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Hormesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768636/water-related-mechanisms-proposed-for-storing-and-transmitting-homeopathic-information-putative-links-with-biological-responses
#1
José Roberto Pereira Guedes, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
INTRODUCTION:  There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality...
May 16, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758529/the-effect-of-naphthenic-acids-on-physiological-characteristics-of-the-microalgae-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-and-platymonas-helgolandica-var-tsingtaoensis
#2
Huanxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Jiagen Shang, Xinyu Zhao, Tongfei Qu, Ying Wang
Naphthenic acids (NAs) account for 1-2% of crude oil and represent its main acidic component. However, the aquatoxic effects of NAs on marine phytoplankton and their ecological risks have remained largely unknown. Using the marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis as the target, we studied the effects of NAs on their growth, cell morphology and physiological characteristics. The cell density decreased as the concentrations of NAs increased, indicating that they had an adverse effect on growth of the investigated algae in a concentration-dependent manner...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753828/physiological-ultrastructural-biochemical-and-molecular-responses-of-young-cocoa-plants-to-the-toxicity-of-cr-iii-in-soil
#3
Junea Leandro do Nascimento, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Joedson P Barroso, Pedro A O Mangabeira, Dário Ahnert, Artur G R Sousa, José Vitor S Silva, Virupax C Baligar
The objective of this study was to evaluate Cr toxicity in young plants of the CCN 51 Theobroma cacao genotype at different concentrations of Cr3+ in the soil (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 ) through physiological, ultrastructural, antioxidant and molecular changes. Doses of 400 and 600 mg Cr3+ kg-1 soil severely affected foliar gas exchange, promoted by damages in photosynthetic machinery evidenced by the decrease in CO2 fixation. Decreased expression of psbA and psbO genes, changes in enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation also affected leaf gas exchange...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734028/environmental-hormesis-and-its-fundamental-biological-basis-rewriting-the-history-of-toxicology
#4
REVIEW
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
It has long been debated whether a little stress may be "good" for you. Extensive evidence has now sufficiently accumulated demonstrating that low doses of a vast range of chemical and physical agents induce protective/beneficial effects while the opposite occurs at higher doses, a phenomenon known as hormesis. Low doses of environmental agents have recently induced autophagy, a critical adaptive response that protects essentially all cell types, as well as being transgenerational via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730409/study-on-the-interaction-mechanism-between-cefradine-and-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-in-water-solutions-under-dark-condition
#5
Jiashun Cao, Ruixue Jiang, Jiaqin Wang, Jiayu Sun, Qian Feng, Zhilin Zhao, Guodong Chen, Changren Zhou, Erqin Yin
Our research investigated the hormesis effect of cefradine on the specific growth rates (μ) of single-celled algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) from aqueous solutions. We found the specific growth rate of C. reinhardtii slightly increased with cefradine concentrations within the range 0.5-10 mg/L. Effects of algae density, initial solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption batch assays were investigated. The optimum conditions for cefradine adsorption occurred at a density of 5 × 106 algae cells/mL, a solution pH of 7...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705357/low-doses-of-dna-damaging-agents-extend-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-chronological-lifespan-by-promoting-entry-into-quiescence
#6
Emily M Ross, Patrick H Maxwell
A variety of mild stresses have been shown to extend lifespan in diverse species through hormesis, which is a beneficial response to a stress or toxin that would cause a negative response at a higher exposure. Whether particular stresses induce hormesis can vary with genotype for a given species, and the underlying mechanisms of lifespan extension are only partly understood in most cases. We show that low doses of the DNA damaging or replication stress agents hydroxyurea, methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, or Zeocin (a phleomycin derivative) lengthened chronological lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae if cells were exposed during growth, but not if they were exposed during stationary phase...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686593/ethylenediurea-induces-hormesis-in-plants
