibility to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI). To evaluate this hypothesis and to face the urgent need for predictive in vitro models, we established two co-culture systems based on two human cell lines in presence or absence of pro-inflammatory factors (LPS, TNF), i.e. hepatoma HepG2 cells co-cultured with monocytic or macrophage-like THP-1 cells...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Kenneth T Bogen, Lora L Arnold, Aparajita Chowdhury, Karen L Pennington, Samuel M Cohen
The in vitro arsenite (As(III)) cytotoxicity dose-response (DR) of human keratinocytes (HEK001) was examined at greater statistical resolution than ever previously reported using the MTT assay to determine cell viability. Fifty-four 96-well plates were treated with As(III) concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 μM. Because of unexpected variation in viability response patterns, a two-stage DR analysis was used in which data on plate-specific viability (%), estimated as 100% times the ratio of measured viability in exposed to unexposed cells, were fit initially to a generalized lognormal response function positing that HEK001 cells studied consisted of: a proportion P of relatively highly sensitive (HS) cells, a proportion Po of relatively resistant cells, and a remaining (1-P-Po) fraction of typical-sensitivity (TS) cells exhibiting the intermediate level of As(III) sensitivity characteristic of most cells in each assay...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Suresh I S Rattan, Dino Demirovic, Carine Nizard
Optimal stress response (SR) is an essential aspect of the property of dynamic homeostasis of all biological systems, including cells in culture. Whereas severe stress can induce the so-called stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), a model developed by Olivier Toussaint, mild stress can strengthen homeodynamics and can postpone senescence through the phenomenon of hormesis. We have attempted to establish multiple stress response profiles (SRP) of early passage young and late passage senescent human facial skin fibroblasts, FSF-1, exposed to either mild (41°C) and severe (43°C) heat shock for 1h, or to mild (2%) and severe (0%) serum deprivation for up to 48h...
September 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Diwu Fan, Jiangang Han, Yuan Chen, Yongli Zhu, Pingping Li
Hormetic responses in soil ecosystem are increasingly reported recently. Soil enzymes are involved in almost all biochemical reactions, but insufficient investigations were conducted to define its hormetic responses. The objective of this study is to investigate the hormetic responses across soil particle-size fractions with cadmium (Cd) as a stressor and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a potential endpoint. Soils were treated by adding CdCl2·2.5H2O solution with 0, 0.003, 0.03, 0.3, 3.0 and 30.0mg·kg(-1) of Cd, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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