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Chicken Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914464/expression-of-caveolin-1-in-the-interfollicular-but-not-the-follicle-associated-epithelial-cells-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-of-chickens
#1
Ildikó Bódi, Krisztina Minkó, Orsolya Fölker, Zsófia Benyeda, Balázs Felföldi, Attila Magyar, Anna Kiss, Vilmos Palya, Imre Oláh
The surface epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius consists of interfollicular (IFE) and follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The IFE comprises (i) cylindrical-shaped secretory cells (SC) and (ii) cuboidal basal cells (BCs). The FAE provides histological and two-way functional connections between the bursal lumen and medulla of the follicle. We used a carbon solution and anti-caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to study the endocytic activity of FAE. Carbon particles entered the intercellular space of FAE, but the carbon particles were not internalized by the FAE cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865011/general-introduction-to-drebrin
#2
Tomoaki Shirao, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin was first discovered by our group as "developmentally regulated brain protein" from the chicken optic tectum. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein, which is classified into two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing from a single DBN1 gene. The isoform predominantly expressed in the adult brain (drebrin A) is neuron specific, containing a neuron-specific sequence (Ins2) in the middle of the molecule. Drebrin A is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, and its accumulation level is regulated by synaptic activity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863166/the-novel-lyme-borreliosis-vaccine-vla15-shows-broad-protection-against-borrelia-species-expressing-six-different-ospa-serotypes
#3
Pär Comstedt, Wolfgang Schüler, Andreas Meinke, Urban Lundberg
We have previously shown that the Outer surface protein A (OspA) based Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 induces protective immunity in mice. Herein, we report the induction of protective immunity by VLA15 with mouse models using ticks infected with B. burgdorferi (OspA serotype 1), B. afzelii (OspA serotype 2) and B. bavariensis (OspA serotype 4) or with in vitro grown B. garinii (OspA serotype 5 and 6) for challenge. For B. garinii (OspA serotype 3), we have developed a growth inhibition assay using chicken complement and functional antibodies targeting B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854912/development-and-validation-of-a-house-finch-interleukin-1%C3%AE-hfil-1%C3%AE-elisa-system
#4
Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E Leon, James S Adelman, Dana M Hawley, Rami A Dalloul
BACKGROUND: A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody...
August 30, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727033/the-effect-of-age-and-carbohydrate-and-protein-sources-on-digestibility-fecal-microbiota-fermentation-products-fecal-iga-and-immunological-blood-parameters-in-dogs
#5
A P J Maria, L Ayane, T C Putarov, B A Loureiro, B P Neto, M F Casagrande, M O S Gomes, M B A Glória, A C Carciofi
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726209/characteristics-of-mel-ibr-melanoma-line-subclone-after-treatment-with-chicken-embryo-extract
#6
N M Suraeva, L F Morozova, O O Ryabaya, Yu A Khochenkova, A V Samoilov, O S Burova, N V Golubtsova, A E Barmashov, M A Baryshnikova
We continue analysis of the phenotype of human melanoma cell Mel Ibr subclone obtained previously by treatment of the parental cell line by chicken embryo extract. The present study is focused on detection of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition that determine enhanced metastatic and invasive potential of malignant tumors of various locations. Analysis of the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin genes in the subclone and parental cells detected activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the subclone...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676793/immune-responses-of-chickens-infected-with-wild-bird-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus
#7
Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Runyu Yuan, Haili Ma, Bin Xiang, Zhaoxiong Wang, Xu Dai, Fumin Wang, Jiajie Xiao, Ming Liao, Tao Ren
Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283) in Pallas's sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015), whereas a virus (i.e., SW8) isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619143/a-bacterial-ghost-improves-the-immunological-efficacy-of-a-newcastle-disease-virus-inactivated-vaccine
#8
Wei Si, Shenye Yu, Henggui Liu, Chunlai Wang, Liping Chen, Gaoling Wang, Jianan Wu, Siguo Liu
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most common contagious viral infectious diseases of poultry. Vaccination is an effective way to protect chickens from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and large efforts have been made to acquire not only new vaccines but also new adjuvants to improve the efficiency of existing inactivated vaccines. Here, we observed the adjuvanticity of the bacterial ghost (BG) on the effectiveness of inactivated NDV vaccine in a chicken model. We found that BG, as an adjuvant with inactivated NDV vaccine, substantially strengthened the ND-specific antibody response and protection against lethal challenge in a chicken model, reduced viral shedding, strengthened the time duration of antibody titers, produced an available immunization effect with a low dose of vaccine, and improved serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615130/different-breeds-different-blood-cytometric-analysis-of-whole-blood-cellular-composition-in-chicken-breeds
#9
Barbora Bílková, Zuzana Bainová, Jozef Janda, Lukáš Zita, Michal Vinkler
While haematological variation is well known in birds, variation in avian breeds (distinct morphotypes of the same species) remains unexplored. Poultry breeds, in particular, may show interesting evolutionary patterns and economically-relevant physiological differences. We performed a comparative examination of blood cellular composition in five chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) breeds: Araucana, Booted bantam, Czech, Minorca and Rosecomb bantam. In standard-environment-reared hens whole-blood flow cytometry revealed remarkable differences in most erythrocyte- and leukocyte-related parameters...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#10
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#11
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511853/immunologic-evaluation-of-10-different-adjuvants-for-use-in-vaccines-for-chickens-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#12
Nazir Ahmed Lone, Erica Spackman, Darrell Kapczynski
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a threat to poultry production worldwide. Vaccination is utilized as a component of control programs for both high pathogenicity (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV. Over 95% of all AIV vaccine used in poultry are inactivated, adjuvanted products. To identify the best formulations for chickens, vaccines were prepared with beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated A/British Columbia/314514-1/2004 H7N3 LP AIV using ten commercially available or experimental adjuvants. Each vaccine formulation was evaluated for immunogenicity in chickens...