#7
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao
Tropospheric ozone levels are elevated throughout the northern hemisphere. The potential threat of ozone to vegetation urges for studying plant protection methods. The chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) is the most extensively utilized substance for protecting plants against ozone damage in research projects. This commentary provides collective evidence showing hormetic responses of plants to EDU and suggests that EDU may act as a conditioning agent against elevated ozone exposures. This article also suggests testing different substances in a hormetic framework for protecting plants against ozone damage...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679784/a-swinging-seesaw-as-a-novel-model-mechanism-for-time-dependent-hormesis-under-dose-dependent-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-a-case-study-on-the-toxicity-of-antibacterial-chemicals-to-aliivibrio-fischeri
#8
Haoyu Sun, Edward J Calabrese, Min Zheng, Dali Wang, Yongzheng Pan, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasizes the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimized dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this paper, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674261/acclimatization-of-pisum-sativum-l-grown-in-soil-contaminated-with-veterinary-antibiotics-an-attribute-of-dose-hormetic-response-of-root-metabolites
#9
R P Tasho, W T Shin, J Y Cho
Plant-veterinary antibiotic interaction has been widely studied, however, to the best of our knowledge acclimatization studies with regard to changes in plant root metabolites has not been reported so far. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolome of pea roots under antibiotic stress and their role in acclimatization. Pisum sativum L. was grown in soil contaminated with three commonly used veterinary antibiotics - kanamycin (KA), sulfamethazine (SA), and tetracycline (TC). In response to antibiotic stress, plants accumulated different types of low molecular weight compounds that provided protection from stress by contributing to ROS detoxification, protection of membrane integrity, efficient signaling, cell wall function, and cellular osmotic adjustment (glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, octadecadienoic acid, l-proline)...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665552/emission-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-plants-shows-a-biphasic-pattern-within-an-hormetic-context
#10
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released to the atmosphere from vegetation. BVOCs aid in maintaining ecosystem sustainability via a series of functions, however, VOCs can alter tropospheric photochemistry and negatively affect biological organisms at high concentrations. Due to their critical role in ecosystem and environmental sustainability, BVOCs receive particular attention by global change biologists. To understand how plant VOC emissions affect stress responses within a dose-response context, dose responses should be evaluated...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610550/non-specific-protein-modifications-may-be-novel-mechanism-underlying-bioactive-phytochemicals
#11
REVIEW
Akira Murakami
In a variety of experimental models, dietary phytochemicals have been demonstrated to exhibit pronounced and versatile bioactivities. Importantly, the possibility of such phytochemicals for human application has been supported in part by epidemiological surveys, which have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits containing abundant phytochemicals lowers the risk of onset of various diseases. However, the action mechanisms underlying those dietary phytochemical activities remain to be fully elucidated...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609109/effects-of-cadmium-on-calcium-homeostasis-in-the-white-rot-fungus-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#12
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jihai Shao, Anwei Chen, Cui Shang, Xinjiang Hu, Si Luo, Ming Lei, Liang Peng, Qingru Zeng
Due to the widespread application of white-rot fungi for the treatment of pollutants, it's crucial to exploit the special effects of pollutants on the microbes. Here, we studied the effects of cadmium on calcium homeostasis in the most studied white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The response of P. chrysosporium to cadmium stress is concentration-dependent. A high concentration of cadmium caused the release of calcium from P. chrysosporium, while a hormesis effect was observed at a lower cadmium concentration (10 μM), which resulted in a significant increase in calcium uptake and reversed the decrease in cell viability...
