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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453304/mold-allergy-is-it-real-and-what-do-we-do-about-it
#1
Amanda Rudert, Jay Portnoy
Fungi produce substances that contain pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which bind to pattern recognition receptors, stimulating innate immune responses in humans. They also produce allergens that induce production of specific IgE. Areas Covered: In this review we cover both innate and adaptive immune responses to fungi. Some fungal products can activate both innate and adaptive responses and in doing so, cause an intense and complex health effects...
April 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448987/a-role-for-oxytocin-like-receptor-in-social-habituation-in-a-teleost
#2
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Pamela Del Valle, Zegni Triki, Bridget M Nugent, Hans A Hofmann
Oxytocin (OT) mediates social habituation in rodent model systems, but its role in mediating this effect in other vertebrates is unknown. We used males of the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate two aspects of isotocin (IT; an OT homolog) signaling in social habituation. First, we examined the expression of IT receptor 2 (ITR2) as well as two immediate early genes in brain regions implicated in social recognition. Next, we examined IT neuron activity using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of gene expression in homologs of the amygdala and hippocampus implicate IT signaling in these regions in social habituation to a territorial neighbor...
April 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446911/the-immune-response-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-an-emerging-pathogen-in-nosocomial-infections
#3
REVIEW
María Guadalupe García-Patiño, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Paula Licona-Limón
Acinetobacter baumannii is the etiologic agent of a wide range of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and skin infections. Over the last 45 years, an alarming increase in the antibiotic resistance of this opportunistic microorganism has been reported, a situation that hinders effective treatments. In order to develop effective therapies against A. baumannii it is crucial to understand the basis of host-bacterium interactions, especially those concerning the immune response of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444111/pattern-recognition-receptors-immune-targets-to-enhance-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
T Shekarian, S Valsesia-Wittmann, J Brody, M C Michallet, S Depil, C Caux, A Marabelle
Durable tumor responses and significant levels of disease control rates have been described in more than 20 advanced/metastatic cancer types with B7-family immune checkpoint-targeted anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. These results and the recent approvals of ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab are currently revolutionizing the way we envision the future of cancer care. However these clinical benefits are not observed in all cancer types and in every patient. Therefore, our clinical challenge is to identify therapeutic strategies which could overcome the primary and secondary resistances to these novel cancer immunotherapies...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442771/double-stranded-dna-induces-a-prothrombotic-phenotype-in-the-vascular-endothelium
#5
Erik Gaitzsch, Thomas Czermak, Andrea Ribeiro, Yvonn Heun, Monica Bohmer, Monika Merkle, Hanna Mannell, Christian Schulz, Markus Wörnle, Joachim Pircher
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) constitutes a potent activator of innate immunity, given its ability to bind intracellular pattern recognition receptors during viral infections or sterile tissue damage. While effects of dsDNA in immune cells have been extensively studied, dsDNA signalling and its pathophysiological implications in non-immune cells, such as the vascular endothelium, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize prothrombotic effects of dsDNA in vascular endothelial cells. Transfection of cultured human endothelial cells with the synthetic dsDNA poly(dA:dT) induced upregulation of the prothrombotic molecules tissue factor and PAI-1, resulting in accelerated blood clotting in vitro, which was partly dependent on RIG-I signalling...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440726/expression-of-c-type-lectin-receptor-mrna-in-chronic-otitis-media-with-cholesteatoma
#6
Sang Hoon Kim, Seung-Ho Han, Jae Yong Byun, Moon Suh Park, Young Il Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
CONCLUSIONS: The levels of expression of various C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) messenger ribo nucleic acids (mRNAs) were significantly higher in cholesteatomas than in normal skin, suggesting that these CLRs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. OBJECTIVES: Altered expression of pattern recognition receptors may be associated with immune responses in patients with cholesteatoma. This study assessed the levels of expression of CLR mRNAs in normal skin and in cholesteatoma...
