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Chicken Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208594/immunomodulatory-and-anti-ibdv-activities-of-the-polysaccharide-aex-from-coccomyxa-gloeobotrydiformis
#1
Qiang Guo, Qiang Shao, Wenping Xu, Lei Rui, Ryo Sumi, Fumio Eguchi, Zandong Li
A number of polysaccharides have been reported to show immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against various animal viruses. AEX is a polysaccharide extracted from the green algae, Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis. The aim of this study was to examine the function of AEX in regulating the immune response in chickens and its capacity to inhibit the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), to gain an understanding of its immunomodulatory and antiviral ability. Here, preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that the polysaccharide AEX can activate the chicken peripheral blood molecular cells' (PBMCs) response by inducing the production of cytokines and NO, promote extracellular antigen presentation but negatively regulate intracellular antigen presentation in chicken splenic lymphocytes, and promote the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and DT40 cells...
February 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178957/immunological-aspects-of-the-efficiency-of-protectotype-vaccination-strategy-against-chicken-infectious-bronchitis
#2
Marcin Smialek, Bartlomiej Tykalowski, Daria Dziewulska, Tomasz Stenzel, Andrzej Koncicki
BACKGROUND: One of the most commonly applied protectotype vaccination protocol against infectious bronchitis (IB) in broiler chickens in the EU is simultaneous or alternate use of Ma5 and 4/91 vaccine strains. After IB vaccination and infection, systemic and upper respiratory tract (URT), humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI), are stimulated. The level of this stimulation correlates with the level of protection against IB. RESULTS: We've investigated the development of URT and systemic, cell-mediated and humoral immunity in commercial broiler chickens vaccinated with Ma5 and/or 4/91 strains at hatch day...
February 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149670/expression-and-regulation-of-cholecystokinin-receptor-in-the-chicken-s-immune-organs-and-cells
#3
Seham El-Kassas, Solomon Odemuyiwa, George Hajishengallis, Terry D Connell, Toufic O Nashar
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that affects growth rate in chickens by regulating appetite. CCK peptides exert their function by binding to two identified receptors, CCKAR and CCKBR in the GI tract and the brain, respectively, as well as in other organs. In mammals, CCK/CCKAR interactions affect a number of immunological parameters, including regulation of lymphocytes and functioning of monocytes. Thus, food intake and growth can potentially be altered by infection and the resulting inflammatory immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131368/a-live-attenuated-mutant-of-salmonella-montevideo-triggers-il-6-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-12-cytokines-that-co-related-with-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-required-for-reduction-of-challenge-bacterial-load-in-experimental-chickens
#4
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (SM) mutant JOL1599 was constructed by deletion of virulence-associated genes. The protective efficacy and immune response profiles of chickens immunized with JOL1599 were investigated. Immunized chickens demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG and lymphocyte proliferative responses (P≤0.05). Increased levels of IL-6, INF-γ, and IL-12 were also observed. Immunized birds strongly responded to infection by rapid stimulation of a CD4+ subset of T cells...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100167/conserved-gene-expression-in-sperm-reservoirs-between-birds-and-mammals-in-response-to-mating
#5
Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente Carrillo, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098886/novel-zinc-phthalocyanine-as-a-promising-photosensitizer-for-photodynamic-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#6
Weronika Kuzyniak, Jacob Schmidt, Wojciech Glac, Janine Berkholz, Gustav Steinemann, Björn Hoffmann, Eugeny A Ermilov, Ayşe Gül Gürek, Vefa Ahsen, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gathered much attention in the field of cancer treatment and is increasingly used as an alternative solution for esophageal cancer therapy. However, there is a constant need for improving the effectiveness and tolerability of the applied photosensitizers (PS). Here, we propose tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a promising PS for photodynamic treatment of esophageal cancer. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity was studied in two human esophageal cancer cell lines: OE-33 (adenocarcinoma) and Kyse-140 (squamous cell carcinoma)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063704/immunization-with-salmonella-enteritidis-secreting-mucosal-adjuvant-labile-toxin-confers-protection-against-wild-type-challenge-via-augmentation-of-cd3-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-enhancement-of-ifn-%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-10-expressions-in-chicken
#7
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
