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Hormesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923722/high-doses-of-ethylenediurea-edu-as-soil-drenches-did-not-increase-leaf-n-content-or-cause-phytotoxicity-in-willow-grown-in-fertile-soil
#1
Evgenios Agathokleous, Elena Paoletti, William J Manning, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Costas J Saitanis, Takayoshi Koike
Ground-level ozone (O3) levels are nowadays elevated in wide regions of the Earth, causing significant effects on plants that finally lead to suppressed productivity and yield losses. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a chemical compound which is widely used in research projects as phytoprotectant against O3 injury. The EDU mode of action remains still unclear, while there are indications that EDU may contribute to plants with nitrogen (N) when the soil is poor in N and the plants have relatively small leaf area. To reveal whether the N content of EDU acts as a fertilizer to plants when the soil is not poor in N and the plants have relatively large total plant leaf area, willow plants (Salix sachalinensis Fr...
September 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884409/chronic-exposure-to-rapamycin-and-episodic-serum-starvation-modulate-ageing-of-human-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#2
Lakshman Sodagam, Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk, Suresh I S Rattan
Mild stress-induced activation of stress response (SR) pathways, such as autophagy, heat shock response, oxidative SR, DNA damage response, and inflammatory response, can be potentially health beneficial. Using the model system of cellular ageing and replicative senescence in vitro, we have studied the ageing modulatory effects of the two conditions, rapamycin and serum starvation. Chronic exposure to 0.1, 1 and 10 nM rapamycin positively modulated the survival, growth, morphology, telomere length, DNA methylation levels, 8-oxo-dG level in DNA, N(6)-methyl-adenosine level in RNA, and ethanol stress tolerance of serially passaged normal human skin fibroblasts...
September 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844286/metal-nanoparticle-induced-hormetic-activation-a-novel-mechanism-of-homeopathic-medicines
#3
Prashant S Chikramane, Akkihebbal K Suresh, Shantaram G Kane, Jayesh R Bellare
BACKGROUND: High-potency homeopathic remedies, 30c and 200c have enormous dilution factors of 10(60) and 10(400) respectively. Therefore, the presence of physical entities in them is inconceivable. As a result, their efficacy is highly debated and often dismissed as a placebo. Despite several hypotheses postulated to explain the claimed homeopathic efficacy, none have satisfactorily answered the qualms of the sceptics. Against all beliefs and principles of conventional dilution, we have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) of the starting metals are unequivocally found in the 30c and 200c remedies at concentrations of a few pg/ml...
August 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844284/hormesis-and-homeopathy-a-step-forward
#4
EDITORIAL
Edward J Calabrese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837107/the-influence-of-lead-on-generation-of-signalling-molecules-and-accumulation-of-flavonoids-in-pea-seedlings-in-response-to-pea-aphid-infestation
#5
Agnieszka Woźniak, Kinga Drzewiecka, Jacek Kęsy, Łukasz Marczak, Dorota Narożna, Marcin Grobela, Rafał Motała, Jan Bocianowski, Iwona Morkunas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects), on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski) seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A...
August 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830010/contradictory-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment
#6
Zhiya Sheng, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou, Yang Liu
Increased amount of nano-silver will be released into domestic and industrial waste streams due to its extensive application. However, great controversy still exists on the effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag-NP) on biological wastewater treatment processes and a toxicology model has not been built yet. Four sequencing batch reactors with activated sludge has been run for over three months with different silver species at a concentration of 1mg Ag/L in influent. Both freshly prepared Ag-NPs and aged Ag-NPs were tested with released silver ion as control...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818514/effects-of-low-dose-irradiation-on-mice-with-escherichia-coli-induced-sepsis
#7
Kyung-Hee Song, Seung-Youn Jung, Seong-Ho Kho, Sang-Gu Hwang, Hunjoo Ha, Seon Young Nam, Jie-Young Song
Although favorable immune responses to low-dose irradiation (LDI) have been observed in normal mice, i.e., a hormesis effect, little is known about the effects of LDI in infectious diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of LDI on mice with sepsis, a severe and often lethal hyperinflammatory response to bacteria. Female C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 10cGy 48h before Escherichia coli infection, and survival, bacterial clearance, cytokines, and antioxidants were quantified. LDI pretreatment significantly increased survival from 46...
