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Chicken Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144192/seeding-of-the-mucosal-leukocytes-in-the-halt-and-trachea-of-white-leghorn-chickens
#1
M Krunkosky, M García, L G Beltran Garza, E Karpuzoglu-Belgin, J Levin, R J Williams, R M Gogal
Characterizing the immune cells of the head associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and trachea during maturation in young birds is critical to understanding the immunological responses to avian respiratory diseases and vaccines. Selected mucosal leukocytes of the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), Harderian gland (HG), nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and trachea from 4, 6, 8 and 10-week-old chickens were enumerated and phenotyped. HG, NALT, and trachea cellularity increased as the birds aged with cell viability varying by tissue...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126666/preparation-and-immunological-evaluation-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-vaccine-encapsulated-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#2
Samah H Mohamed, Abdel Satar Arafa, Wesam H Mady, Hanan A Fahmy, Lamiaa M Omer, Rania E Morsi
Efficacy maximization of inactivated avian influenza vaccine using safe adjuvants was investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method with average size of 150 nm and their Zeta potential was 11.5 mV. After encapsulation of avian influenza vaccine, the average size was 397 nm and Zeta potential was 4.29 mV. The highest HI antibody titer results were shown in chicken group vaccinated with inactivated avian influenza virus AIV-chitosan followed by the group vaccinated with inactivated AIV-chitosan nanoparticles then the group vaccinated with oil inactivated AIV vaccine, on using chicken antigen at 2 weeks post second vaccination...
November 8, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108563/the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-intestinal-integrity-and-salmonella-invasion-in-broiler-birds
#3
Alhanof Alhenaky, Anas Abdelqader, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104934/imaging-the-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-cath-2-mechanism-of-attack-and-regulation-of-inflammatory-response
#4
Viktoria A F Schneider, Maarten Coorens, Johanna L M Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, George Posthuma, Albert van Dijk, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial host defense peptide (HDP) that may serve as a paradigm for the development of new antimicrobial agents. While previous studies have elucidated the mechanism by which CATH-2 kills Escherichia coli, its mode of action against Gram-positive bacteria remains to be determined. In this study, we explored the underlying antibacterial mechanism of CATH-2 against a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of CATH-2-mediated S...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090342/recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-ha2-antigen-elicits-protective-immunity-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-chickens
#5
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Xin Yang, Seria-Masole Shonyela, Liang Zhao, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan Wang, Jin-Hui Zhao, Chun-Feng Wang
Low pathogenic H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can lead to moderate respiratory symptoms and low egg production rates in poultry. Due to its immunologic suppression, other various infectious pathogens give rise to the co-infection of hosts, causing heavy economic losses in the commercial poultry industry in both China and worldwide. Therefore, it is time to explore a novel, safe, and effective vaccine. We have already made use of the surface of Lactobacillus plantarum to display AIV HA2 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-HA2), which demonstrated that it has a good immunogenicity...
December 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070686/the-infectious-laryngotracheitis-virus-iltv-viral-chemokine-binding-protein-glycoprotein-g-alters-the-transcription-of-key-inflammatory-mediators-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Mauricio J C Coppo, Joanne M Devlin, Alistair R Legione, Paola K Vaz, Sang-Won Lee, José A Quinteros, James R Gilkerson, Nino Ficorilli, Patrick C Reading, Amir H Noormohammadi, Carol A Hartley
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens, causing upper respiratory tract disease and significant losses to poultry industries worldwide. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a broad range viral chemokine-binding protein conserved amongst most alphaherpesviruses, including ILTV. A number of studies comparing immunological parameters between infection with gG-expressing and gG-deficient ILTV strains have demonstrated that expression of gG is associated with increased virulence, modification of the amount and composition of the inflammatory response and modulation of immune responses towards antibody production and away from cell-mediated immune responses...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985721/a-descriptive-pilot-study-of-cytokine-production-following-stimulation-of-ex-vivo-whole-blood-with-commercial-therapeutic-feline-hydrolyzed-diets-in-individual-healthy-immunotolerant-cats
#7
Aarti Kathrani, Jennifer A Larsen, Gino Cortopassi, Sandipan Datta, Andrea J Fascetti
BACKGROUND: Hydrolyzed diets are used in companion animals for the diagnosis and treatment of adverse food reaction. Similarly, hydrolyzed formulas are used in human infants with severe inflammatory bowel disease or milk allergy, and these must meet the standard of hypoallergenicity through rigorous testing. Unfortunately, no standards are currently applied to hydrolyzed veterinary therapeutic diets, and data for the immunogenicity of feline diets is also not available. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to determine if ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays could be used to characterize the cytokine response to hydrolyzed commercial diets in a small number of individual healthy immunotolerant cats...
