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Regina G Belz
BACKGROUND: Herbicide hormesis may play a role in weed resistance evolution by increasing resistance selection. A standard herbicide rate may be subtoxic to resistant plants and make them more fit than untreated plants. If this increase in fitness is ultimately expressed in reproductive traits, resistance genes can accumulate more rapidly and exacerbate resistance evolution by magnifying the selection differential between resistant and sensitive plants. The hypothesis of hormetically enhanced reproductive fitness was studied for a PSII target-site resistant (TSR) biotype of Chenopodium album exposed to the triazinone metamitron in comparison to its wild type...
May 23, 2018: Pest Management Science
Abhinav Parashar, Daniel Andrew Gideon, Kelath Murali Manoj
Recently, electron transfers and catalyses in a bevy of redox reactions mediated by hemeproteins were explained by murburn concept. The term "murburn" is abstracted from " mur ed burn ing " or " m ild u n r estricted burn ing " and connotes a novel " m olecule- u nbound ion- r adical " interaction paradigm. Quite unlike the genetic regulations and protein-level affinity-based controls that govern order and specificity/selectivity in conventional treatments, murburn concept is based on stochastic/thermodynamic regulatory principles...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Svetlana V Kostyuk, Lev N Porokhovnik, Elizaveta S Ershova, Elena M Malinovskaya, Marina S Konkova, Larisa V Kameneva, Olga A Dolgikh, Vladimir P Veiko, Vladimir M Pisarev, Andrew V Martynov, Vasilina A Sergeeva, Andrew A Kaliyanov, Anton D Filev, Julia M Chudakova, Margarita S Abramova, Serguey I Kutsev, Vera L Izhevskaya, Nataliya N Veiko
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a circulating DNA of nuclear and mitochondrial origin mainly derived from dying cells. Recent studies have shown that cfDNA is a stress signaling DAMP (damage-associated molecular pattern) molecule. We report here that the expression profiles of cfDNA-induced factors NRF2 and NF- κ B are distinct depending on the target cell's type and the GC-content and oxidation rate of the cfDNA. Stem cells (MSC) have shown higher expression of NRF2 without inflammation in response to cfDNA. In contrast, inflammatory response launched by NF- κ B was dominant in differentiated cells HUVEC, MCF7, and fibroblasts, with a possibility of transition to massive apoptosis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Peter P Fong, Olivia J Lambert, Margot L Hoagland, Emily R Kurtz
Antifouling chemicals are legacy contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Previous experiments have shown that a 14-day exposure to the antifouling chemical medetomidine delays metamorphosis and reduces body mass in wood frog tadpoles. In the present study, we exposed wood frog tadpoles to medetomidine for 3, 7, and 10 days at 100 nM, 1 μM, and 10 μM. We also exposed American toad tadpoles to medetomidine for 3 days at four concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, 1 μM, and 10 μM) in static renewal experiments...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhen Yu, Huiling Wei, Rui Hao, Huashuo Chu, Yi Zhu
Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential and toxic trace element widely existing in waters through various anthropogenic activities such as mining and waste disposal. The physiological responses of aquatic organisms to long-term Cd exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations are still not well explored. In the present study, two strains of unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a walled strain CC125 and a wall-less strain CC406 were selected to investigate the physiological changes of aquatic organisms after long-term Cd exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations (4...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Michael Bauer, Sebastian Weis, Mihai G Netea, Reinhard Wetzker
Recent investigations reveal memory-like adaptive responses of the innate immune system to sequential pathogen challenge. Of note, opposing effects that include both sensitization ('training') and desensitization ('tolerance') have been reported. While hitherto the nature of the pathogen was thought to be of prime importance, we propose that pathogen dose plays a key role in determining these opposing effects. Within this concept, training and tolerance of innate immune cells emerge as adaptive responses to increasing pathogen load...
