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Pattern Recognition Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241127/vitamin-d-promotes-pneumococcal-killing-and-modulates-inflammatory-responses-in-primary-human-neutrophils
#1
Karthik Subramanian, Peter Bergman, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis worldwide. Despite clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia, molecular mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear. In particular, the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil responses remain unknown. Using pneumococcal strains, primary neutrophils isolated from human blood, and sera from patients with frequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs), we investigated the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil bactericidal and inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokine regulation...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239027/estrous-cycle-stage-dependent-manner-of-type-i-interferon-stimulated-genes-induction-in-the-bovine-endometrium
#2
Takahiro Shirozu, Hiroki Iwano, Takatoshi Ogiso, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Ahmed Z Balboula, Hanako Bai, Manabu Kawahara, Koji Kimura, Hitomi Takahashi, Bai Rulan, Sung-Woo Kim, Yojiro Yanagawa, Masashi Nagano, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Masashi Takahashi
Interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a ruminant-specific type I IFN secreted by a conceptus before its attachment to the uterus. IFN-τ induces the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) via the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR), which is composed of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 subunits in the endometrium. However, expression patterns of IFNARs during the estrous cycle have not been reported. We hypothesized that the response to a type I IFN changes along with IFNARs and the IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs) driving transcription of IFN signal-related genes and modulating a type I IFN signal during the estrous cycle...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235799/inducible-microrna-214-contributes-to-the-suppression-of-nfkb-mediated-inflammatory-response-via-targeting-myd88-in-fish
#3
Qing Chu, Yuena Sun, Junxia Cui, Tianjun Xu
Upon recognition of bacterial pathogen by pattern recognition receptors, cells are activated to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN by multiple signaling pathways. Every step of the process must be precisely regulated to prevent dysregulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important regulators with profound effects on inflammatory response. Nevertheless, the miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism remains unclear in fish species. Here, we addressed the role of miiuy croaker miR-214 in the bacteria triggered inflammatory response...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235783/proteome-and-secretome-analysis-reveals-differential-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-toll-like-receptor-responses
#4
Marijke Koppenol-Raab, Virginie H Sjoelund, Nathan P Manes, Rachel A Gottschalk, Bhaskar Dutta, Zachary L Benet, Iain D C Fraser, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
The innate immune system is the organism's first line of defense against pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are responsible for sensing the presence of pathogen-associated molecules. The prototypic PRRs, the membrane-bound receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an innate immune response through signaling pathways that depend on the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF. Deciphering the differences in the complex signaling events that lead to pathogen recognition and initiation of the correct response remains challenging...
February 24, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235773/tlr10-suppresses-the-activation-and-differentiation-of-monocytes-with-effects-on-dc-mediated-adaptive-immune-responses
#5
Nicholas J Hess, Christopher Felicelli, Jennifer Grage, Richard I Tapping
TLRs are important pattern-recognition receptors involved in the activation of innate immune responses against foreign pathogens. TLR10 is the only TLR family member without a known ligand, signaling pathway, or clear cellular function. Previous work has shown that TLR10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production in response to TLR agonists in a mixed human mononuclear cell population. We report that TLR10 is preferentially expressed on monocytes and suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production resulting from either TLR or CD40 stimulation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235583/immune-responses-of-channel-catfish-following-the-stimulation-of-three-recombinant-flagellins-of-yersinia-ruckeri-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Jie Jiang, Wuyi Zhao, Quanxin Xiong, Kaiyu Wang, Yang He, Jun Wang, Defang Chen, Yi Geng, Xiaoli Huang, Ping Ouyang, Weimin Lai
Innate immunity is initiated depending on the recognition of certain protein receptors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to protect the host from various invading pathogens. As one of the most powerful PAMPs, flagellin is the major structural component of the flagellum that provides the main force for bacterial motility in flagellated microorganisms. The genome of the Y. ruckeri strain SC09 contains three flagellin genes, which encode the flagellins FlaA, FlaB and FlaC, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224203/nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer-and-colitis
#7
REVIEW
Liangmei He, Yayun Chen, Yuanbing Wu, Ying Xu, Zixiang Zhang, Zhiping Liu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths that is often associated with inflammation initiated by activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acid sensing PRRs are one of the major subsets of PRRs that sense nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), mainly including some members of Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, 9), AIM2-like receptors (AIM2, IFI16), STING, cGAS, RNA polymerase III, and DExD/H box nucleic acid helicases (such as RIG-I like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5, LPG2), DDX1, 3, 5, 7, 17, 21, 41, 60, and DHX9, 36)...
February 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#8
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223111/expression-analysis-of-nine-toll-like-receptors-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responding-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge
#9
Xiao-Ting Zhang, Gui-Rong Zhang, Ze-Chao Shi, Yu-Jie Yuan, Huan Zheng, Li Lin, Kai-Jian Wei, Wei Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play significant roles in innate immunity to defense against pathogen invasion. Many TLRs have been found in teleosts, but there are no reports about cloning and expression of TLR genes in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In this study, we analyzed the sequence characters and the relative mRNA expression levels of nine TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4-1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8-2, TLR9 and TLR22) in different tissues of yellow catfish...
