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Hormesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223993/diacylglycerol-kinases-are-widespread-in-higher-plants-and-display-inducible-gene-expression-in-response-to-beneficial-elements-metal-and-metalloid-ions
#1
Hugo F Escobar-Sepúlveda, Libia I Trejo-Téllez, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan V Hidalgo-Contreras, Fernando C Gómez-Merino
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are pivotal signaling enzymes that phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to yield phosphatidic acid (PA). The biosynthesis of PA from phospholipase D (PLD) and the coupled phospholipase C (PLC)/DGK route is a crucial signaling process in eukaryotic cells. Next to PLD, the PLC/DGK pathway is the second most important generator of PA in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In eukaryotic cells, DGK, DAG, and PA are implicated in vital processes such as growth, development, and responses to environmental cues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#2
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208665/effect-of-photon-hormesis-on-dose-responses-to-alpha-particles-in-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Candy Yuen Ping Ng, Shuk Han Cheng, Kwan Ngok Yu
Photon hormesis refers to the phenomenon where the biological effect of ionizing radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET) value is diminished by photons with a low LET value. The present paper studied the effect of photon hormesis from X-rays on dose responses to alpha particles using embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the in vivo vertebrate model. The toxicity of these ionizing radiations in the zebrafish embryos was assessed using the apoptotic counts at 20, 24, or 30 h post fertilization (hpf) revealed through acridine orange (AO) staining...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198373/hormetic-heat-stress-and-hsf-1-induce-autophagy-to-improve-survival-and-proteostasis-in-c-elegans
#4
Caroline Kumsta, Jessica T Chang, Jessica Schmalz, Malene Hansen
Stress-response pathways have evolved to maintain cellular homeostasis and to ensure the survival of organisms under changing environmental conditions. Whereas severe stress is detrimental, mild stress can be beneficial for health and survival, known as hormesis. Although the universally conserved heat-shock response regulated by transcription factor HSF-1 has been implicated as an effector mechanism, the role and possible interplay with other cellular processes, such as autophagy, remains poorly understood...
February 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167448/lessons-to-be-learned-from-a-contentious-challenge-to-mainstream-radiobiological-science-the-linear-no-threshold-theory-of-genetic-mutations
#5
Jan Beyea
There are both statistically valid and invalid reasons why scientists with differing default hypotheses can disagree in high-profile situations. Examples can be found in recent correspondence in this journal, which may offer lessons for resolving challenges to mainstream science, particularly when adherents of a minority view attempt to elevate the status of outlier studies and/or claim that self-interest explains the acceptance of the dominant theory. Edward J. Calabrese and I have been debating the historical origins of the linear no-threshold theory (LNT) of carcinogenesis and its use in the regulation of ionizing radiation...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134809/hormetic-response-to-low-dose-radiation-focus-on-the-immune-system-and-its-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Jiuwei Cui, Guozi Yang, Zhenyu Pan, Yuguang Zhao, Xinyue Liang, Wei Li, Lu Cai
The interrelationship between ionizing radiation and the immune system is complex, multifactorial, and dependent on radiation dose/quality and immune cell type. High-dose radiation usually results in immune suppression. On the contrary, low-dose radiation (LDR) modulates a variety of immune responses that have exhibited the properties of immune hormesis. Although the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood yet, LDR has been used clinically for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and malignant tumors...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115234/positive-effects-of-intermittent-fasting-in-ischemic-stroke
#7
David Yang-Wei Fann, Gavin Yong Quan Ng, Luting Poh, Thiruma V Arumugam
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary protocol where energy restriction is induced by alternate periods of ad libitum feeding and fasting. Prophylactic intermittent fasting has been shown to extend lifespan and attenuate the progress and severity of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular (e.g. stroke and myocardial infarction), neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) and cancerous diseases in animal models. Stroke is the second leading cause of death, and lifestyle risk factors such as obesity and physical inactivity have been associated with elevated risks of stroke in humans...
January 20, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112228/hormetic-effect-of-panaxatriol-saponins-confers-neuroprotection-in-pc12-cells-and-zebrafish-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-ampk-sirt1-foxo3-pathways
#8
Chao Zhang, Chuwen Li, Shenghui Chen, Zhiping Li, Lijuan Ma, Xuejing Jia, Kai Wang, Jiaolin Bao, Yeer Liang, Meiwan Chen, Peng Li, Huanxing Su, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Kechun Liu, Jian-Bo Wan, Chengwei He
Hormesis is an adaptive response of living organisms to a moderate stress. However, its biomedical implication and molecular mechanisms remain to be intensively investigated. Panaxatriol saponins (PTS) is the major bioactive components extracted from Panax notoginseng, a widely used herbal medicine for cerebrovascular diseases. This study aims to examine the hormetic and neuroprotective effects of PTS in PC12 cells and zebrafish Parkinson's disease (PD) models. Our results demonstrated that PTS stimulated PC12 cell growth by about 30% at low doses, while PTS at high doses inhibited cell growth, which is a typical hormetic effect...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110148/ciprofloxacin-induces-oxidative-stress-in-duckweed-lemna-minor-l-implications-for-energy-metabolism-and-antibiotic-uptake-ability
#9
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Cíntia Almeida Gonçalves, Júlio César Moreira de Brito, Amanda Miranda Souza, Fernanda Vieira da Silva Cruz, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Cleber Cunha Figueredo, Queila Souza Garcia
We investigate the physiological responses and antibiotic-uptake capacity of Lemna minor exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) induced toxic effects and hormesis in plants by significantly modifying photosynthesis and respiration pathways. A toxic effect was induced by a concentration ≥1.05mg ciprofloxacin l(-1) while hormesis occurs at the lowest concentration studied (0.75mg ciprofloxacin l(-1)). By impairing normal electron flow in the respiratory electron transport chain, ciprofloxacin induces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109747/silver-nanoparticles-induce-hormesis-in-a549-human-epithelial-cells
#10
Mireille M J P E Sthijns, Waluree Thongkam, Catrin Albrecht, Bryan Hellack, Aalt Bast, Guido R M M Haenen, Roel P F Schins
Despite the gaps in our knowledge on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the application of these materials is fast expanding, from medicine, to food as well as the use in consumer products. It has been reported that prolonged exposure might make cells more resistant to AgNPs. This prompted us to investigate if AgNPs may give rise to a hormetic response. Two types of AgNPs were used, i.e. colloidal AgNPs and an AgNP powder. For both types of nanosilver it was found that a low dose pretreatment of A549 human epithelial cells with AgNPs induced protection against a toxic dose of AgNPs and acrolein...