March 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607734/hormesis-and-radiation-safety-norms-comments-for-an-update
#13
S V Jargin
Hormesis can be explained by evolutionary adaptation to the current level of a factor present in the natural environment or to some average from the past. This pertains also to ionizing radiation as the natural background has been decreasing during the time of the life existence. DNA damage and repair are normally in a dynamic balance. The conservative nature of the DNA repair suggests that cells may have retained some capability to repair damage from higher radiation levels than that existing today. According to this concept, the harm caused by radioactive contamination would tend to zero with a dose rate tending to a wide range level of the natural radiation background...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605769/phytochemicals-induced-hormesis-protects-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-protein-aggregation-and-stress-through-modulating-hsf-1-and-skn-1-nrf2-signaling-pathways
#14
Shanmugam Govindan, Mohankumar Amirthalingam, Kalaiselvi Duraisamy, Thiruppathi Govindhan, Nivitha Sundararaj, Sundararaj Palanisamy
Mild stress activates the adaptive cellular response for the subsequent severe stress called hormesis. Hormetic stress plays a vital role to activate multiple stress-responsive genes for the benefit of an organism. In tropical regions of world, tubers of Dioscorea spp. has been extensively used in folk medicine and also consumed as food. In this study, we report that the phytochemicals of Dioscorea alata L., tubers extends the lifespan of nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans by hormetic mechanism. We showed that the low dose of tubers extract at 200 and 300 μg/mL extends the mean lifespan of wild-type worms, whereas higher doses are found to be toxic...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594892/hormesis-and-paradoxical-effects-of-pea-pisum-sativum-l-parameters-upon-exposure-to-formaldehyde-in-a-wide-range-of-doses
#15
Elena A Erofeeva
Formaldehyde is a widespread pollutant of soil near roads including agricultural lands. Non-monotonic changes (hormesis and paradoxical effects) in chlorophyll (Ch) and carotenoid (Car) contents, the lipid peroxidation (LP) rate in plant leaves and growth parameters (GP) of plants can be caused by various pollutants. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response phenomenon, characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. The remaining types of non-monotonic responses are classified as paradoxical effects...
March 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574698/biphasic-effects-of-thc-in-memory-and-cognition
#16
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese, Alberto Rubio-Casillas
A generally undesired effect of cannabis smoking is a reversible disruption of short term memory induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. However, this paradigm has been recently challenged by a group of scientists who have shown that THC is also able to improve neurological function in old animals when chronically administered at low concentrations. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that THC paradoxically promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer Disease, protects from inflammation-induced cognitive damage and restores memory and cognitive function in old mice...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574014/notch-signaling-and-neuronal-death-in-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Thiruma V Arumugam, Sang-Ha Baik, Priyanka Balaganapathy, Christopher G Sobey, Mark P Mattson, Dong-Gyu Jo
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and death, with the outcome largely determined by the amount of hypoxia-related neuronal death in the affected brain regions. Cerebral ischemia and hypoxia activate the Notch1 signaling pathway and four prominent interacting pathways (NF-κB, p53, HIF-1α and Pin1) that converge on a conserved DNA-associated nuclear multi-protein complex, which controls the expression of genes that can determine the fate of neurons. When neurons experience a moderate level of ischemic insult, the nuclear multi-protein complex up-regulates adaptive stress response genes encoding proteins that promote neuronal survival, but when ischemia is more severe the nuclear multi-protein complex induces genes encoding proteins that trigger and execute a neuronal death program...
March 21, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550253/the-rare-earth-element-ree-lanthanum-la-induces-hormesis-in-plants
#18
EDITORIAL
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534471/nanoparticle-exposure-and-hormetic-dose-responses-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529575/a-combined-effect-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-and-aquaculture-effluent-on-growth-and-antioxidative-response-of-mangrove-plants
#20
Shazia Farzana, Nora Fung Yee Tam
Mangrove wetland receives nutrient-rich aquaculture effluent (AE) from nearby farming activities and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the production and usage of flame retardants. The effects of BDE-209 (the most common PBDE congener), AE and their combination on two true mangrove species, namely Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, were compared in a 6-month microcosm study. Results showed that K. obovata was more sensitive to these contaminants than A. marina, as reflected by its enhanced production of leaf superoxide (O2 -∗ ) by BDE-209 and root malondialdehyde (MDA) by the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment...
June 2018: Chemosphere
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