The protective efficacy and immunological profiles of chickens immunized with an attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) constitutively secreting double mutant heat labile enterotoxin (dmLT) were investigated. The dmLT is a detoxified variant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin and is a potent mucosal adjuvant capable of inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In this study, four-week-old chickens were inoculated with SE-dmLT strain JOL1641, parental SE strain JOL1087 or phosphate buffered saline control...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061467/cytological-study-on-the-regulation-of-lymphocyte-homing-in-the-chicken-spleen-during-lps-stimulation
#8
Qian Zhang, Yasir Waqas, Ping Yang, Xuejing Sun, Yi Liu, Nisar Ahmed, Bing Chen, Quanfu Li, Lisi Hu, Yufei Huang, Hong Chen, Bing Hu, Qiusheng Chen
The immune function of the chicken spleen depends on its different compartments of red and white pulps, but little is known about the mechanism underlying lymphocyte homing towards the different compartments. In the present study, the role of lymphocyte homing in the chicken spleen was investigated during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Morphological analysis demonstrated the cuboidal endothelial cells of the splenic sheathed capillary facilitated the passage of lymphocyte homing to the chicken spleen...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057573/characterization-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-platycodon-grandiflorus-jacq-a-dc-affecting-activation-of-chicken-peritoneal-macrophages
#9
Pimiao Zheng, Wentao Fan, Shenghua Wang, Pan Hao, Yang Wang, Huiyu Wan, Zhihui Hao, Jianzhu Liu, Xiaona Zhao
Polysaccharides were isolated from Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) and the effects of three polysaccharides (PGPS80, PGPS60, PGPSt) on their immunological activities were studied. The structure identification of PGPSs was assessed using physicochemical and spectral methods. Results showed that PGPSt(2.67×10(5)Da) compared to PGPS80(1.01×10(5)Da) and PGPS60(1.12×10(5)Da) has relatively higher average molecular weight(Mw) at the first peak with a narrower molecular weight distribution and all consisted of glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in different mass percentages...
January 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010157/evaluation-of-immune-response-in-challenged-chickens-vaccinated-with-newcastle-disease-vaccine-using-gums-from-cedrela-odorata-and-khaya-senegalensis-as-delivery-agents
#10
V O Oyebanji, B O Emikpe, Omolade A Oladele, M O Odeniyi, A Salami, O I Osowole, O B Kasali, O A Akinboade
Immune response of challenged chickens following previous vaccinations with Newcastle disease vaccine using gums from Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis as delivery agent were evaluated. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) one-day old chickens were divided into vaccine-gum oral (GVOR), vaccine-gum ocular (GVOC), vaccine oral (VOR), vaccine ocular (VOC), gum oral (GOR), gum ocular (GOC), No-gum-no-vaccine/challenged (NGNV/C) & No-gum-no-vaccine/unchallenged (NGNV/U) groups. They were vaccinated at days 21 & 42 and challenged at day 84...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#11
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853585/domestication-and-tameness-brain-gene-expression-in-red-junglefowl-selected-for-less-fear-of-humans-suggests-effects-on-reproduction-and-immunology
#12
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817787/-effect-of-montelukast-sodium-intervention-on-airway-remodeling-and-percentage-of-th17-cells-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-in-asthmatic-mice
#13
Li Li, Chun-Yan Lou, Min Li, Jian-Bo Zhang, Jie Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic changes in the percentage of Th17 cells/CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells after intervention with montelukast sodium, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in asthmatic mice and the association between them. METHODS: Balb/c mice were randomly divided into blank group, asthma group, and montelukast sodium group. The asthmatic mouse model of airway remodeling was established by sensitization with intraperitoneal injection of chicken ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminum hydroxide suspension and aerosol inhalation of OVA...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800150/immunoglobulin-detection-in-wild-birds-effectiveness-of-three-secondary-anti-avian-igy-antibodies-in-direct-elisas-in-41-avian-species
#14
Carol A Fassbinder-Orth, Travis E Wilcoxen, Tiffany Tran, Raoul K Boughton, Jeanne M Fair, Erik K Hofmeister, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Jen C Owen
Immunological reagents for wild, non-model species are limited or often non-existent for many species.In this study, we compare the reactivity of a new anti-passerine IgY secondary antibody with existing secondary antibodies developed for use with birds. Samples from 41 species from the following six avian orders were analysed: Anseriformes (1 family, 1 species), Columbiformes (1 family, 2 species), Galliformes (1 family, 1 species), Passeriformes (16 families, 34 species), Piciformes (1 family, 2 species) and Suliformes (1 family, 1 species)...
