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Chicken Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727033/the-effect-of-age-and-carbohydrate-and-protein-sources-on-digestibility-fecal-microbiota-fermentation-products-fecal-iga-and-immunological-blood-parameters-in-dogs
#1
A P J Maria, L Ayane, T C Putarov, B A Loureiro, B P Neto, M F Casagrande, M O S Gomes, M B A Glória, A C Carciofi
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726209/characteristics-of-mel-ibr-melanoma-line-subclone-after-treatment-with-chicken-embryo-extract
#2
N M Suraeva, L F Morozova, O O Ryabaya, Yu A Khochenkova, A V Samoilov, O S Burova, N V Golubtsova, A E Barmashov, M A Baryshnikova
We continue analysis of the phenotype of human melanoma cell Mel Ibr subclone obtained previously by treatment of the parental cell line by chicken embryo extract. The present study is focused on detection of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition that determine enhanced metastatic and invasive potential of malignant tumors of various locations. Analysis of the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin genes in the subclone and parental cells detected activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the subclone...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676793/immune-responses-of-chickens-infected-with-wild-bird-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus
#3
Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Runyu Yuan, Haili Ma, Bin Xiang, Zhaoxiong Wang, Xu Dai, Fumin Wang, Jiajie Xiao, Ming Liao, Tao Ren
Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283) in Pallas's sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015), whereas a virus (i.e., SW8) isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619143/a-bacterial-ghost-improves-the-immunological-efficacy-of-a-newcastle-disease-virus-inactivated-vaccine
#4
Wei Si, Shenye Yu, Henggui Liu, Chunlai Wang, Liping Chen, Gaoling Wang, Jianan Wu, Siguo Liu
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most common contagious viral infectious diseases of poultry. Vaccination is an effective way to protect chickens from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and large efforts have been made to acquire not only new vaccines but also new adjuvants to improve the efficiency of existing inactivated vaccines. Here, we observed the adjuvanticity of the bacterial ghost (BG) on the effectiveness of inactivated NDV vaccine in a chicken model. We found that BG, as an adjuvant with inactivated NDV vaccine, substantially strengthened the ND-specific antibody response and protection against lethal challenge in a chicken model, reduced viral shedding, strengthened the time duration of antibody titers, produced an available immunization effect with a low dose of vaccine, and improved serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615130/different-breeds-different-blood-cytometric-analysis-of-whole-blood-cellular-composition-in-chicken-breeds
#5
Barbora Bílková, Zuzana Bainová, Jozef Janda, Lukáš Zita, Michal Vinkler
While haematological variation is well known in birds, variation in avian breeds (distinct morphotypes of the same species) remains unexplored. Poultry breeds, in particular, may show interesting evolutionary patterns and economically-relevant physiological differences. We performed a comparative examination of blood cellular composition in five chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) breeds: Araucana, Booted bantam, Czech, Minorca and Rosecomb bantam. In standard-environment-reared hens whole-blood flow cytometry revealed remarkable differences in most erythrocyte- and leukocyte-related parameters...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#6
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#7
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511853/immunologic-evaluation-of-10-different-adjuvants-for-use-in-vaccines-for-chickens-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#8
Nazir Ahmed Lone, Erica Spackman, Darrell Kapczynski
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a threat to poultry production worldwide. Vaccination is utilized as a component of control programs for both high pathogenicity (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV. Over 95% of all AIV vaccine used in poultry are inactivated, adjuvanted products. To identify the best formulations for chickens, vaccines were prepared with beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated A/British Columbia/314514-1/2004 H7N3 LP AIV using ten commercially available or experimental adjuvants. Each vaccine formulation was evaluated for immunogenicity in chickens...
May 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505587/dietary-bacillus-subtilis-based-direct-fed-microbials-alleviate-lps-induced-intestinal-immunological-stress-and-improve-intestinal-barrier-gene-expression-in-commercial-broiler-chickens
#9
Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, Sungtaek Oh, Youngsub Lee, Ellen Davis, Noah Zimmerman, Tom Rehberger, Hyun Soon Lillehoj
This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotics on the performance, modulation of host inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier gene expression of broilers subjected to LPS challenge. Chickens were randomly allocated to one of the 3 dietary treatment groups - control, antibiotic, or probiotic. At 14days, half of the chickens in each treatment were injected with LPS (1mg/kg body weight), and the other half injected with sterile PBS. Chickens fed probiotics weighed significantly more than controls at 15days of age, irrespective of immune challenge...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486516/immortalization-of-chicken-preadipocytes-by-retroviral-transduction-of-chicken-tert-and-tr
#10
Wei Wang, Tianmu Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Shanshan Wang, Yuxiang Wang, Hui Li, Ning Wang
The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462225/the-chicken-or-the-egg-dilemma-intestinal-dysbiosis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
EDITORIAL
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper
Recent findings suggest that the intestinal microbiota of patients suffering from relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) shows changes on the relative abundances of archaeal and bacterial genera. Although the richness and overall structure of the microbiota may be similar compared to the intestinal microbiota of healthy controls, elevated and reduced frequencies suggest a dysbiotic microbiota in MS. Over the past decade experimental evidence obtained in murine models of the disease highlighted the important relevance of the microbiota in the regulation of the immune system and in the severity of the disease...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447384/alpha-lipoic-acid-an-inimitable-feed-supplement-for-poultry-nutrition
#12
REVIEW
M Sohaib, F M Anjum, M Nasir, F Saeed, M S Arshad, S Hussain