June 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440496/pu-1-serves-a-critical-role-in-the-innate-defense-against-aspergillus%C3%A2-fumigatus-via-dendritic-cell-associated-c-type-lectin-receptor-1-and-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#7
Chenyang Liu, Min Wang, Wenkui Sun, Feng Cai, Shen Geng, Xin Su, Yi Shi
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungal pathogens of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which may be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. The dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor (Dectin-1), toll‑like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are major pattern recognition receptors in alveolar macrophages that recognize A. fumigatus components. The PU.1 transcription factor is known to be important for the transcriptional control of these three receptors in mature macrophages...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437568/insights-into-deep-sea-adaptations-and-host-symbiont-interactions-a-comparative-transcriptome-study-on-bathymodiolus-mussels-and-their-coastal-relatives
#8
Ping Zheng, Minxiao Wang, Chaolun Li, Xiaoqing Sun, Xiaocheng Wang, Yan Sun, Song Sun
Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from freshwater to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436939/an-inflammatory-bowel-disease-risk-variant-in-inava-decreases-pattern-recognition-receptor-induced-outcomes
#9
Jie Yan, Matija Hedl, Clara Abraham
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulation in both cytokines and responses to intestinal microbes, and proper regulation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling is critical for intestinal immune homeostasis. Altered functions for the IBD risk locus containing rs7554511, which encompasses the C1orf106 gene (recently named INAVA), and roles for the protein encoded by the INAVA gene are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of INAVA and INAVA genotype in regulating PRR-initiated outcomes in primary human cells...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436098/lecrk-v-an-l-type-lectin-receptor-kinase-in-haynaldia-villosa-plays-positive-role-in-resistance-to-wheat-powdery-mildew
#10
Zongkuan Wang, Jiangyue Cheng, Anqi Fan, Jia Zhao, Zhongyu Yu, Yingbo Li, Heng Zhang, Jin Xiao, Faheem Mohammad, Haiyan Wang, Aizhong Cao, Liping Xing, Xiue Wang
Plant sense potential microbial pathogen by using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433658/molecular-cloning-of-esr2-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-esr1-and-esr2-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-female-reproductive-cycle
#11
Ruidong Zhang, Yanan Yin, Long Sun, Peng Yan, Yongkang Zhou, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
Estrogens play critical roles in reproductive physiology via estrogen receptors (ESRs) in vertebrates, including reptiles. Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endemic and endangered reptile species in China. In the present study, we cloned ESR2 gene from the ovary using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), investigated the spatial expression of ESRs in various tissues and temporal expression of ESRs in the pituitary glands during the reproductive cycle in Chinese alligators by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432942/insights-into-the-diversity-of-nod-like-receptors-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-nlrc3-nlrc5-and-nlrx1-in-rainbow-trout
#12
Claudio A Álvarez, Felipe Ramírez-Cepeda, Paula Santana, Elisa Torres, Jimena Cortés, Fanny Guzmán, Paulina Schmitt, Luis Mercado
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are efficient soluble intracellular sensors that activate defense mechanisms against pathogens. In teleost fish, the involvement of NLRs in the immune response is not well understood. However, recent work has evidenced the expression of different NLRs in response to some pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding three new NOD-like receptors were identified in Oncorhynchus mykiss, namely OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432285/nod1-modulates-il-10-signalling-in-human-dendritic-cells
#13
Theresa Neuper, Kornelia Ellwanger, Harald Schwarz, Thomas A Kufer, Albert Duschl, Jutta Horejs-Hoeck
NOD1 belongs to the family of NOD-like receptors, which is a group of well-characterised, cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. The best-studied function of NOD-like receptors is their role in generating immediate pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses by detecting specific bacterial peptidoglycans or by responding to cellular stress and danger-associated molecules. The present study describes a regulatory, peptidoglycan-independent function of NOD1 in anti-inflammatory immune responses. We report that, in human dendritic cells, NOD1 balances IL-10-induced STAT1 and STAT3 activation by a SOCS2-dependent mechanism, thereby suppressing the tolerogenic dendritic cell phenotype...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432035/expression-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-activation-of-the-non-canonical-inflammasome-pathway-in-brain-pericytes
#14
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihály Kozma, Péter Nagyőszi, Krisztina Nagy, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Kinga Molnár, Attila E Farkas, Attila G Végh, György Váró, Péter Galajda, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
Cerebral pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries. Increasing evidence suggests that they play important role in controlling neurovascular functions, i.e. cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These cells can also influence neuroinflammation which is highly regulated by the innate immune system. Therefore, we systematically tested the pattern recognition receptor expression of brain pericytes. We detected expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRC5, NLRP1-3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10 and NLRX mRNA in non-treated cells...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431894/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-duck-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-nod1
#15
Huilin Li, Hui Jin, Yaqian Li, Dejian Liu, Mohamed Frahat Foda, Yunbo Jiang, Rui Luo
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an imperative cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and considered as a key member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family which plays a critical role in innate immunity through sensing microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. In the current study, the full-length of duck NOD1 (duNOD1) cDNA from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) was cloned. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that duNOD1 exhibited a strong evolutionary relationship with chicken and rock pigeon NOD1...
