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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331962/splicing-variant-of-wdfy4-augments-mda5-signalling-and-the-risk-of-clinically-amyopathic-dermatomyositis
#1
Yuta Kochi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yuya Kondo, Akari Suzuki, Eiryo Kawakami, Ryosuke Hiwa, Yukihide Momozawa, Manabu Fujimoto, Masatoshi Jinnin, Yoshiya Tanaka, Takashi Kanda, Robert G Cooper, Hector Chinoy, Simon Rothwell, Janine A Lamb, Jiří Vencovský, Heřman Mann, Koichiro Ohmura, Keiko Myouzen, Kazuyoshi Ishigaki, Ran Nakashima, Yuji Hosono, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hidenaga Kawasumi, Yukiko Iwasaki, Hiroshi Kajiyama, Tetsuya Horita, Mariko Ogawa-Momohara, Akito Takamura, Shinichiro Tsunoda, Jun Shimizu, Keishi Fujio, Hirofumi Amano, Akio Mimori, Atsushi Kawakami, Hisanori Umehara, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Hajime Sano, Yoshinao Muro, Tatsuya Atsumi, Toshihide Mimura, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Takayuki Sumida, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune diseases in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. To identify genetic factors of IIM including polymyositis, dermatomyositis (DM) and clinically amyopathic DM (CADM), we performed the first genome-wide association study for IIM in an Asian population. METHODS: We genotyped and tested 496 819 single nucleotide polymorphism for association using 576 patients with IIM and 6270 control subjects...
January 13, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#2
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330323/il-10-deficiency-reveals-a-role-for-tlr2-dependent-bystander-activation-of-t-cells-in-lyme-arthritis
#3
Sarah K Whiteside, Jeremy P Snook, Ying Ma, F Lynn Sonderegger, Colleen Fisher, Charisse Petersen, James F Zachary, June L Round, Matthew A Williams, Janis J Weis
T cells predominate the immune responses in the synovial fluid of patients with persistent Lyme arthritis; however, their role in Lyme disease remains poorly defined. Using a murine model of persistent Lyme arthritis, we observed that bystander activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells leads to arthritis-promoting IFN-γ, similar to the inflammatory environment seen in the synovial tissue of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease. TCR transgenic mice containing monoclonal specificity toward non-Borrelia epitopes confirmed that bystander T cell activation was responsible for disease development...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324282/influence-of-glycan-modification-on-igg1-biochemical-and-biophysical-properties
#4
Jake W Pawlowski, Adriana Bajardi-Taccioli, Damian Houde, Marina Feschenko, Tyler Carlage, Igor A Kaltashov
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of biopharmaceuticals. The specific therapeutic tasks vary among different mAbs, which may include neutralization of soluble targets, activation of cytotoxic pathways, targeted drug delivery, and diagnostic imaging. The specific therapeutic goal defines which interactions of the antibody with its multiple physiological partners are most critical for function, and which ones are irrelevant or indeed detrimental. In this work, we explored the ability of the glycan chains to affect IgG1 interaction with two key receptor families, FcRn and γ-type Fc receptors, as well as the influence of glycan composition on the conformation and stability of the antibody molecule...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319193/house-dust-mite-impairs-antiviral-response-in-asthma-exacerbation-models-through-its-effects-on-tlr3
#5
Hamid Akbarshahi, Mandy Menzel, Sangeetha Ramu, Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Leif Bjermer, Lena Uller
BACKGROUND: Impaired antiviral interferon expression may be involved in asthma exacerbations commonly caused by rhinovirus infections. Allergy is a known risk factor for viral-induced asthma exacerbation, but little is known whether allergens may affect interferon responses. OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis is that house dust mite (HDM) impairs viral stimulus-induced antiviral signalling. METHODS: Experimental asthma exacerbations were produced in vitro in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and in mice by using sequential challenges with HDM and a viral infection mimic, Poly(I:C)...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313959/cardiolipin-activates-antigen-presenting-cells-via-tlr2-pi3k-pkn1-akt-p38-nf-kb-signaling-to-prime-antigen-specific-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-in-mice
#6
Jung-Ah Cho, Tae-Joo Kim, Hye-Jung Moon, Young-Joo Kim, Hye-Kyung Yoon, Seung-Yong Seong
Mitochondrial defects and anti-mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) antibodies are frequently detected in autoimmune disease patients. CL from dysregulated mitochondria activates various pattern recognition receptors, such as NLRP3. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial CL activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as a damage-associated molecular pattern to prime antigen-specific naïve T cells, which is crucial for T-cell-dependent anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody production in autoimmune diseases is unelucidated...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313080/evolution-of-potent-odorants-within-the-volatile-metabolome-of-high-quality-hazelnuts-corylus-avellana-l-evaluation-by-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry
#7
Marta Cialiè Rosso, Erica Liberto, Nicola Spigolon, Mauro Fontana, Marco Somenzi, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#8
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305335/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-toll-like-receptor-13-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#9
Yaosi Liang, Xu Ding, Xue Yu, Yu Wang, Ying Zhou, Jianan He, Yu Shi, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin, Danqi Lu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most important innate immune receptors, which recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns from different pathogens and activate the downstream immune response. Mouse TLR13 has been found to recognize a highly conserved sequence from bacterial or viral RNA and activate the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent signaling response. The function of teleost tlr13 is still not fully understood, especially its relationship with bacterial RNA...
