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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087373/chronoinflammaging-in-alzheimer-a-systematic-review-on-the-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
REVIEW
Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Derek Kennedy, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Aging is associated with a range of chronic low-grade inflammation (Chronoinflammaging) which may play a significant role in some chronic inflammatory based diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the events which lead to the induction of chronoinflammaging in AD are yet to be clarified. It has been proposed that the recognition of endogenous ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) may be involved in the induction of chronoinflammaging. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of PRRs which recognize endogenous damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and subsequently induce inflammation...
January 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076445/emerging-bordetella-pertussis-strains-induce-enhanced-signaling-of-human-pattern-recognition-receptors-tlr2-nod2-and-secretion-of-il-10-by-dendritic-cells
#2
Elise S Hovingh, Marjolein van Gent, Hendrik-Jan Hamstra, Marc Demkes, Frits R Mooi, Elena Pinelli
Vaccines against pertussis have been available for more than 60 years. Nonetheless, this highly contagious disease is reemerging even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Genetic changes of Bordetella pertussis over time have been suggested to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis, as these changes may favor escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Nonetheless, studies on the effects of these bacterial changes on the immune response are limited. Here, we characterize innate immune recognition and activation by a collection of genetically diverse B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075558/immunological-principles-guiding-the-rational-design-of-particles-for-vaccine-delivery
#3
Katelyn T Gause, Adam K Wheatley, Jiwei Cui, Yan Yan, Stephen J Kent, Frank Caruso
Despite the immense public health successes of immunization over the past century, effective vaccines are still lacking for globally important pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, and tuberculosis. Exciting recent advances in immunology and biotechnology over the past few decades have facilitated a shift from empirical to rational vaccine design, opening possibilities for improved vaccines. Some of the most important advancements include (i) the purification of subunit antigens with high safety profiles, (ii) the identification of innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cognate agonists responsible for inducing immune responses, and (iii) developments in nano- and microparticle fabrication and characterization techniques...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#4
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069430/functional-characterization-of-avidins-in-amphioxus-branchiostoma-japonucum-evidence-for-a-dual-role-in-biotin-binding-and-immune-response
#5
Xiaomin Guo, Jiajing Xin, Peng Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Zhan Gao, Shicui Zhang
Avidin is well known for its high affinity to biotin and has been found in many egg-laying vertebrate species. However, little is known about avidin in invertebrate species to date. Here we clearly showed the presence of two avidin genes, Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, the first ones in non-vertebrate animals. We also showed that the expression of both Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2 were inducible by progesterone, LTA and LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to biotin-binding, the recombinant proteins rBjAVIDIN1 and rBjAVIDIN2 were not only able to interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also to enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages, suggesting that BjAVIDIN1 and BjAVIDIN2 both function as pattern recognition receptors and opsonins...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065604/characterization-of-galectin-1-from-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-and-its-involvements-during-immune-response
#6
Hui Yang, Qingjing Lan, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Fenggang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)...
January 5, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063981/macrophage-activation-status-determines-the-internalization-of-mesoporous-silica-particles-of-different-sizes-exploring-the-role-of-different-pattern-recognition-receptors
#7
Audrey Gallud, Olesja Bondarenko, Neus Feliu, Natalia Kupferschmidt, Rambabu Atluri, Alfonso Garcia-Bennett, Bengt Fadeel
Mesoporous silica-based particles are promising candidates for biomedical applications. Here, we address the importance of macrophage activation status for internalization of AMS6 (approx. 200 nm in diameter) versus AMS8 (approx. 2 μm) mesoporous silica particles and the role of different phagocytosis receptors for particle uptake. To this end, FITC-conjugated silica particles were used. AMS8 were found to be non-cytotoxic both for M-CSF-stimulated (anti-inflammatory) and GM-CSF-stimulated (pro-inflammatory) macrophages, whereas AMS6 exhibited cytotoxicity towards M-CSF-stimulated, but not GM-CSF-stimulated macrophages; this toxicity was, however, mitigated in the presence of serum...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063015/innate-immunity-against-legionella-pneumophila-during-pulmonary-infections-in-mice
#8
REVIEW
Bonggoo Park, Gayoung Park, Jiyoung Kim, Seon Ah Lim, Kyung-Mi Lee
Legionella pneumophila is an etiological agent of the severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). This gram-negative bacterium is thought to replicate naturally in various freshwater amoebae, but also replicates in human alveolar macrophages. Inside host cells, legionella induce the production of non-endosomal replicative phagosomes by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol. Innate immune responses are first line defenses against legionella during early phases of infection, and distinguish between legionella and host cells using germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors , NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are absent in host cells...
