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Chicken Immunology

Mito Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Kawase, Kazuhiro Okuda, Larry F Wolff, Hiromasa Yoshie
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative mainly composed of fibrin networks, has been increasingly demonstrated to be effective in wound healing in clinical and pre-clinical animal studies. However, there has still been a concern that major growth factors may significantly be loss from PRF during its preparation through the slow clotting process. To address this concern, we compared the angiogenic potential of PRF and PRP by standardization of procedures based on volume ratios...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Sameera Akhtar, Yi Tang, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Azhar Alam, Diwakar Santhakumar, Venugopal Nair
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a prototype avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), causes economically devastating disease in avian species around the world. ND is enzootic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are frequent in multiple avian species even after continuous and extensive use of vaccines. A number of APMV-1 and pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) strains have been isolated and genetically characterized in recent years. However, the impact of recently characterized wild bird-origin APMVs in domestic poultry, and the potency of routinely used vaccines against these novel and genetically diverse viruses remain unknown...
September 29, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Jeffrey Butler, Cameron R Stewart, Daniel S Layton, Phouvong Phommachanh, Jennifer Harper, Jean Payne, Ryan M Evans, Stacey Valdeter, Som Walker, Gemma Harvey, Songhua Shan, Matthew P Bruce, Christina L Rootes, Tamara J Gough, Andreas Rohringer, Grantley R Peck, Sarah J Fardy, Adam J Karpala, Dayna Johnson, Jianning Wang, Bounlom Douangngeun, Christopher Morrissy, Frank Y K Wong, Andrew G D Bean, John Bingham, David T Williams
Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People's Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia...
2016: PloS One
Dionne Rauff, Christine Strydom, Celia Abolnik
The evolutionary dynamics of chicken-origin H6N2 viruses isolated in South Africa between 2002 and 2013 were investigated. Sub-lineages I and II continued to co-circulate under vaccination pressure, but sub-lineage I, from which the inactivated vaccine was derived, displayed a markedly higher mutation rate and a three-fold increase in the emergence of potential antigenic sites on the globular head of HA compared to sub-lineage II. Immunological pressure culminated in a critical phenotypic change as four of the five isolates from 2012 to 2013 had lost the ability to haemagglutinate chicken erythrocytes, correlating with a pattern of predicted O-glycosylation sites at residues 134, 137 and 141 within the critical 130 loop of the receptor binding domain site...
November 2016: Virology
Paul F Cotter, Murray R Bakst
Mott cells are atypical plasmacytes recognized microscopically by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distensions (Russell bodies) a result of retained secretory product (antibody). Originally associated with parasitism, they are observed in a broad spectrum of immunopathology, sometimes involving hypergammaglobulinemia. Few descriptions of Mott cells appear in avian literature. The purpose of the manuscript is to provide examples identified by light microscopy in three poultry species. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of plasmacytes from the turkey oviduct mucosa are included for comparison with Mott cell light microscopic images...
September 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Wentao Fan, Shijie Zhang, Pan Hao, Pimiao Zheng, Jianzhu Liu, Xiaona Zhao
In this study, we evaluated structure characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from Astragalus aboriginum Richardson (RAPS), Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (RAMPS) and Rumia seseloides Hoffm (RSPS) in vitro on chicken macrophage. We found that molecular weight of RAPS and RAMPS was 122.4 and 109.4kDa higher than 64.71kDa of RSPS. Glucose occupied 83.95% and 66.39% in RAPS and RAMPS, respectively. RSPS mainly contained glucose and galacturonic acid, which accounted for 32.35% and 29...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yingshun Zhou, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang, Fanya Zeng, Zhikun Zhang, Anyun Zhang, Hui Liu
Avian infectious bronchitis virus is an important pathogen in poultry worldwide. Vaccination is the only effective way to prevent and control IBV infection. H120, one of the safest vaccine strains, which has been used worldwide as a primary vaccine, cannot adapt to passaged cells, which severely restricts the quality of the vaccine. Based on the reverse genetics of our previous research work, we constructed the recombinant R-H120-Beaudette-p65(S) strain by replacing the complete spike gene of H120 with the corresponding spike gene from the Beaudette p65 strain...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
P P Singh, Ashok Kumar, R S Chauhan, P K Pankaj
AIM: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates...
