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Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shazia Farzana, Nora Fung Yee Tam
Mangrove wetland receives nutrient-rich aquaculture effluent (AE) from nearby farming activities and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the production and usage of flame retardants. The effects of BDE-209 (the most common PBDE congener), AE and their combination on two true mangrove species, namely Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, were compared in a 6-month microcosm study. Results showed that K. obovata was more sensitive to these contaminants than A. marina, as reflected by its enhanced production of leaf superoxide (O2 -∗ ) by BDE-209 and root malondialdehyde (MDA) by the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Rajendra Prakash Upadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Songqi Liu, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Xiulei Fan, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu
The widespread use of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inevitably results in their increased release into natural waters and subsequent deposition in sediments, requiring the environmental impact of such deposition to be closely investigated. Hence, the effects of Ag NPs, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Ag NPs, and sliver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2 S NPs) on denitrification-induced gas production (N2 O and15 N-N2 ), and denitrifying microbes in freshwater sediments were investigated. Slurry experiments (8 h) combined with a15 NO3 - addition technique were performed to determine the gaseous production...
March 8, 2018: Water Research
Sylvain Losdat, Jonathan D Blount, Viviana Marri, Lea Maronde, Heinz Richner, Fabrice Helfenstein
1.Early-life stressful conditions can shape individual phenotypes and ultimately influence fitness. Oxidative stress is a pervasive threat that affects many fitness-related traits and can modulate life-history trade-offs. Yet, the extent to which exposure to oxidative stress during early life can have long-lasting effects on key fitness-related traits remains to be elucidated, particularly in natural populations of vertebrates. 2.Using a wild population of great tits Parus major, we experimentally dosed 11 day-old birds with paraquat, a pro-oxidant molecule, aiming at increasing oxidative stress...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Yongjin Liu, Steven Kyle, Paul D Straight
Competitive interactions between bacteria reveal physiological adaptations that benefit fitness. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive species with several adaptive mechanisms for competition and environmental stress. Biofilm formation, sporulation, and motility are the outcomes of widespread changes in a population of B. subtilis . These changes emerge from complex, regulated pathways for adapting to external stresses, including competition from other species. To identify competition-specific functions, we cultured B...
January 2018: MSphere
Roberta Ricciarelli, Ernesto Fedele
cAMP and cGMP are well established second messengers required for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation/consolidation. By contrast, amyloid β (Aβ), mostly known as one of the main culprits for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has received relatively little attention in the context of plasticity and memory. Of note, however, low physiological concentrations of Aβ seem necessary for LTP induction and for memory formation. This should come as no surprise, since hormesis emerged as a central dogma in biology...
February 28, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Lei Zhou, Xiaoying Zhang, Hui Li, Chao Niu, Dehai Yu, Guozi Yang, Xinyue Liang, Xue Wen, Min Li, Jiuwei Cui
Although low-dose radiation (LDR) possesses the two distinct functions of inducing hormesis and adaptive responses, which result in immune enhancement and tumor inhibition, its clinical applications have not yet been elucidated. The major obstacle that hinders the application of LDR in the clinical setting is that the mechanisms underlying induction of tumor inhibition are unclear, and the risks associated with LDR are still unknown. Thus, to overcome this obstacle and elucidate the mechanisms mediating the antitumor effects of LDR, in this study, we established an in vivo lung cancer model to investigate the participation of the immune system in LDR-induced tumor inhibition and validated the pivotal role of the immune system by impairing immunity with high-dose radiation (HDR) of 1 Gy...
February 25, 2018: Cancer Medicine
José Teixeira, Cláudia M Deus, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Mitochondrial function and regulation of redox balance is fundamental in controlling cellular life and death pathways. Antioxidants have been used to counteract disruption of redox networks, normally associated with progressive loss of cell homeostasis and disease pathophysiology, although therapeutic success is limited mainly due to pharmacokinetic drawbacks. Attempts to improve mitochondrial function in a range of diseases spurred active drug discovery efforts. Currently, the most effective strategy to deliver drugs to mitochondria is the covalent link of lipophilic cations to the bioactive compound...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Regina G Belz, Muhammad B Farooq, Jean Wagner
BACKGROUND: A field-evolved herbicide-resistant weed population can represent a heterogeneous composite of subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility and responsiveness to herbicide hormesis. Variable hormesis responsiveness can result in selection for and against certain subpopulations under low herbicide doses, and this has the potential to contribute to the evolution of resistance. The relevance of this hypothesis at practical field rates was studied for two field-collected acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) target-site resistant (TSR) biotypes of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Nan Yu, Sinian Wang, Xiujun Song, Ling Gao, Wei Li, Huijie Yu, Chuanchuan Zhou, Zhenxia Wang, Fengsheng Li, Qisheng Jiang
For dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate an immune response, their ability to migrate and to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) is crucial. It has been previously shown that low-dose radiation (LDR) promoted IL-12 production by DCs, resulting in increased DC activity that contributed to LDR hormesis in the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of LDR-induced IL-12 production, as well as the effect of LDR on DC migration capacity require further elucidation. Using the JAWSII immortalized mouse dendritic cell line, we showed that in vitro X-ray irradiation (0...