October 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804462/heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-origins-in-within-life-epigenetics
#8
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce "ON CALL" molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance-HACT). The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796579/effects-of-localized-x-ray-irradiation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-transected-sciatic-nerve-in-rats
#9
Bo Jiang, Yong Zhang, Jiaju Zhao, Chang She, Xiaozhong Zhou, Qirong Dong, Peiji Wang
Low-dose radiation has been used in clinical and experimental models for the prevention of scarring and for fracture healing. There is evidence that low-dose radiation improves the hormesis of various cell types but little is known about its effects on peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of low-dose radiation on the regeneration of transectional peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats received transection injury to the left sciatic nerves, and the nerves were subsequently sutured by epineurium end-to-end anastomosis to restore continuity...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782034/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-nitrification-and-associated-nitrous-oxide-production-in-aquatic-environments
#10
Yanling Zheng, Lijun Hou, Min Liu, Silvia E Newell, Guoyu Yin, Chendi Yu, Hongli Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Dengzhou Gao, Juan Gao, Rong Wang, Cheng Liu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most common materials in nanotechnology-based consumer products globally. Because of the wide application of AgNPs, their potential environmental impact is currently a highly topical focus of concern. Nitrification is one of the processes in the nitrogen cycle most susceptible to AgNPs but the specific effects of AgNPs on nitrification in aquatic environments are not well understood. We report the influence of AgNPs on nitrification and associated nitrous oxide (N2O) production in estuarine sediments...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763102/resistance-to-hydrogen-peroxide-highlights-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-sensitivity-to-geomagnetic-activity
#11
Paulo Vale
The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Microscopical examination revealed striking dose-response alterations in chain formation above 245 μM: singlets replaced the dominance of long chain formations. These observations were valid for cells acclimated to halogen light. Under fluorescent light, cells were more resistant to modifications in chain length after H2 O2 exposure. Growth along 9-hour in the presence of extracelular H2 O2 followed an hormesis response in both light regimes...
August 1, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715457/an-analogous-wood-barrel-theory-to-explain-the-occurrence-of-hormesis-a-case-study-of-sulfonamides-and-erythromycin-on-escherichia-coli-growth
#12
Dali Wang, Zhifen Lin, Ting Wang, Xiruo Ding, Ying Liu
Hormesis has aroused much attention during the past two decades and may have great implications on many fields, including toxicology and risk assessment. However, the observation of hormesis remains challenged under laboratory conditions. To determine favorable conditions under which to observe hormesis, we investigated the hormetic responses of Escherichia coli (E. coli) upon exposure of different concentrations of sulfonamides and erythromycin at different time points and in different culture media: Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and Mueller Hinton (MH) broth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699353/radiation-hormesis-the-link-to-nanomolar-hydrogen-peroxide
#13
Helmut Sies, Ludwig E Feinendegen
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable product of water radiolysis, occurring at nanomolar concentration upon low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (<100 mGy). In view of the recent recognition of H2O2 as a central redox signaling molecule that, likewise, is maintained in the nanomolar range in cells, we propose a role for H2O2 in radiation hormesis. LDIR is capable of utilizing known molecular redox master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB to effect adaptive resistance. This leads to the hypothesis that, as a normal component of the exposome, LDIR mediates hormetic effects by H2O2 signaling...