October 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980228/female-reproductive-system-and-immunology
#8
Yukinori Yoshimura, Animesh Barua
Health of the reproductive organs is essential for formation and production of high quality and hygienic eggs. It is of importance to review the structures and functions of female reproductive system for better understanding of the mechanism by which the eggs are formed. The unique functions of ovarian cells for follicular growth and differentiation as well as steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation are regulated by gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. The oviduct is responsible for egg formation, while the unique function to store sperms for a prolonged period takes place in the specific tissue of this organ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956996/understanding-immune-resistance-to-infectious-bronchitis-using-major-histocompatibility-complex-chicken-lines
#9
A P da Silva, R Hauck, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914464/expression-of-caveolin-1-in-the-interfollicular-but-not-the-follicle-associated-epithelial-cells-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-of-chickens
#10
Ildikó Bódi, Krisztina Minkó, Orsolya Fölker, Zsófia Benyeda, Balázs Felföldi, Attila Magyar, Anna Kiss, Vilmos Palya, Imre Oláh
The surface epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius consists of interfollicular (IFE) and follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The IFE comprises (i) cylindrical-shaped secretory cells (SC) and (ii) cuboidal basal cells (BCs). The FAE provides histological and two-way functional connections between the bursal lumen and medulla of the follicle. We used a carbon solution and anti-caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to study the endocytic activity of FAE. Carbon particles entered the intercellular space of FAE, but the carbon particles were not internalized by the FAE cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865011/general-introduction-to-drebrin
#11
Tomoaki Shirao, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin was first discovered by our group as "developmentally regulated brain protein" from the chicken optic tectum. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein, which is classified into two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing from a single DBN1 gene. The isoform predominantly expressed in the adult brain (drebrin A) is neuron specific, containing a neuron-specific sequence (Ins2) in the middle of the molecule. Drebrin A is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, and its accumulation level is regulated by synaptic activity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863166/the-novel-lyme-borreliosis-vaccine-vla15-shows-broad-protection-against-borrelia-species-expressing-six-different-ospa-serotypes
#12
Pär Comstedt, Wolfgang Schüler, Andreas Meinke, Urban Lundberg
We have previously shown that the Outer surface protein A (OspA) based Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 induces protective immunity in mice. Herein, we report the induction of protective immunity by VLA15 with mouse models using ticks infected with B. burgdorferi (OspA serotype 1), B. afzelii (OspA serotype 2) and B. bavariensis (OspA serotype 4) or with in vitro grown B. garinii (OspA serotype 5 and 6) for challenge. For B. garinii (OspA serotype 3), we have developed a growth inhibition assay using chicken complement and functional antibodies targeting B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854912/development-and-validation-of-a-house-finch-interleukin-1%C3%AE-hfil-1%C3%AE-elisa-system
#13
Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E Leon, James S Adelman, Dana M Hawley, Rami A Dalloul
BACKGROUND: A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody...
August 30, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727033/the-effect-of-age-and-carbohydrate-and-protein-sources-on-digestibility-fecal-microbiota-fermentation-products-fecal-iga-and-immunological-blood-parameters-in-dogs
#14
A P J Maria, L Ayane, T C Putarov, B A Loureiro, B P Neto, M F Casagrande, M O S Gomes, M B A Glória, A C Carciofi
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726209/characteristics-of-mel-ibr-melanoma-line-subclone-after-treatment-with-chicken-embryo-extract
#15
N M Suraeva, L F Morozova, O O Ryabaya, Yu A Khochenkova, A V Samoilov, O S Burova, N V Golubtsova, A E Barmashov, M A Baryshnikova
We continue analysis of the phenotype of human melanoma cell Mel Ibr subclone obtained previously by treatment of the parental cell line by chicken embryo extract. The present study is focused on detection of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition that determine enhanced metastatic and invasive potential of malignant tumors of various locations. Analysis of the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin genes in the subclone and parental cells detected activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the subclone...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676793/immune-responses-of-chickens-infected-with-wild-bird-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus
#16
Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Runyu Yuan, Haili Ma, Bin Xiang, Zhaoxiong Wang, Xu Dai, Fumin Wang, Jiajie Xiao, Ming Liao, Tao Ren
Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283) in Pallas's sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015), whereas a virus (i.e., SW8) isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619143/a-bacterial-ghost-improves-the-immunological-efficacy-of-a-newcastle-disease-virus-inactivated-vaccine
#17
Wei Si, Shenye Yu, Henggui Liu, Chunlai Wang, Liping Chen, Gaoling Wang, Jianan Wu, Siguo Liu
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most common contagious viral infectious diseases of poultry. Vaccination is an effective way to protect chickens from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and large efforts have been made to acquire not only new vaccines but also new adjuvants to improve the efficiency of existing inactivated vaccines. Here, we observed the adjuvanticity of the bacterial ghost (BG) on the effectiveness of inactivated NDV vaccine in a chicken model. We found that BG, as an adjuvant with inactivated NDV vaccine, substantially strengthened the ND-specific antibody response and protection against lethal challenge in a chicken model, reduced viral shedding, strengthened the time duration of antibody titers, produced an available immunization effect with a low dose of vaccine, and improved serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615130/different-breeds-different-blood-cytometric-analysis-of-whole-blood-cellular-composition-in-chicken-breeds
#18
Barbora Bílková, Zuzana Bainová, Jozef Janda, Lukáš Zita, Michal Vinkler
While haematological variation is well known in birds, variation in avian breeds (distinct morphotypes of the same species) remains unexplored. Poultry breeds, in particular, may show interesting evolutionary patterns and economically-relevant physiological differences. We performed a comparative examination of blood cellular composition in five chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) breeds: Araucana, Booted bantam, Czech, Minorca and Rosecomb bantam. In standard-environment-reared hens whole-blood flow cytometry revealed remarkable differences in most erythrocyte- and leukocyte-related parameters...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#19
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#20
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
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