April 28, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao
Tropospheric ozone levels are elevated throughout the northern hemisphere. The potential threat of ozone to vegetation urges for studying plant protection methods. The chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) is the most extensively utilized substance for protecting plants against ozone damage in research projects. This commentary provides collective evidence showing hormetic responses of plants to EDU and suggests that EDU may act as a conditioning agent against elevated ozone exposures. This article also suggests testing different substances in a hormetic framework for protecting plants against ozone damage...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Haoyu Sun, Edward J Calabrese, Min Zheng, Dali Wang, Yongzheng Pan, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasizes the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimized dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this paper, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
R P Tasho, W T Shin, J Y Cho
Plant-veterinary antibiotic interaction has been widely studied, however, to the best of our knowledge acclimatization studies with regard to changes in plant root metabolites has not been reported so far. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolome of pea roots under antibiotic stress and their role in acclimatization. Pisum sativum L. was grown in soil contaminated with three commonly used veterinary antibiotics - kanamycin (KA), sulfamethazine (SA), and tetracycline (TC). In response to antibiotic stress, plants accumulated different types of low molecular weight compounds that provided protection from stress by contributing to ROS detoxification, protection of membrane integrity, efficient signaling, cell wall function, and cellular osmotic adjustment (glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, octadecadienoic acid, l-proline)...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released to the atmosphere from vegetation. BVOCs aid in maintaining ecosystem sustainability via a series of functions, however, VOCs can alter tropospheric photochemistry and negatively affect biological organisms at high concentrations. Due to their critical role in ecosystem and environmental sustainability, BVOCs receive particular attention by global change biologists. To understand how plant VOC emissions affect stress responses within a dose-response context, dose responses should be evaluated...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shanmugam Govindan, Mohankumar Amirthalingam, Kalaiselvi Duraisamy, Thiruppathi Govindhan, Nivitha Sundararaj, Sundararaj Palanisamy
Mild stress activates the adaptive cellular response for the subsequent severe stress called hormesis. Hormetic stress plays a vital role to activate multiple stress-responsive genes for the benefit of an organism. In tropical regions of world, tubers of Dioscorea spp. has been extensively used in folk medicine and also consumed as food. In this study, we report that the phytochemicals of Dioscorea alata L., tubers extends the lifespan of nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans by hormetic mechanism. We showed that the low dose of tubers extract at 200 and 300 μg/mL extends the mean lifespan of wild-type worms, whereas higher doses are found to be toxic...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
André Franz, Thorsten Hoppe
Labbadia et al. showed that low-dose mitochondrial stress promotes protein homeostasis in the cytosol to endure proteotoxic conditions, particularly during aging. This hormetic mitochondrial stress response is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-dependent and, remarkably, does not affect physiological parameters that are usually associated with pathogenic disturbance of mitochondrial function.
March 28, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Elena A Erofeeva
Formaldehyde is a widespread pollutant of soil near roads including agricultural lands. Non-monotonic changes (hormesis and paradoxical effects) in chlorophyll (Ch) and carotenoid (Car) contents, the lipid peroxidation (LP) rate in plant leaves and growth parameters (GP) of plants can be caused by various pollutants. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response phenomenon, characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. The remaining types of non-monotonic responses are classified as paradoxical effects...
March 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Soon-Sen Leow, Alice Luu, Swechhya Shrestha, K C Hayes, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi
Palm fruit juice (PFJ) containing oil palm phenolics is obtained as a by-product from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit milling. It contains shikimic acid, soluble fibre and various phenolic acids including p-hydroxybenzoic acid and three caffeoylshikimic acid isomers. PFJ has also demonstrated beneficial health properties in various biological models. Increasing concentrations of PFJ and different PFJ fractions were used to assess growth dynamics and possible anti-ageing properties in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) genotype w1118 ...
June 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process...
July 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hörmet Yiltiz, Lihan Chen
Perceptions of ambiguous biological motion are modulated by different individual cognitive abilities (such as inhibition and empathy) and emotional states (such as anxiety). This study explored facing-the-viewer bias (FTV) in perceiving ambiguous directions of biological motion, and investigated whether task-irrelevant simultaneous face emotional cues in the background and the individual social anxiety traits could affect FTV. We found that facial motion cues as background affect sociobiologically relevant scenarios, including biological motion, but not non-biological situations (conveyed through random dot motion)...
May 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Regina G Belz, Marjo Patama, Aki Sinkkonen
Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mayumi Tsuji, Mineko Tomomura, Yoshiko Masuda, Soichi Iwama, Mika Nakagawa, Hayato Suzuki, Kenta Tanaka, Tomoyuki Abe, Nobuaki Tamura, Akito Tomomura, Satoshi Yokose, Hiroshi Takeshima, Takenori Natori, Misaki Horiuchi, Tomohiro Fujisawa, Yuji Kiuchi, Katsuji Oguchi, Toshikazu Yasui, Hiroshi Oizumi, Takaaki Oizumi
BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously reported the protection of doxorubicin-induced keratinocyte toxicity by alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE). In order to extend the generality of the cell protective effect of SE, we investigated whether it also protects rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y neuron model cells from amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Viability of cells was determined by the MTT method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the concentration that reduces the cell viability by 50% (CC50 )...
March 2018: In Vivo
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