July 2016: Veterinary World
P P Singh, Ashok Kumar, R S Chauhan, P K Pankaj
AIM: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of chlorpyrifos (CPF) insecticide after oral administration in layer chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given CPF in drinking water at 0.3 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-month. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from CPF-treated birds were estimated at 15 days interval in layer birds and monthly interval in chicks using immunological and biochemical parameters...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Vikash Sharma, K K Jakhar, Swati Dahiya
AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment...
July 2016: Veterinary World
J H Fine, G S Bondy, L Coady, B Pearce, N Ross, A F Tayabali, S Halappanavar, D Caldwell, I Curran, D E Lefebvre
Humans could become exposed to carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in consumer products or an occupational setting. In rodent models, acute respiratory, subcutaneous, and direct immune cell exposure to CBNPs has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization to co-administered ovalbumin (OVA) protein from chicken egg. However, little is known about the effects of ingested CBNPs on immunological responses and oral tolerance to food antigens. We hypothesized that ingestion of CBNPs would enhance the development of food allergy to OVA...
August 18, 2016: Nanotoxicology
M Braukmann, P A Barrow, A Berndt, U Methner
In addition to evaluating the efficacy potential of a combined use of vaccination and competitive exclusion (CE) against Salmonella exposure in chicks at 3-days of age, a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine (SE-LV) and a CE culture were tested for their ability to induce parameters of the innate immunity. Whereas the invasive SE-LV induced an influx of granulocytes and macrophages as well as an increased transcription of several cytokines in the caecal mucosa, the CE culture did not demonstrate any differences in these parameters compared to controls...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Bertrand Grenier, Ilse Dohnal, Revathi Shanmugasundaram, Susan D Eicher, Ramesh K Selvaraj, Gerd Schatzmayr, Todd J Applegate
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1...
2016: Toxins
Ulrike Blohm, Steffen Weigend, Rudolf Preisinger, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
Shubhangi Shirsat, Ambadas Kadam, Rajaram S Mane, Vijaykumar V Jadhav, Manohar K Zate, Mu Naushad, Kwang Ho Kim
Presently most bacteria are becoming antibiotic resistant. Due to this there is a deficiency of potent antibiotics, therefore we have to preserve and improve the efficiency of existing antibiotics by mitigating the side effects. Enrofloxacin (EFX) is an important antimicrobial used in veterinary practice but it is known to exert immune suppression antioxidant stress. In the present study, we report on: (a) the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs), and (b) their protective effect in reducing adverse effects of EFX on broiler chicken...
June 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
M-A Lieboldt, J Frahm, I Halle, L Schrader, S Weigend, R Preisinger, G Breves, S Dänicke
Due to its decisive function in the avian metabolic, endocrine and immune system L-arginine (Arg) is dietary indispensable for chickens. In 12-week-old cockerels of two high- and two low-performing purebred layer lines, the effects of increasing dietary Arg on the haematological and febrile response were studied over 48 h after single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The offered diets contained Arg equivalent to 70%, 100% and 200% of recommended supply. Pathophysiological alterations in weight gain, feed intake, body temperature and differential blood count were examined in comparison with their physiological initial values...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Shishir Kumar Gupta, Ashok K Tiwari, Ravi Kumar Gandham, A P Sahoo
BACKGROUND: Many viral proteins exhibit selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells without affecting the normal diploid cells. The apoptin protein of chicken infectious anemia virus is one of such proteins, which has been shown to kill tumor cells specifically. However, an effective cancer treatment strategy also requires assistance from the immune system. Recently, poly (I:C) has been shown to be an effective cancer vaccine adjuvant. AIM: In this study, we assessed the anti-tumor potential of apoptin gene transfer alone and in combination with poly (I:C) in a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model...
June 2016: International Immunopharmacology
O Niewiadomski, C Studd, J Wilson, J Williams, C Hair, R Knight, E Prewett, P Dabkowski, S Alexander, B Allen, D Dowling, W Connell, P Desmond, S Bell
BACKGROUND: The Barwon area in Australia has one of the highest incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is an ideal location to study the impact of environmental exposures on the disease's development. AIM: To study these exposures prior to the development of IBD in a population-based cohort. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-two incident cases (81 Crohn disease (CD) and 51 ulcerative colitis (UC)) from an IBD registry and 104 controls replied to the International Organization of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases environmental questionnaire...
June 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
N ELSaidy, R A Mohamed, F Abouelenien
AIM: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water...
July 2015: Veterinary World
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