February 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Anna Katharina Vingskes, Nicole Spann
Many widely used healthcare products contain antiseptics, whose persistence in aquatic environments, soils, and sediments leads to the contamination of ecosystems and adversely affects wildlife. Recently, the impact not only of high but also low doses of contaminants and mixtures of several chemicals has become a focus of concern. In this study, toxicity tests of the antiseptics triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) were performed in an aquatic test medium using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nominal concentrations of TCS and TCC were tested in separate single-substance toxicity tests (96-h-exposure), focussing on growth and reproduction endpoints...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Shiqi Lv, Bin Yang, Yixuan Kou, Jun Zeng, Ruixiong Wang, Yumeng Xiao, Fencan Li, Ying Lu, Yuwen Mu, Changming Zhao
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content)...
2018: PeerJ
Mayra Vélez, Lorena L Botina, Leonardo M Turchen, Wagner F Barbosa, Raul Narciso C Guedes
Assessments of acute insecticide toxicity frequently focus on the lethal effects on individual arthropod pest species and populations neglecting the impacts and consequences of sublethal exposure. However, the sublethal effects of insecticides may lead to harmful, neutral, or even beneficial responses that may affect (or not) the behavior and sexual fitness of the exposed insects. Intriguingly, little is known about such effects on stored product insect pests in general and the maize weevil in particular. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of spinosad and deltamethrin on female mate-searching, mating behavior, progeny emergence, and grain consumption by maize weevils...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Edward J Calabrese
The interaction of background disease processes with environmental induced diseases has long been an issue of considerable interest and debate with respect to its impact on risk assessment. Whether and to what extent these processes should be considered independent or additive to background has been the principal focus of debate. The concept of hormesis, a biphasic dose response characterized by a low dose stimulation and a high dose inhibition, as framed within the context of post-conditioning, reveal the occurrence of a third type of "background" possibility, that of "subtraction to background"...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Manpreet K Sagoo, Luigi Gnudi
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Studies in experimental animal models of diabetes strongly implicate oxidant species as a major determinant in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The translation, in the clinical setting, of these concepts have been quite disappointing, and new theories have challenged the concepts that oxidative stress per se plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The concept of mitochondrial hormesis has been introduced to explain this apparent disconnect...
January 3, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
E J Calabrese
In 2006, Henschler disputed the claim of Calabrese and Baldwin that Hugo Schulz should be considered the originator of the hormesis concept. Henschler cited an 1854 paper by Rudolf Virchow on the effects of two agents on the beating of cilia, which showed a hormetic-biphasic dose response. The interpretation of Henschler became broadly accepted over the past decade based on citations in the literature. However, a recent translation of the Virchow paper from German into English reveals that the claims of Henschler are not supported by the article...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Yanhua Liu, Ruixin Guo, Shengkai Tang, Fengyi Zhu, Shenghu Zhang, Zhengyu Yan, Jianqiu Chen
Although 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE-47) clearly disrupt the endocrine system, current knowledge of their single and/or mixture toxicities on other behaviors of aquatic organisms remains limited. In the present study, Daphnia magna was used to investigate the single and mixture toxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 as measured by inhibition of feeding during exposure and post-exposure periods...
December 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Iavor K Vladimirov, Desislava Tacheva, Antonio Diez
Background: To create hypothesis, which can give a logical explanation related to the benefits of freezing/thawing embryos. Cryopreservation is not only a technology used for storing embryos, but also a method of embryo treatment that can potentially improve the success rate in infertile couples. Methods: From the analysis of multiple results in assisted reproductive technology, which have no satisfactory explanation to date, we found evidence to support a 'therapeutic' effect of the freezing/thawing of embryos on the process of recovery of the embryo and its subsequent implantation...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Josep Sanchís, Marta Llorca, Mar Olmos, Gabriella Francesca Schirinzi, Cristina Bosch-Orea, Esteban Abad, Damia Barcelo, Marinella Farre
In this study, Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed through the diet to fullerene soot, at three concentrations in parallel to a control group. Their metabolomics response was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). The experiments were conducted in marine mesocosms, during 35 days (7 days of acclimatization, 21 days of exposure and 7 seven days of depuration). Real conditions were emulated in terms of physicochemical conditions of the habitat...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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