February 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glycoprotein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220434/mapping-and-cloning-of-chemical-induced-mutations-by-whole-genome-sequencing-of-bulked-segregants
#11
Jian Hua, Shuai Wang, Qi Sun
Here we describe a method of gene mapping and cloning of chemical induced mutations using next-generation sequencing on their backcrossed segregants. This method utilizes polymorphisms induced by chemical mutagens for mapping and therefore does not require outcrossing to a different background or a large segregating population. It can be used to clone causal mutations generated in various accessions or mutant backgrounds for dissecting complex processes such as pattern recognition receptor pathways in plant immunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220429/stomatal-bioassay-to-characterize-bacterial-stimulated-pti-at-the-pre-invasion-phase-of-infection
#12
Jeanine Montano, Maeli Melotto
Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is a functional output of plant immunity, also known as stomatal defense. This is an early response mediated by the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the plant's pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Several approaches to analyzing stomatal movement in response to bacteria have been described, but difficulties in fine-tuning the experimental procedures still exist. Here we provide a detailed method for assessing stomatal defense via high-quality microscopic imaging and explain trouble-shooting steps to obtaining robust data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220422/mapk-assays-in-arabidopsis-mamp-prr-signal-transduction
#13
Hoo Sun Chung, Jen Sheen
Activation of MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) cascades after MAMP (Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern) perception through PRR (Pattern Recognition Receptor) is one of the first conserved responses when plants encounter microbial organisms. Phosphorylation of various cellular factors in the MAMP-PRR pathway by MAPK cascades is critical for broad-spectrum plant innate immunity. Measurement of MAPK activation and identification of MAPK phosphorylation targets in the MAMP-PRR signal transduction pathway are essential to understand how plants reprogram their cellular processes to cope with unfavorable microbial attack...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220419/bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-rlk-superfamily
#14
Otávio J B Brustolini, José Cleydson F Silva, Tetsu Sakamoto, Elizabeth P B Fontes
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. In plant immunity, some members of RLKs function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which, upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), are recruited into active complexes to induce pathogen-triggered immunity (PTI). In this chapter, we describe the bioinformatics tools and procedures for the identification and phylogenetic classification of RLKs from different plant species as a framework for understanding RLK function in signal transduction and immunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220418/in-vitro-ubiquitination-activity-assays-in-plant-immune-responses
#15
Giulia Furlan, Marco Trujillo
Ubiquitination is a central posttranslational modification that impinges on the fate of proteins. While attachment of K48-linked chains onto soluble proteins marks them for proteolysis via the 26S proteasome, mono-ubiquitination or K63-linked chains result in the endocytosis and sorting through the endomembrane system of integral membrane proteins, such as pattern recognition receptors. In vitro ubiquitination assays allow the biochemical analysis of all individual components of the ubiquitination machinery and its potential substrates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220416/assays-to-investigate-the-n-glycosylation-state-and-function-of-plant-pattern-recognition-receptors
#16
Stacey A Lawrence, Teresa Ceserani, Nicole K Clay
The biogenesis and functionality of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for robust plant immune responses. Here, we present methods to determine the N-glycosylation state and ligand-induced activity of these receptors for comparative quantitative analysis. These techniques can be used to identify mutants and chemical inhibitors affecting PRR biogenesis and functionality. When combined, these techniques can provide useful insights on biological processes necessary to synthesize a properly membrane-localized and ligand-responsive PRR...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220415/analysis-for-protein-glycosylation-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-plants
#17
Takaakira Inokuchi, Yusuke Saijo
Recognition of molecules typical of microbes or aberrant cellular states, termed microbe- or danger-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs/DAMPs), respectively, provides an important step in plant and animal innate immunity. In plants, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to date are limited to membrane-associated proteins, of which the majority has an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or lysine-motif (LysM) domain. These PRRs undergo quality control (QC) in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) that is dependent on Asn (N)-linked glycosylation (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 conjugation) of their extracellular domain...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220414/quantitative-analysis-of-ligand-induced-endocytosis-of-flagellin-sensing-2-using-automated-image-segmentation
#18
Michelle E Leslie, Antje Heese
Plants are equipped with a suite of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that must be properly trafficked to and from the plasma membrane (PM), which serves as the host-pathogen interface, for robust detection of invading pathogenic microbes. Recognition of bacterial flagellin, or the derived peptide flg22, is facilitated by the PM-localized PRR, FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2). Upon flg22 binding, FLS2 is rapidly internalized from the PM into endosomal compartments and subsequently degraded. To understand better the integration of FLS2 endocytosis and signaling outputs, we developed methods for the quantitative analysis of FLS2 trafficking using freely available bioimage informatic tools...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220411/peptidoglycan-isolation-and-binding-studies-with-lysm-type-pattern-recognition-receptors
#19
Ute Bertsche, Andrea A Gust
In the last decade, more and more plant receptors for complex carbohydrate structures have been described. However, studies on receptor binding to glycan ligands are often hampered due to the technical challenge to obtain pure preparations of homogeneous carbohydrate ligands such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) in amounts suitable for studying protein-glycan interactions. Also, most approaches rely on the availability of defined soluble ligands, which in the case of glycans can rarely be synthesized but have to be purified from the respective microorganism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220122/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-links-tlr2-and-par1-to-soluble-immunomodulator-factor-secretion-in-human-platelets
#20
Pauline Damien, Fabrice Cognasse, Bernard Payrastre, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Marie-Ange Eyraud, Richard P Phipps, Archibald McNicol, Bruno Pozzetto, Olivier Garraud, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse
The primary toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune cell response pathway common for all TLRs is MyD88-dependent activation of NF-κB, a seminal transcription factor for many chemokines and cytokines. Remarkably, anucleate platelets express the NF-κB machinery, whose role in platelets remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of NF-κB in the release of cytokines and serotonin by human platelets, following selective stimulation of TLR2 and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a classical and non-classical pattern-recognition receptor, respectively, able to participate to the innate immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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