January 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098843/perm-hypothesis-the-fundamental-machinery-able-to-elucidate-the-role-of-xenobiotics-and-hormesis-in-cell-survival-and-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM) hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (M) is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy) and stress response...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094904/hormetic-effects-of-glyphosate-on-plants
#12
REVIEW
Ivana Pfs Brito, Leandro Tropaldi, Caio A Carbonari, Edivaldo D Velini
As all herbicides act on pathways or processes crucial to plants, in an inhibitory or stimulatory way, low rates of any herbicide might be used to modulate plant growth, development, or plant composition. Glyphosate is the most used pesticide in the world, and very low rates of this herbicide can stimulate plant growth, an effect called hormesis. Several studies have shown that glyphosate applications at low rates can increase plant growth, induce shikimic acid accumulation, increase photosynthesis and stomatal opening, increase seed production, and shorten the plant life cycle...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071239/induction-by-arsenate-of-cell-type-specific-cytotoxic-effects-in-nerve-and-hepatoma-cells
#13
Wafa Kharroubi, Thomas Nury, Samia Haj Ahmed, Pierre Andreoletti, Rachid Sakly, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of sodium arsenate (AsV) on two different cell types: 158N murine oligodendrocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Exposure of 158N cells to AsV (0.1-400 µM; 48 h) induced a biphasic cytoxic effect defined as hormesis. Thus, low concentrations of AsV stimulate cell proliferation, as shown by phase-contrast microscopy, cell counting with trypan blue, and crystal violet assay, whereas high concentrations induce cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067237/environmental-stresses-induce-transgenerationally-inheritable-survival-advantages-via-germline-to-soma-communication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Saya Kishimoto, Masaharu Uno, Emiko Okabe, Masanori Nono, Eisuke Nishida
Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931527/radiobiology-in-cardiovascular-imaging
#15
REVIEW
Pat Zanzonico, Lawrence Dauer, H William Strauss
The introduction of ionizing radiation in medicine revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of disease and dramatically improved and continues to improve the quality of health care. Cardiovascular imaging and medical imaging in general, however, are associated with a range of radiobiologic effects, including, in rare instances, moderate to severe skin damage resulting from cardiac fluoroscopy. For the dose range associated with diagnostic imaging (corresponding to effective doses on the order of 10 mSv [1 rem]), the possible effects are stochastic in nature and largely theoretical...
December 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898662/kinase-inhibition-leads-to-hormesis-in-a-dual-phosphorylation-dephosphorylation-cycle
#17
Peter Rashkov, Ian P Barrett, Robert E Beardmore, Claus Bendtsen, Ivana Gudelj
Many antimicrobial and anti-tumour drugs elicit hormetic responses characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. While this can have profound consequences for human health, with low drug concentrations actually stimulating pathogen or tumour growth, the mechanistic understanding behind such responses is still lacking. We propose a novel, simple but general mechanism that could give rise to hormesis in systems where an inhibitor acts on an enzyme. At its core is one of the basic building blocks in intracellular signalling, the dual phosphorylation-dephosphorylation motif, found in diverse regulatory processes including control of cell proliferation and programmed cell death...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898171/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia-early-onset-versus-late-onset-state
#18
REVIEW
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Martino Ruggieri, Rio Bianchini, Maria Laura Ontario, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Edward J Calabrese
Abnormal redox homeostasis and oxidative stress have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders. Emerging interest has recently focused on markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in schizophrenic spectrum disorders, at least in particular subgroups of patients. Altered expression of genes related to oxidative stress, oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, as well as reduced glutathione levels in central and peripheral tissues could act synergistically, and contribute to the course of the disease...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886534/differences-in-the-response-of-soil-dehydrogenase-activity-to-cd-contamination-are-determined-by-the-different-substrates-used-for-its-determination
#19
Xiangping Tan, Yanju Liu, Kaihong Yan, Ziquan Wang, Guannan Lu, Yike He, Wenxiang He
Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) is an important indicator of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. Different instances of DHA were determined using various substrates and which could affect the description of heavy metal toxicity. Currently, too few investigations have been done on selecting appropriate substrates. This study employed indoor simulation to determine soil DHA and its response to external cadmium (Cd) using two substrates (TTC and INT). Hormesis for DHA obtained using the TTC method (DHA-TTC) in low Cd concentration was observed which was quickly inhibited in high Cd concentration...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#20
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
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