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Hormesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898662/kinase-inhibition-leads-to-hormesis-in-a-dual-phosphorylation-dephosphorylation-cycle
#2
Peter Rashkov, Ian P Barrett, Robert E Beardmore, Claus Bendtsen, Ivana Gudelj
Many antimicrobial and anti-tumour drugs elicit hormetic responses characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. While this can have profound consequences for human health, with low drug concentrations actually stimulating pathogen or tumour growth, the mechanistic understanding behind such responses is still lacking. We propose a novel, simple but general mechanism that could give rise to hormesis in systems where an inhibitor acts on an enzyme. At its core is one of the basic building blocks in intracellular signalling, the dual phosphorylation-dephosphorylation motif, found in diverse regulatory processes including control of cell proliferation and programmed cell death...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898171/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia-early-onset-versus-late-onset-state
#3
REVIEW
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Martino Ruggieri, Rio Bianchini, Maria Laura Ontario, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Edward J Calabrese
Abnormal redox homeostasis and oxidative stress have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders. Emerging interest has recently focused on markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in schizophrenic spectrum disorders, at least in particular subgroups of patients. Altered expression of genes related to oxidative stress, oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, as well as reduced glutathione levels in central and peripheral tissues could act synergistically, and contribute to the course of the disease...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886534/differences-in-the-response-of-soil-dehydrogenase-activity-to-cd-contamination-are-determined-by-the-different-substrates-used-for-its-determination
#4
Xiangping Tan, Yanju Liu, Kaihong Yan, Ziquan Wang, Guannan Lu, Yike He, Wenxiang He
Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) is an important indicator of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. Different instances of DHA were determined using various substrates and which could affect the description of heavy metal toxicity. Currently, too few investigations have been done on selecting appropriate substrates. This study employed indoor simulation to determine soil DHA and its response to external cadmium (Cd) using two substrates (TTC and INT). Hormesis for DHA obtained using the TTC method (DHA-TTC) in low Cd concentration was observed which was quickly inhibited in high Cd concentration...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#5
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867322/a-certified-health-physicist-s-reflections-on-a-40-year-career-in-radiation-protection
#6
Mark L Miller
This is a reflection from a certified health physicist regarding his becoming aware, during his 40-year career, that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model and the associated As Low As Reasonably Achievable concept have no scientific basis and make no positive contribution to radiation safety. They should be replaced by an alternative, scientifically based model that includes a threshold, below which there is no harm, and recognition of hormesis and the adaptive response, which reflect the benefits of low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862176/inflammasomes-hormesis-and-antioxidants-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-nrlp3-in-alzheimer-disease
#7
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Laura Ontario, Rita Bella, Edward J Calabrese, Roberto Crea, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, disability, caregiver burden, and premature death. It represents the most prevalent cause of dementia, and its incidence rates exponentially increase with increasing age. The number of Americans living with AD is rapidly increasing. An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have AD in 2016. One in nine people aged 65 and older has AD, and by midcentury, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 sec...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857169/mobile-phone-signal-exposure-triggers-a-hormesis-like-effect-in-atm-and-atm-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#8
Chuan Sun, Xiaoxia Wei, Yue Fei, Liling Su, Xinyuan Zhao, Guangdi Chen, Zhengping Xu
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possible carcinogens to humans; however, this conclusion is based on limited epidemiological findings and lacks solid support from experimental studies. In particular, there are no consistent data regarding the genotoxicity of RF-EMFs. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is recognised as a chief guardian of genomic stability. To address the debate on whether RF-EMFs are genotoxic, we compared the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMF exposure on genomic DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with proficient (Atm(+/+)) or deficient (Atm(-/-)) ATM...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853721/look-different-effect-of-radiation-hormesis-on-the-survival-rate-of-immunosuppressed-mice
#9
M Alavi, S Taeb, M A Okhovat, M Atefi, F Negahdari
BACKGROUND: Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835779/berberine-protects-against-6-ohda-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-zebrafish-through-hormetic-mechanisms-involving-pi3k-akt-bcl-2-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#10
Chao Zhang, Chuwen Li, Shenghui Chen, Zhiping Li, Xuejing Jia, Kai Wang, Jiaolin Bao, Yeer Liang, Xiaotong Wang, Meiwan Chen, Peng Li, Huanxing Su, Jian-Bo Wan, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Kechun Liu, Chengwei He
Berberine (BBR) is a renowned natural compound that exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Hormesis is an adaptive mechanism generally activated by mild oxidative stress to protect the cells from further damage. Many phytochemicals have been shown to induce hormesis. This study aims to investigate whether the neuroprotective activity of BBR is mediated by hormesis and the related signaling pathways in 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cells and zebrafish neurotoxic models...
November 4, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794445/heavy-metals-in-the-volcanic-environment-and-thyroid-cancer
#11
R Vigneri, P Malandrino, F Gianì, M Russo, P Vigneri
In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission...