January 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299925/a-chiral-sensor-array-for-peptidoglycan-biosynthesis-monitoring-based-on-mos2-nanosheets-supported-host-guest-recognitions
#10
Feng Zhang, Chenwei Lu, Min Wang, Xinsheng Yu, Weili Wei, Zhining Xia
Monitoring the dynamic change in respects of chirality and species of amino acids in bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) during cell wall biosynthesis is correlating with bacterial taxonomy, physiology, micropathology and antibacterial mechanism. However, this is challenging because ever reported methods are usually lack of the ability of chiral analysis with the co-existence of D- and L-amino acids in PG. Here we report a chiral sensor array for PG biosynthesis monitoring through chiral amino acids recognition. Multi-types of host molecules modified MoS2 nanosheets (MNSs) were used as receptor units to achieve more accurate and specific sensing...
January 4, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298887/evasion-of-cytosolic-dna-stimulated-innate-immune-responses-by-hsv-1
#11
Chunfu Zheng
Recognition of virus-derived nucleic acids by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies revealed that PRRs also include several newly identified DNA sensors, most of which could activate the downstream adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and lead to the production of host antiviral factors. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is extremely successful to establish an effective infection due to its capacity to counteract host innate antiviral responses...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298428/although-abundant-in-tumor-tissue-mast-cells-have-no-effect-on-immunological-micro-milieu-or-growth-of-hpv-induced-or-transplanted-tumors
#12
Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse, Anastasia Polikarpova, Lina Muhandes, Jan Dudeck, Iliana Tantcheva-Poór, Karin Hartmann, Matthias Lesche, Andreas Dahl, Sabine Eming, Werner Müller, Rayk Behrendt, Axel Roers
High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296975/cell-surface-c-type-lectin-like-receptor-clec-1-dampens-dendritic-cell-activation-and-downstream-th17-responses
#13
Maria Dolores Lopez Robles, Annaick Pallier, Virginie Huchet, Laetitia Le Texier, Severine Remy, Cecile Braudeau, Laurence Delbos, Aurelie Moreau, Cedric Louvet, Carole Brosseau, Pierre-Joseph Royer, Antoine Magnan, Franck Halary, Regis Josien, Maria-Cristina Cuturi, Ignacio Anegon, Elise Chiffoleau
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent essential antigen-presenting cells that are critical for linking innate and adaptive immunity, and influencing T-cell responses. Among pattern recognition receptors, DCs express C-type lectin receptors triggered by both exogenous and endogenous ligands, therefore dictating pathogen response, and also shaping T-cell immunity. We previously described in rat, the expression of the orphan C-type lectin-like receptor-1 (CLEC-1) by DCs and demonstrated in vitro its inhibitory role in downstream T helper 17 (Th17) activation...