January 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060562/pathogen-recognition-and-toll-like-receptor-targeted-therapeutics-in-innate-immune-cells
#9
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
The innate immune system deploys a variety of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate protective responses. The intercellular and intracellular orchestration of signals from different PRRs, their endogenous or microbial ligands and accessory molecules determine the stimulatory or inhibitory responses. Progressing over the last two decades, considerable research on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has led to a paradigm shift of our understanding of TLR signaling in the innate immune system...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060313/generation-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-from-whole-blood
#10
Wilfried Posch, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Doris Wilflingseder
Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize foreign structures of different pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, via a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on their cell surface and thereby activate and regulate immunity. The major function of DCs is the induction of adaptive immunity in the lymph nodes by presenting antigens via MHC I and MHC II molecules to naïve T lymphocytes. Therefore, DCs have to migrate from the periphery to the lymph nodes after the recognition of pathogens at the sites of infection...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052995/rage-mediated-suppression-of-il-10-results-in-enhanced-mortality-in-a-murine-model-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-sepsis
#11
Michael J Noto, Kyle W Becker, Kelli L Boyd, Ann Marie Schmidt, Eric P Skaar
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing multiple pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns that contributes to the initiation and potentiation of inflammation in many disease processes. During infection, RAGE functions to either exacerbate disease severity or enhance pathogen clearance depending on the pathogen studied. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing severe infections, including pneumonia and sepsis, in impaired hosts...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052815/how-do-macrophages-sense-modified-low-density-lipoproteins
#12
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
In atherosclerosis, serum lipoproteins undergo various chemical modifications that impair their normal function. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) such as oxidation, glycation, carbamylation, glucooxidation, etc. makes LDL particles more proatherogenic. Macrophages are responsible for clearance of modified LDL to prevent cytotoxicity, tissue injury, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. They develop an advanced sensing arsenal composed of various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) capable of recognizing and binding foreign or altered-self targets for further inactivation and degradation...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051349/a-suite-of-receptor-like-kinases-and-a-putative-mechano-sensitive-channel-are-involved-in-autoimmunity-and-plasma-membrane-based-defenses-in-arabidopsis
#13
Zhongqin Zhang, Chika Tateda, Shang-Chuan Jiang, Jay Shrestha, Joanna Jelenska, Dequantarius J Speed, Jean Greenberg
In plants, cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Although each PRR recognizes a specific ligand, they share common signaling outputs such as callose and other cell wall-based defenses. Several PRRs are also important for callose induction in response to the defense signal salicylic acid (SA). The extent to which common components are needed for PRR signaling outputs is not known. The gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant of ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 (ACD6) acd6-1 shows constitutive callose production that partially depends on PRRs...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049762/the-tyrosine-kinase-src-promotes-phosphorylation-of-the-kinase-tbk1-to-facilitate-type-i-interferon-production-after-viral-infection
#14
Xuelian Li, Mingjin Yang, Zhou Yu, Songqing Tang, Lei Wang, Xuetao Cao, Taoyong Chen
Various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are activated in response to viral infection to stimulate the production of type I interferons (IFNs). However, central to the responses of all of these receptors is their activation of the kinase TBK1, which stimulates transcription by IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We investigated the mechanism by which the kinase activity of TBK1 is stimulated in response to viral infection. We found that the tyrosine kinase Src promoted the phosphorylation of TBK1 on Tyr(179) upon viral infection of RAW264...
January 3, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049142/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Carmen Venegas, Michael T Heneka
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous "danger" signals, known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released from cells alert the innate immune system and activate several signal transduction pathways through interactions with the highly conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Both PAMPs and DAMPs directly induce proinflammatory cascades and trigger the formation of the inflammasome, mediating the release of cytokines. Here, we highlight the role of DAMPs, including amyloid β (Aβ), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), the S100 family proteins, chromogranin A, and nucleic acids, in the innate-immune activation during the course of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044385/current-concepts-in-maternal-fetal-immunology-recognition-and-response-to-microbial-pathogens-by-decidual-stromal-cells
#16
REVIEW
Anjali P Anders, Jennifer A Gaddy, Ryan S Doster, David M Aronoff
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042081/two-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-proteins-from-crassostrea-gigas-with-similar-structure-exhibited-different-pamp-binding-activity
#17
Chuanyan Yang, Lingling Wang, Zhihao Jia, Qilin Yi, Qingsong Xu, Weilin Wang, Changhao Gong, Conghui Liu, Linsheng Song
Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) is an essential molecule in innate immunity for both invertebrates and vertebrates, owing to its prominent ability in specifically recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and eliminating the invading bacteria. In the present study, the full length cDNA of two PGRP genes, CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4, were cloned from oyster Crassostrea gigas. Their amino acid sequences both contained one signal peptide, one typical PGRP/amidase domain with conserved catalytic residues responsible for amidase activity (55H, 90Y, 164H, 172C in CgPGRPS2, and 98H, 133Y, 207H, 215C in CgPGRPS4), and specific PGN recognition (84R, 85W, 104R, 109V in CgPGRPS2, and 127G, 128W, 147R, 152V in CgPGRPS4), and they shared 55...
December 30, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035991/involvement-of-host-non-coding-rnas-in-the-pathogenesis-of-the-influenza-virus
#18
REVIEW
Yanmei Ma, Jing Ouyang, Jingyun Wei, Mohamed Maarouf, Ji-Long Chen
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a new type of regulators that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. ncRNAs, including small non-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs, small interfering RNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are pervasively transcribed in human and mammalian cells. Recently, it has been recognized that these ncRNAs are critically implicated in the virus-host interaction as key regulators of transcription or post-transcription during viral infection...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031262/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-groel-stimulates-production-of-ptx3-by-activating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-simultaneously-down-regulating-microrna-9
#19
Heesung Shin, Jisu Jeon, Jung-Hoon Lee, Shouguang Jin, Un-Hwan Ha
As one of the first lines of host defense, monocytes play important roles in clearing infected microbes. The defensive response is triggered by recognition of diverse microbial moieties, including released factors, which modulate host immune responses to establish a harsh environment for clinically important bacterial pathogens. In this study, we found that expression of PTX3, a soluble form of pattern recognition receptor, was induced by infection with live Pseudomonas aeruginosa or treatment of cells with its supernatant...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029680/the-function-of-nod-like-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Xiangxi Kong, Zengqiang Yuan, Jinbo Cheng
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that NLRs are involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, metabolic diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have indicated that the proteins of the NLR family are linked with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), and psychological diseases...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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