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Germano L D Leite, Paula D De Paulo, José C Zanuncio, Wagner De S Tavares, Anarelly C Alvarenga, Luan R Dourado, Edilson P R Bispo, Marcus A Soares
Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Guozi Yang, Dehai Yu, Wei Li, Yuguang Zhao, Xue Wen, Xinyue Liang, Xiaoying Zhang, Lei Zhou, Jifan Hu, Chao Niu, Huimin Tian, Fujun Han, Xiao Chen, Lihua Dong, Lu Cai, Jiuwei Cui
Low-dose radiation (LDR) induces hormesis and adaptive response in normal cells but not in cancer cells, suggesting its potential protection of normal tissue against damage induced by conventional radiotherapy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well established. We addressed this in the present study by examining the role of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling pathway in response to LDR using A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and HBE135-E6E7 (HBE) normal lung epithelial cells. We found that LDR-activated ATM was the initiating event in hormesis and adaptive response to LDR in HBE cells...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Mireille M J P E Sthijns, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Guido R M M Haenen
Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH) system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arturo Bujarrabal, Björn Schumacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Cell Cycle
C Sugie, Y Shibamoto, S Hashimoto, T Tsuchiya, M Matsuo, T Kawai, H Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Anna Signorile, Maria Laura Ontario, Sergio Castorina, Concetta De Pasquale, Gunter Eckert, Edward J Calabrese
Vascular dementia (VaD), considered the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer disease in the elderly, involves the impairment of memory and cognitive function as a consequence of cerebrovascular disease. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a common pathophysiological condition frequently occurring in VaD. It is generally associated with neurovascular degeneration, in which neuronal damage and blood-brain barrier alterations coexist and evoke beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammasome- promoted neuroinflammation, which contribute to and exacerbate the course of disease...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Haoyu Sun, Hongming Ge, Min Zheng, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Previous studies have identified a phenomenon in which the concentration-response curves (CRCs) for mixtures cross the curves for concentration addition model when predicting or judging joint toxic actions. However, mechanistic investigations of this phenomenon are extremely limited. In this study, a similar phenomenon was observed when we determined the joint toxic actions of sulfonamides (SAs) and erythromycin (ERY) on Escherichia coli (E. coli), which we named the "cross-phenomenon", and it was characterized by antagonism in the low-concentration range, addition in the medium-concentration range, and synergism in the high-concentration range...
2016: Scientific Reports
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Xian Chen, Xiaorong Wang, Xueyuan Gu, Yang Jiang, Rong Ji
Soil toxicological tests are commonly performed using Eisenia fetida as the standard earthworm species, but it is tolerant to a wide range of pollutants. Therefore, the inclusion of susceptible species is crucial for the accurate estimation of soil contamination. In this study, we examined the sensitivity to soil cadmium (Cd) of anecic Metaphire guillelmi and epigeic E. fetida by measuring multiple indexes of oxidative stress. Using subcellular partitioning analysis, we further elucidated the inherent mechanism underlying the species-specific sensitivity of the two earthworm species...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marcus J C Long, Yimon Aye
This perspective sets out to critically evaluate the scope of reactive electrophilic small molecules as unique chemical signal carriers in biological information transfer cascades. We consider these electrophilic cues as a new volatile cellular currency and compare them to canonical signaling circulation such as phosphate in terms of chemical properties, biological specificity, sufficiency, and necessity. The fact that nonenzymatic redox sensing properties are found in proteins undertaking varied cellular tasks suggests that electrophile signaling is a moonlighting phenomenon manifested within a privileged set of sensor proteins...
October 2, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Kathrin Pallauf, Nils Duckstein, Gerald Rimbach
Epidemiological data on consumption of flavonoid-containing food points to the notion that some of these secondary plant metabolites may favour healthy ageing. The aim of the present paper was to review the literature on lifespan extension by flavonoids in worms, flies and mice. In most studies, worms and flies experienced lifespan extension when supplemented with flavonoids either as extracts or single compounds. Studies with mutant worms and flies give hints as to which gene products may be regulated by flavonoids and consequently enhance longevity...
September 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Salvatore Chirumbolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Qingzhu Zhang, Yanqiang Li, Tao Xu, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Dong Wang, Liang Zeng, Lan Yang, Li He, Heng Zhang, Zhimin Zheng, Dong-Lei Yang, Cheng Zhao, Juan Dong, Zhizhong Gong, Renyi Liu, Jian-Kang Zhu
In plants, hybrid vigor is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms; however, the molecular pathways are poorly understood. We investigated the potential contributions of epigenetic regulators to heterosis in Arabidposis and found that the chromatin remodeler DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1) affects early seedling growth heterosis in Col/C24 hybrids. ddm1 mutants showed impaired heterosis and increased expression of non-additively expressed genes related to salicylic acid metabolism. Interestingly, our data suggest that salicylic acid is a hormetic regulator of seedling growth heterosis, and that hybrid vigor arises from crosses that produce optimal salicylic acid levels...
2016: Cell Discovery
Alistair V W Nunn, Geoffrey W Guy, Jimmy D Bell
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of course the emergence of the eukaryote and the advent of the mitochondrion, which both enhanced energy production per cell and increased the ability to process, store and utilize information...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Pernille Sarup, Simon Metz Mariendal Petersen, Niels Chr Nielsen, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
Heat-induced hormesis, the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. Yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the long-term effects of repeated mild heat treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured...
November 2016: Biogerontology
William W Stringer, Harry B Rossiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Daniele Lettieri Barbato, Giuseppe Tatulli, Katia Aquilano, Maria R R Ciriolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Aging
Wenjie Ren, Haiwei Chang, Ying Teng
The present study investigated the impact of sulfonated graphene (SG) on the growth of maize seedlings at a concentration range of 0-500mgL(-1). Stress-related parameters including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular Ca(2+), antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, membrane leakage, cell death and root morphology were examined to reveal the potential mechanisms. The results indicate that SG induced a hormesis effect on plant height, i.e., low-concentration (50mgL(-1)) stimulation and high-concentration (500mgL(-1)) inhibition...
August 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhichun Xie, Jinshuan Fan, Marie Thérèse Charles, Denis Charlebois, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel, Zhimin Zhang
Postharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) hormesis has been shown effective for the treatment of the edible part of several horticultural crops such as strawberry fruit; however, there is a lack of information on its potential preharvest impact. In the present study three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. 'Albion', 'Charlotte' and 'Seascape') were exposed to UV-C during two growth seasons for a period of three weeks. Treatment begins when the first flowers were wide open and fruits at commercial maturity were harvested within one week after UV treatment...
July 29, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Federico H Gomez, Pablo Sambucetti, Fabian M Norry
An extremely high (about 100 %) increase in longevity is reported for a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster subjected to a cyclic heat stress throughout the adult life. Previous work showed that both longevity and heat sensitivity highly differed among RILs. The novel heat stress treatment used in this study consisted of 5 min at 38 °C applicated approximately every 125 min throughout the adult life starting at the age of 2 days. In spite of the exceptionally high increase in longevity in a set of RILs, the same heat stress treatment reduced rather than increased longevity in other RILs, suggesting that heat-induced hormesis is dependent on the genotype and/or the genetic background...
November 2016: Biogerontology
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