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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736555/%C3%AE-glucan-size-controls-dectin-1-mediated-immune-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-regulating-il-1%C3%AE-production
#1
Matthew J Elder, Steve J Webster, Ronnie Chee, David L Williams, J S Hill Gaston, Jane C Goodall
Dectin-1/CLEC7A is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β-1,3 glucans, and its stimulation initiates signaling events characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines from human dendritic cells (DCs) required for antifungal immunity. β-glucans differ greatly in size, structure, and ability to activate effector immune responses from DC; as such, small particulate β-glucans are thought to be poor activators of innate immunity. We show that β-glucan particle size is a critical factor contributing to the secretion of cytokines from human DC; large β-glucan-stimulated DC generate significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 compared to those stimulated with the smaller β-glucans...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#2
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736216/pathogen-induced-tlr4-trif-innate-immune-signaling-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-promotes-proliferation-but-reduces-competitive-fitness
#3
Hitoshi Takizawa, Kristin Fritsch, Larisa V Kovtonyuk, Yasuyuki Saito, Chakradhar Yakkala, Kurt Jacobs, Akshay K Ahuja, Massimo Lopes, Annika Hausmann, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Álvaro Gomariz, César Nombela-Arrieta, Markus G Manz
Bacterial infection leads to consumption of short-lived innate immune effector cells, which then need to be replenished from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). HSPCs express pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and ligation of these receptors induces HSPC mobilization, cytokine production, and myeloid differentiation. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathogen signal transduction in HSCs and the resulting biological consequences remain poorly defined. Here, we show that in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application induces proliferation of dormant HSCs directly via TLR4 and that sustained LPS exposure impairs HSC self-renewal and competitive repopulation activity...
July 19, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734844/tlr3-blockade-in-rhinovirus-induced-experimental-asthma-exacerbations-a-randomized-controlled-study
#4
Philip E Silkoff, Susan Flavin, Robert Gordon, Mathew J Loza, Peter J Sterk, Rene Lutter, Zuzana Diamant, Ronald B Turner, Brian J Lipworth, David Proud, Dave Singh, Andreas Eich, Vibeke Backer, James E Gern, Christian Herzmann, Scott A Halperin, Tjeert T Mensinga, Alfred M Del Vecchio, Patrick Branigan, Lani San Mateo, Frédéric Baribaud, Elliot S Barnathan, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) commonly precipitate asthma exacerbations. TLR3, an innate pattern-recognition receptor, is triggered by HRV driving inflammation that may worsen asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to TLR3, CNTO3157, on experimental HRV-16 inoculation in healthy and asthmatic subjects. METHODS: In this double-blind multicenter randomized parallel-group study in North America and Europe, healthy and mild-moderate stable asthmatic subjects received single or multiple doses of CNTO 3157 or placebo, respectively, and were then inoculated with HRV-16 within 72 hours...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734174/old-and-new-adjuvants
#5
REVIEW
Amy S McKee, Philippa Marrack
Adjuvants have been deliberately added to vaccines since the 1920's when alum was discovered to boost antibody responses, leading to better protection. The first adjuvants were discovered by accident and were used in the safer but less immunogenic subunit vaccines, supposedly by providing an antigen depot to extend antigen presentation. Since that time, much has been discovered about how these adjuvants impact cells at the tissue site to activate innate immune responses, mobilize dendritic cells and drive adaptive immunity...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#6
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730622/susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-is-influenced-by-toll-like-receptor-2-196-to-174-polymorphism-in-north-indian-population
#7
Sanjukta Vidyant, Animesh Chatterjee, Vikas Agarwal, Tapan N Dhole
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, recognize molecular patterns of pathogens and play an important role in innate immunity. Recent studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in TLR gene impairs the response to TLR ligands in some individuals and is associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of four SNPs in the TLR2 gene, -196 to -174 Ins/Del, 2258 G/A (Arg753Gln), 2029 C/T (Arg677Trp) and 1892 C/A (Pro631His) with susceptibility and progression to HIV-1 in North Indian individuals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#8
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722285/innate-allorecognition-by-monocytic-cells-and-its-role-in-graft-rejection
#9
Fadi G Lakkis, Xian C Li
Innate recognition of microbial products and danger molecules by monocytes and macrophages has been well established; this is mediated primarily by pattern recognition receptors and is central to activation of innate and adaptive immune cells required for productive immunity. Whether monocytes and macrophages are equipped with an allorecognition system that allows them to directly respond to allogeneic grafts is a topic of much debate. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that these cells are capable of recognizing allogeneic entities and mediate graft rejection via direct cytotoxicity and priming of alloreactive T cells...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715499/helicobacter-pylori-modulates-host-cell-responses-by-cagt4ss-dependent-translocation-of-an-intermediate-metabolite-of-lps-inner-core-heptose-biosynthesis
#10
Saskia C Stein, Eugenia Faber, Simon H Bats, Tatiana Murillo, Yvonne Speidel, Nina Coombs, Christine Josenhans
Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714877/alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-in-mammals-and-teleost-fish-a-effective-strategy-for-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-against-pathogen-infection
#11
REVIEW
Ming Xian Chang, Jie Zhang
Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709002/exosome-rna-unshielding-couples-stromal-activation-to-pattern-recognition-receptor-signaling-in-cancer
#12