May 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505587/dietary-bacillus-subtilis-based-direct-fed-microbials-alleviate-lps-induced-intestinal-immunological-stress-and-improve-intestinal-barrier-gene-expression-in-commercial-broiler-chickens
#13
Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, Sungtaek Oh, Youngsub Lee, Ellen Davis, Noah Zimmerman, Tom Rehberger, Hyun Soon Lillehoj
This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotics on the performance, modulation of host inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier gene expression of broilers subjected to LPS challenge. Chickens were randomly allocated to one of the 3 dietary treatment groups - control, antibiotic, or probiotic. At 14days, half of the chickens in each treatment were injected with LPS (1mg/kg body weight), and the other half injected with sterile PBS. Chickens fed probiotics weighed significantly more than controls at 15days of age, irrespective of immune challenge...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486516/immortalization-of-chicken-preadipocytes-by-retroviral-transduction-of-chicken-tert-and-tr
#14
Wei Wang, Tianmu Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Shanshan Wang, Yuxiang Wang, Hui Li, Ning Wang
The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462225/the-chicken-or-the-egg-dilemma-intestinal-dysbiosis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
EDITORIAL
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper
Recent findings suggest that the intestinal microbiota of patients suffering from relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) shows changes on the relative abundances of archaeal and bacterial genera. Although the richness and overall structure of the microbiota may be similar compared to the intestinal microbiota of healthy controls, elevated and reduced frequencies suggest a dysbiotic microbiota in MS. Over the past decade experimental evidence obtained in murine models of the disease highlighted the important relevance of the microbiota in the regulation of the immune system and in the severity of the disease...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447384/alpha-lipoic-acid-an-inimitable-feed-supplement-for-poultry-nutrition
#16
REVIEW
M Sohaib, F M Anjum, M Nasir, F Saeed, M S Arshad, S Hussain
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a multifunction antioxidant that is produced in small amount by cells as well as its dietary provision facilitates fatty acid mobilization, energy expenditure as well as can scavenge free radicals in poultry birds. It exists in oxidized as well as reduced form, characterized by growth promoting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, immunostimulatory, and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary supplement to farm animals particularly chicken birds. Recently, several studies reported that dietary supplementation of ALA can influence growth performance indicators, immunological, biochemical characteristics, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress as well as increase antioxidant potential and storability of poultry meat and meat products...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447340/marginal-deficiencies-of-dietary-arginine-and-methionine-could-suppress-growth-performance-and-immunological-responses-in-broiler-chickens
#17
R Jahanian, M Khalifeh-Gholi
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary arginine (Arg) and methionine (Met) on performance, immune responses, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of 540 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned into the nine experimental diets, consisting five replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments included three different levels (90%, 100%, and 110% of National Research Council [NRC] specifications) of either dietary Arg or Met, which were fed to the birds according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments during a 42 days feeding trial...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436338/the-effect-of-boswellia-serrata-resin-diet-supplementation-on-production-hematological-biochemical-and-immunological-parameters-in-broiler-chickens
#18
A R M Al-Yasiry, B Kiczorowska, W Samolińska, E Kowalczuk-Vasilev, D Kowalczyk-Pecka
Boswellia serrata resin (BSR), exhibiting a variety of therapeutic properties, is applied in Asian traditional medicine. These properties can be used in poultry production as well. Application of the resin as a phytobiotic in broiler chicken rearing can increase the productivity and improve meat quality. However, the optimum and maximum levels of BSR in broiler diets need to be assessed. The study determined the effect of different levels of supplementation of BSR (directly derived, unprocessed) in diets for broiler chickens on the production traits, selected slaughter analysis parameters, nutrient digestibility and selected hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters...
April 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410454/transcriptomic-analysis-of-host-immune-response-in-the-skin-of-chickens-infected-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#19
Mohammad Heidari, Phillip C Delekta
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek's disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Studies have demonstrated that MDV infection induces immunological responses within the skin, including the release of cytokines and the recruitment of T lymphocytes. The host immune response, however, is not sufficient to block replication and shedding of the virus particles from the skin...
June 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361853/anticancer-effect-and-immunologic-response-to-xenogeneic-embryonic-proteins-in-mice-bearing-ehrlich-solid-carcinoma
#20
T V Symchych, N I Fedosova, О М Karaman, L M Yevstratieva, H P Potebnia
AIM: To investigate anticancer and immunologic effects of chicken embryonic proteins (CEP) in mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on male Balb/c mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. The immunizations were performed after the tumor transplantation. The immune status was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the tumor challenge. Cytotoxic activity (CAT) of macrophages (Mph), natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and blood serum, as well as the influence of the blood serum on immune cells activity was checked in MTT-assay; Mph's cytochemical activity was tested in NBT-assay; Ehrlich antigen-specific or CEP-specific antibodies were detected in ELISA-assay; medium size circulating immune complexes (CIC) were detected in reaction of 4...
March 2017: Experimental Oncology
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