August 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694745/model-averaging-with-aic-weights-for-hypothesis-testing-of-hormesis-at-low-doses
#14
Steven B Kim, Nathan Sanders
For many dose-response studies, large samples are not available. Particularly, when the outcome of interest is binary rather than continuous, a large sample size is required to provide evidence for hormesis at low doses. In a small or moderate sample, we can gain statistical power by the use of a parametric model. It is an efficient approach when it is correctly specified, but it can be misleading otherwise. This research is motivated by the fact that data points at high experimental doses have too much contribution in the hypothesis testing when a parametric model is misspecified...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685415/sublethal-and-hormesis-effects-of-beta-cypermethrin-on-the-biology-life-table-parameters-and-reproductive-potential-of-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines
#15
Yanyan Qu, Da Xiao, Junjie Liu, Zhou Chen, Lifang Song, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Xiwu Gao, Dunlun Song
Beta-cypermethrin has long been recommended as an effective pesticide to control the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, a serious pest in soybean crops. Besides acute toxicity, it leads to changes in life history traits of A. glycines, notably its reproductive potential. This study has assessed the effects of five sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/L) of beta-cypermethrin on different life history traits of A. glycines. Exposure to these concentrations caused shorter oviposition period and reduced adult longevity...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677849/evaluation-of-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-expressing-an-altered-target-site-epsps
#16
R Douglas Sammons, Jinsong You, Youlin Qi, Stanislaw Flasinski, Christina Kavanaugh, Jeannie Washam, Elizabeth Ostrander, Dafu Wang, Greg Heck
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass has recently evolved and is homozygous for the double mutant of EPSPS (T102 I, P106 S or TIPS). These same mutations combined with EPSPS overexpression, have been used to create transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. Arabidopsis thaliana (Wt EPSPS Ki  ∼ 0.5 μM) was engineered to express a variant AtEPSPS-T102 I, P106 A (TIPA Ki  = 150 μM) to determine the resistance magnitude for a more potent variant EPSPS that might evolve in weeds...
July 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676501/lifespan-extension-by-peroxidase-dual-oxidase-mediated-ros-signaling-through-pyrroloquinoline-quinone-in-c-elegans
#17
Hiroyuki Sasakura, Hiroki Moribe, Masahiko Nakano, Kazuto Ikemoto, Kosei Takeuchi, Ikue Mori
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), originally characterized based on their harmful effects on cells or organisms, are now recognized as important signal molecules regulating various biological processes. In particular, low levels of ROS released from mitochondria extend lifespan. Here, we identified a novel mechanism of generating appropriate levels of ROS at the plasma membrane through a peroxidase/dual oxidase system, which could extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). A redox co-factor, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), activates dual oxidase (DUOX)/BLI-3 to produce the ROS H2O2 at the plasma membrane, which is subsequently degraded by peroxidase/MLT-7, eventually ensuring the adequate levels of ROS...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622829/investigation-of-j-shaped-dose-responses-induced-by-exposure-to-the-alkylating-agent-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea
#18
Katherine E Chapman, George R Hoffmann, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
Hormesis is defined as a biphasic dose-response where biological effects of low doses of a stressor demonstrate the opposite effect to high-dose effects of the same stressor. Hormetic, or J-shaped, dose-response relationships are relatively rarely observed in toxicology, resulting in a limited understanding and even some skepticism of the concept. Low dose-response studies for genotoxicity endpoints have been performed at Swansea University for over a decade. However, no statistically significant decreases below control genotoxicity levels have been detected until recently...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617331/hormesis-and-defense-of-infectious-disease
#19
REVIEW
Sebastian Weis, Ignacio Rubio, Kristin Ludwig, Cynthia Weigel, Elisa Jentho
Infectious diseases are a global health burden and remain associated with high social and economic impact. Treatment of affected patients largely relies on antimicrobial agents that act by directly targeting microbial replication. Despite the utility of host specific therapies having been assessed in previous clinical trials, such as targeting the immune response via modulating the cytokine release in sepsis, results have largely been frustrating and did not lead to the introduction of new therapeutic tools...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599128/acute-and-chronic-sensitivity-to-copper-of-a-promising-ecotoxicological-model-species-the-annual-killifish-nothobranchius-furzeri
#20
Charlotte Philippe, Arnout F Grégoir, Lizanne Janssens, Tom Pinceel, Gudrun De Boeck, Luc Brendonck
Nothobranchius furzeri is a promising model for ecotoxicological research due to the species' short life cycle and the production of drought-resistant eggs. Although the species is an emerging vertebrate fish model for several fundamental as well as applied research domains, its potential for ecotoxicological research has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to characterise the acute and chronic sensitivity of this species to copper as compared to other model organisms. Effects of both acute and chronic copper exposure were tested on survival, life history and physiological traits...
June 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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