Barzin Y Nabet, Yu Qiu, Jacob E Shabason, Tony J Wu, Taewon Yoon, Brian C Kim, Joseph L Benci, Angela M DeMichele, Julia Tchou, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Andy J Minn
Interactions between stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells generate signals for cancer progression, therapy resistance, and inflammatory responses. Although endogenous RNAs acting as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may represent one such signal, these RNAs must remain unrecognized under non-pathological conditions. We show that triggering of stromal NOTCH-MYC by breast cancer cells results in a POL3-driven increase in RN7SL1, an endogenous RNA normally shielded by RNA binding proteins SRP9/14...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708994/unshielding-exosomal-rna-unleashes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#13
Irina Matei, Han Sang Kim, David Lyden
Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment drive cancer progression and therapy resistance. In this issue, Nabet et al. demonstrate that dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708509/gdf8-activates-p38-mapk-signaling-during-porcine-oocyte-maturation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#14
Junchul David Yoon, Seon-Ung Hwang, Eunhye Kim, Minghui Jin, Soochong Kim, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Growth Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and has been identified as a strong physiological regulator. This factor is expressed as a paracrine factor in mural granulosa cells. To investigate the effects of GDF8 on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes, we assessed the quality of matured oocytes as well as the specific gene transcription and protein activation levels in oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) after IVM and subsequent embryonic development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA)...
June 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708252/redundant-and-regulatory-roles-for-tlrs-in-leishmania-infection
#15
REVIEW
Prashant Chauhan, Divanshu Shukla, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar Saha
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ-line encoded, non-clonal innate immune receptors, which are often the first receptors to recognize the molecular patterns on pathogens. Therefore, the immune response initiated by TLRs does have far-reaching consequences on the outcome of an infection. As soon as the cell surface TLRs and other receptors recognize a pathogen, the pathogen is phagocytosed. Inclusion of TLRs in the phagosome results in quicker phagosomal maturation and stronger adaptive immune response, as TLRs influence costimulatory molecules expression and determinant selection by MHC class-II and by MHC class-I for cross-presentation...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705724/chse-214-a-model-for-studying-extracellular-dsrna-sensing-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
A L Monjo, S J Poynter, S J DeWitte-Orr
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is produced by almost all viruses during their replicative cycle and is a potent inducer of the innate antiviral immune response including inducing expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). During lytic virus infections intracellular dsRNA can escape into the extracellular space, where surface pattern recognition receptors, such as class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) facilitate its binding and entry into neighbouring cells. Studying extracellular dsRNA entry is difficult due to the ubiquitous expression profile and compensatory dsRNA binding characteristics of SR-As; a SR-A deficient cell line has yet to be identified...
July 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705722/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-tlr5-in-the-mucosal-tissues-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-following-bacterial-challenge
#17
Fengqiao Liu, Baofeng Su, Qiang Fu, Mei Shang, Chengbin Gao, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are very important pathogen pattern recognition receptors, which control the host immune responses against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. In this regard, investigation of the turbot TLRs could help to understand the immune responses for pathogen recognition. Here, transcripts of two TLR5 (TLR5a and TLR5b) were captured, and their protein structures were also predicted. Meanwhile, we characterized their expression patterns with emphasis on mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection...
July 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705469/systematic-prioritization-of-functional-hotspot-in-rig-1-domains-using-pattern-based-conventional-molecular-dynamic-simulation
#18
P Raghuraman, R Jesu Jaya Sudan, J Lesitha Jeeva Kumari, C Sudandiradoss
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-1), multi-domain protein has a role-play in detecting viral nucleic acids and stimulates the antiviral response. Dysfunction of this protein due to mutations makes the route vulnerable to viral diseases. AIM: Identification of functional hotspots that maintains conformational stability in RIG-1 domains. METHODS: In this study, we employed a systematic in silico strategy on RIG-1 protein to understand the mechanism of structural changes upon mutation...
July 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704551/opposing-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-and-cytosolic-dna-sting-signaling-pathways-for-staphylococcus-aureus-cutaneous-host-defense
#19
Philip O Scumpia, Giovanni A Botten, Joshua S Norman, Kindra M Kelly-Scumpia, Roberto Spreafico, Amber R Ruccia, Prabhat K Purbey, Brandon J Thomas, Robert L Modlin, Stephen T Smale
Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways contributing to the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703893/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#20
P-J Yang, M-Y Zhan, C Ye, X-Q Yu, X-J Rao
Peptidoglycan is the major bacterial component recognized by the insect immune system. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize peptidoglycans and modulate innate immune responses. Some PGRPs retain N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Enzyme Commission number: 3.5.1.28) activity to hydrolyse bacterial peptidoglycans. Others have lost the enzymatic activity and work only as immune receptors. They are all important modulators for innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of PGRP-S4, a short-form PGRP from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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