April 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422714/toll-like-receptor-3-as-an-immunotherapeutic-target-for-kras-mutated-colorectal-cancer
#16
Radhashree Maitra, Titto Augustine, Yitzchak Dayan, Carol Chandy, Matthew Coffey, Sanjay Goel
New therapeutic interventions are essential for improved management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This is especially critical for those patients whose tumors harbor a mutation in the KRAS oncogene (40-45% of all patients). This patient cohort is excluded from receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies that have added a significant therapeutic benefit for KRAS wild type CRC patients. Reovirus, a double stranded (ds) RNA virus is in clinical development for patients with chemotherapy refractory KRAS mutated tumors...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421060/the-heme-metabolite-carbon-monoxide-facilitates-kshv-infection-by-inhibiting-tlr4-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Sara Botto, Jean K Gustin, Ashlee V Moses
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and certain rare B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. KSHV infection of endothelial cells (EC) in vitro increases expression of the inducible host-encoded enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is also strongly expressed in KS tumors. HO-1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme into iron, biliverdin and the gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO), all of which share anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, pro-survival, and tumorigenic activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420735/correction-the-soluble-pattern-recognition-receptor-ptx3-links-humoral-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses-by-helping-marginal-zone-b-cells
#18
Alejo Chorny, Sandra Casas-Recasens, Jordi Sintes, Meimei Shan, Nadia Polentarutti, Ramón García-Escudero, A Cooper Walland, John R Yeiser, Linda Cassis, Jorge Carrillo, Irene Puga, Cristina Cunha, Hélder Bastos, Fernando Rodrigues, João F Lacerda, António Morais, Rebeca Dieguez-Gonzalez, Peter S Heeger, Giovanni Salvatori, Agostinho Carvalho, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, J Magarian Blander, Alberto Mantovani, Cecilia Garlanda, Andrea Cerutti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416446/patterns-receptors-and-signals-regulation-of-phagosome-maturation
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Pauwels, Matthias Trost, Rudi Beyaert, Eik Hoffmann
Recognition of microbial pathogens and dead cells and their phagocytic uptake by specialized immune cells are essential to maintain host homeostasis. Phagosomes undergo fusion and fission events with endosomal and lysosomal compartments, a process called 'phagosome maturation', which leads to the degradation of the phagosomal content. However, many phagocytic cells also act as antigen-presenting cells and must balance degradation and peptide preservation. Emerging evidence indicates that receptor engagement by phagosomal cargo, as well as inflammatory mediators and cellular activation affect many aspects of phagosome maturation...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416135/all-the-rage-in-lung-disease-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-rage-is-a-major-mediator-of-pulmonary-inflammatory-responses
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Oczypok, Timothy N Perkins, Tim D Oury
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. It was discovered in 1992 on endothelial cells and was named for its ability to bind advanced glycation endproducts and promote vascular inflammation in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Further studies revealed that RAGE is most highly expressed in lung tissue and spurred numerous explorations into RAGE's role in the lung...
March 18, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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