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a multifunction antioxidant that is produced in small amount by cells as well as its dietary provision facilitates fatty acid mobilization, energy expenditure as well as can scavenge free radicals in poultry birds. It exists in oxidized as well as reduced form, characterized by growth promoting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, immunostimulatory, and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary supplement to farm animals particularly chicken birds. Recently, several studies reported that dietary supplementation of ALA can influence growth performance indicators, immunological, biochemical characteristics, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress as well as increase antioxidant potential and storability of poultry meat and meat products...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447340/marginal-deficiencies-of-dietary-arginine-and-methionine-could-suppress-growth-performance-and-immunological-responses-in-broiler-chickens
#13
R Jahanian, M Khalifeh-Gholi
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary arginine (Arg) and methionine (Met) on performance, immune responses, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of 540 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned into the nine experimental diets, consisting five replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments included three different levels (90%, 100%, and 110% of National Research Council [NRC] specifications) of either dietary Arg or Met, which were fed to the birds according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments during a 42 days feeding trial...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436338/the-effect-of-boswellia-serrata-resin-diet-supplementation-on-production-hematological-biochemical-and-immunological-parameters-in-broiler-chickens
#14
A R M Al-Yasiry, B Kiczorowska, W Samolińska, E Kowalczuk-Vasilev, D Kowalczyk-Pecka
Boswellia serrata resin (BSR), exhibiting a variety of therapeutic properties, is applied in Asian traditional medicine. These properties can be used in poultry production as well. Application of the resin as a phytobiotic in broiler chicken rearing can increase the productivity and improve meat quality. However, the optimum and maximum levels of BSR in broiler diets need to be assessed. The study determined the effect of different levels of supplementation of BSR (directly derived, unprocessed) in diets for broiler chickens on the production traits, selected slaughter analysis parameters, nutrient digestibility and selected hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters...
April 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410454/transcriptomic-analysis-of-host-immune-response-in-the-skin-of-chickens-infected-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#15
Mohammad Heidari, Phillip C Delekta
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek's disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Studies have demonstrated that MDV infection induces immunological responses within the skin, including the release of cytokines and the recruitment of T lymphocytes. The host immune response, however, is not sufficient to block replication and shedding of the virus particles from the skin...
June 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361853/anticancer-effect-and-immunologic-response-to-xenogeneic-embryonic-proteins-in-mice-bearing-ehrlich-solid-carcinoma
#16
T V Symchych, N I Fedosova, О М Karaman, L M Yevstratieva, H P Potebnia
AIM: To investigate anticancer and immunologic effects of chicken embryonic proteins (CEP) in mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on male Balb/c mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. The immunizations were performed after the tumor transplantation. The immune status was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the tumor challenge. Cytotoxic activity (CAT) of macrophages (Mph), natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and blood serum, as well as the influence of the blood serum on immune cells activity was checked in MTT-assay; Mph's cytochemical activity was tested in NBT-assay; Ehrlich antigen-specific or CEP-specific antibodies were detected in ELISA-assay; medium size circulating immune complexes (CIC) were detected in reaction of 4...
March 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332643/virus-mutations-and-their-impact-on-vaccination-against-infectious-bursal-disease-gumboro-disease
#17
A Boudaoud, B Mamache, W Tombari, A Ghram
Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332622/b-lymphocytes-play-a-limited-role-in-clearance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-from-the-chicken-intestinal-tract
#18
Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Gemma Chaloner, Rachel Gilroy, Suzanne Humphrey, Kirsty Gibbs, Sue Jopson, Elli Wright, William Reid, Julian Ketley, Tom Humphrey, Nicola Williams, Steven Rushton, Paul Wigley
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis with contaminated poultry meat its main source. Control of C. jejuni is a priority for the poultry industry but no vaccines are available and their development hampered by poor understanding of the immunobiology of C. jejuni infection. Here we show the functional role of B lymphocytes in response to C. jejuni in the chicken through depletion of the B lymphocyte population (bursectomy) followed by challenge. B lymphocyte depletion has little effect on bacterial numbers in the ceca, the main site of colonisation, where C...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321412/recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-haemagglutinin-from-a-polish-avian-h5n1-isolate-and-its-immunological-effect-in-preliminary-animal-trials
#19
Agnieszka K Szczepankowska, Katarzyna Szatraj, Przemysław Sałański, Agnieszka Rózga, Roman K Górecki, Jacek K Bardowski
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive, nonpathogenic microorganisms that are gaining much interest as antigen producers for development of live vaccine vectors. Heterologous proteins of different origin have been successfully expressed in various LAB species, including Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant L. lactis strains have been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune responses against various antigens. Our study aimed at constructing a L. lactis strain expressing haemagglutinin of a Polish avian H5H1 influenza isolate and examining its effect on animals...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288769/construction-and-immunological-evaluation-of-recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-so7-of-eimeria-tenella-fusion-dc-targeting-peptide
#20
Guilian Yang, Jiayun Yao, Wentao Yang, Yanlong Jiang, Jinfen Du, Haibin Huang, Wei Gu, Jingtao Hu, Liping Ye, Chunwei Shi, Baolong Shan, Chunfeng Wang
The coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella (coccidian) and other species is a serious parasitic disease that affects the global poultry breeding industry. Lactobacillus strains exhibit a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, particularly vaccines. Here, the recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (co-expressing SO7 and DCpep gene) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was evaluated in this study...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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