October 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777956/sequestration-and-distribution-characteristics-of-cd-ii-by-microcystis-aeruginosa-and-its-role-in-colony-formation
#12
Xiangdong Bi, Ran Yan, Fenxiang Li, Wei Dai, Kewei Jiao, Qixing Zhou, Qi Liu
To investigate the sequestration and distribution characteristics of Cd(II) by Microcystis aeruginosa and its role in Microcystis colony formation, M. aeruginosa was exposed to six different Cd(II) concentrations for 10 days. Cd(II) exposure caused hormesis in the growth of M. aeruginosa. Low concentrations of Cd(II) significantly induced formation of small Microcystis colonies (P < 0.05) and increased the intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) and bound extracellular polysaccharide (bEPS) contents of M. aeruginosa significantly (P < 0...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777382/prenatal-hyperbaric-normoxia-treatment-improves-healthspan-and-regulates-chitin-metabolic-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Suyeun Yu, Eunil Lee, Bodokhsuren Tsogbadrakh, Gwang-Ic Son, Mari Kim
Aging is a universal, irreversible process accompanied by physiological declines that culminate in death. Rapid progress in gerontology research has revealed that aging can be slowed through mild stress-induced hormesis. We previously reported that hyperbaric normoxia (HN, 2 atm absolute pressure with 10% O2) induces a cytoprotective response in vitro by regulating fibronectin. In the present study, we investigated the hormetic effects of prenatal HN exposure on Drosophila healthspan related to molecular defense mechanisms...
October 24, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776852/hormetic-effects-of-metal-ions-upon-v-fischeri-and-the-application-of-a-new-parameter-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-hormesis
#14
Xiaoming Zou, Xiaoyu Xiao, Yu He, Lijun Hu, Cui Hu, Xiangfeng Huang
Hormesis is an intriguing phenomenon that is characterized by low dose stimulation and high dose inhibition. Several traditional parameters, such as the concentration of the zero equivalent point (ZEP) and the maximal stimulatory effect (Ymax), have been used to characterize the zone of hormesis or the extent of the stimulatory effect. However, the characteristics of hormesis for chemicals cannot be quantified completely by one parameter, which is important to accurately compare the hormetic effects of chemicals and to describe the combined effects of chemical mixtures at low doses...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726483/herbicide-toxicity-selectivity-and-hormesis-of-nicosulfuron-on-10-trichogrammatidae-hymenoptera-species-parasitizing-anagasta-ephestia-kuehniella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-eggs
#15
Germano L D Leite, Paula D De Paulo, José C Zanuncio, Wagner De S Tavares, Anarelly C Alvarenga, Luan R Dourado, Edilson P R Bispo, Marcus A Soares
Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708248/distinct-biological-effects-of-low-dose-radiation-on-normal-and-cancerous-human-lung-cells-are-mediated-by-atm-signaling
#16
Guozi Yang, Dehai Yu, Wei Li, Yuguang Zhao, Xue Wen, Xinyue Liang, Xiaoying Zhang, Lei Zhou, Jifan Hu, Chao Niu, Huimin Tian, Fujun Han, Xiao Chen, Lihua Dong, Lu Cai, Jiuwei Cui
Low-dose radiation (LDR) induces hormesis and adaptive response in normal cells but not in cancer cells, suggesting its potential protection of normal tissue against damage induced by conventional radiotherapy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well established. We addressed this in the present study by examining the role of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling pathway in response to LDR using A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and HBE135-E6E7 (HBE) normal lung epithelial cells. We found that LDR-activated ATM was the initiating event in hormesis and adaptive response to LDR in HBE cells...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690013/time-in-redox-adaptation-processes-from-evolution-to-hormesis
#17
Mireille M J P E Sthijns, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Guido R M M Haenen
Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH) system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687575/hormesis-running-hot-and-cold
#18
Arturo Bujarrabal, Björn Schumacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27675021/biological-effects-of-a-radiation-hormesis-sheet-emitting-very-low-dose-rate-%C3%AE-rays
#19
C Sugie, Y Shibamoto, S Hashimoto, T Tsuchiya, M Matsuo, T Kawai, H Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662637/major-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-vascular-dementia-roles-of-cellular-stress-response-and-hormesis-in-neuroprotection
#20
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Anna Signorile, Maria Laura Ontario, Sergio Castorina, Concetta De Pasquale, Gunter Eckert, Edward J Calabrese
Vascular dementia (VaD), considered the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer disease in the elderly, involves the impairment of memory and cognitive function as a consequence of cerebrovascular disease. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a common pathophysiological condition frequently occurring in VaD. It is generally associated with neurovascular degeneration, in which neuronal damage and blood-brain barrier alterations coexist and evoke beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammasome- promoted neuroinflammation, which contribute to and exacerbate the course of disease...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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