March 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290139/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-derived-from-the-extracellular-matrix-provide-temporal-control-of-innate-immunity
#14
Charles W Frevert, Jessica Felgenhauer, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Madalina V Nastase, Liliana Schaefer
It is evident that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) through direct interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes. Through these interactions, ECM-derived DAMPs autonomously trigger sterile inflammation or prolong pathogen-induced responses through the production of proinflammatory mediators and the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of injury and infection. Recent research, however, suggests that ECM-derived DAMPs are additionally involved in the resolution and fine-tuning of inflammation by orchestrating the production of anti-inflammatory mediators that are required for the resolution of tissue inflammation and the transition to acquired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290115/lipidated-brartemicin-analogues-are-potent-th1-stimulating-vaccine-adjuvants
#15
Amy J Foster, Masahiro Nagata, Xiuyuan Lu, Amy T Lynch, Zakaria Omahdi, Eri Ishikawa, Sho Yamasaki, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
Effective Th1-stimulating vaccine adjuvants often engage the innate immune system via the activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) expressed on the cell surface of APCs and has been identified as a potential target for Th1-stimulating adjuvants. In particular, trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is a leading Mincle-agonist and has shown much promise as an adjuvant. Herein, we report on the synthesis and adjuvanticity of rationally designed brartemicin analogues containing short, medium, and long chain lipids...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289654/an-alternative-function-of-c-type-lectin-comprising-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-domain-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-to-act-as-a-binding-receptor-for-viral-protein-and-vitellogenin
#16
Pattamaporn Kwankaew, Rachanida Praparatana, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Prapaporn Utarabhand
A diversity of C-type lectins (CTLs) was coming reported and they are known to participate in invertebrate innate immunity by act as pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the present study, a unique CTL containing low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) domain from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (designated as FmLdlr) was cloned. Its sequence contained a single LDLR domain and one carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with a QAP motif putative for galactose-specific binding. The expression of FmLdlr was detected only in hemocytes of healthy shrimp...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288338/toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#17
Stefan Esser, Larissa Göpfrich, Kai Bihler, Eugenia Kress, Stella Nyamoya, Simone C Tauber, Tim Clarner, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Pufe, Markus Kipp, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by myelin abnormalities, oligodendrocyte pathology, and concomitant glia activation. The factors triggering gliosis and demyelination are currently not well characterized. New findings suggest an important role of the innate immune response in the initiation and progression of active demyelinating lesions. Especially during progressive disease, aberrant glia activation rather than the invasion of peripheral immune cells is accountable for progressive neuronal injury...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281921/circadian-clearance-of-a-fungal-pathogen-from-the-lung-is-not-based-on-cell-intrinsic-macrophage-rhythms
#18
Shan Chen, Kevin K Fuller, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
Circadian rhythms govern immune cell function, giving rise to time-of-day variation in the recognition and clearance of bacterial or viral pathogens; to date, however, no such regulation of the host-fungal interaction has been described. In this report, we use murine models to explore circadian control of either fungal-macrophage interactions in vitro or pathogen clearance from the lung in vivo. First, we show that expression of the important fungal pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1 ( clec7a), from either bone marrow-derived or peritoneum-derived macrophages, is not under circadian regulation at either the level of transcript or cell surface protein expression...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273780/extracellular-atp-elicits-dorn1-mediated-rbohd-phosphorylation-to-regulate-stomatal-aperture
#19
Dongqin Chen, Yangrong Cao, Hong Li, Daewon Kim, Nagib Ahsan, Jay Thelen, Gary Stacey
In addition to acting as a cellular energy source, ATP can also act as a damage-associated molecular pattern in both animals and plants. Stomata are leaf pores that control gas exchange and, therefore, impact critical functions such as photosynthesis, drought tolerance, and also are the preferred entry point for pathogens. Here we show the addition of ATP leads to the rapid closure of leaf stomata and enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Psuedomonas syringae. This response is mediated by ATP recognition by the receptor DORN1, followed by direct phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD, resulting in elevated production of reactive oxygen species and stomatal closure...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273304/redundancy-and-robustness-versus-division-of-labour-and-specialization-in-innate-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Mantovani
Apparent redundancy is a recurrent theme in innate immunity in various domains including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and pattern recognition receptors. While sharing core function, different mediators may subserve distinct functions related for instance to production and release (e.g. IL-1α versus IL-1β), predominantly local versus systemic function (e.g. PTX3 versus C-reactive protein) or fine tuning of innate and adaptive responses (chemokines). Based on hard-wired phagocyte recruitment and regulation by a wide spectrum of chemokines and conventional or atypical receptors, I argue that trafficking of phagocytic cells is a robust output of the chemokine system, resistant to genetic or environmental variation...
December 19, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
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