October 2016: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785128/virulence-associated-genes-deleted-salmonella-montevideo-is-attenuated-highly-immunogenic-and-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-chickens
#15
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John H Lee
To construct a novel live vaccine against Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (SM) infection in chickens, two important bacterial regulatory genes, lon and cpxR, which are associated with invasion and virulence, were deleted from the wild type SM genome. Attenuated strains, JOL1625 (Δlon), JOL1597 (ΔcpxR), and JOL1599 (ΔlonΔcpxR) were thereby generated. Observations with scanning electron microscopy suggested that JOL1625 and JOL1599 cells showed increased ruffled surface which may be related to abundant extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747653/in-vitro-immunological-and-biological-evaluations-of-the-angiogenic-potential-of-platelet-rich-fibrin-preparations-a-standardized-comparison-with-prp-preparations
#16
Mito Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Kawase, Kazuhiro Okuda, Larry F Wolff, Hiromasa Yoshie
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative mainly composed of fibrin networks, has been increasingly demonstrated to be effective in wound healing in clinical and pre-clinical animal studies. However, there has still been a concern that major growth factors may significantly be loss from PRF during its preparation through the slow clotting process. To address this concern, we compared the angiogenic potential of PRF and PRP by standardization of procedures based on volume ratios...
December 2015: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692091/marek-s-disease-virus-immunosuppression-alters-host-cellular-responses-and-immune-gene-expression-in-the-skin-of-infected-chickens
#17
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692048/infectivity-of-wild-bird-origin-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-and-vaccine-effectiveness-in-chickens
#18
Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Sameera Akhtar, Yi Tang, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Azhar Alam, Diwakar Santhakumar, Venugopal Nair, Muhammad Munir
Newcastle disease virus, a prototype avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), causes economically devastating disease in avian species around the world. Newcastle disease is enzootic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are frequent in multiple avian species even after continuous and extensive use of vaccines. A number of APMV-1 and pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) strains have been isolated and genetically characterized in recent years. However, the impact of recently characterized wild bird-origin APMVs in domestic poultry, and the potency of routinely used vaccines against these novel and genetically diverse viruses remain unknown...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631618/novel-reassortant-h5n6-influenza-a-virus-from-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-is-highly-pathogenic-in-chickens
#19
Jeffrey Butler, Cameron R Stewart, Daniel S Layton, Phouvong Phommachanh, Jennifer Harper, Jean Payne, Ryan M Evans, Stacey Valdeter, Som Walker, Gemma Harvey, Songhua Shan, Matthew P Bruce, Christina L Rootes, Tamara J Gough, Andreas Rohringer, Grantley R Peck, Sarah J Fardy, Adam J Karpala, Dayna Johnson, Jianning Wang, Bounlom Douangngeun, Christopher Morrissy, Frank Y K Wong, Andrew G D Bean, John Bingham, David T Williams
Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People's Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619928/evolutionary-consequences-of-a-decade-of-vaccination-against-subtype-h6n2-influenza
#20
Dionne Rauff, Christine Strydom, Celia Abolnik
The evolutionary dynamics of chicken-origin H6N2 viruses isolated in South Africa between 2002 and 2013 were investigated. Sub-lineages I and II continued to co-circulate under vaccination pressure, but sub-lineage I, from which the inactivated vaccine was derived, displayed a markedly higher mutation rate and a three-fold increase in the emergence of potential antigenic sites on the globular head of HA compared to sub-lineage II. Immunological pressure culminated in a critical phenotypic change as four of the five isolates from 2012 to 2013 had lost the ability to haemagglutinate chicken erythrocytes, correlating with a pattern of predicted O-glycosylation sites at residues 134, 137 and 141 within the critical 130 loop of the receptor binding domain site...
November 2016: Virology
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