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Dopamine D2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548579/genetic-variation-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-oprm1-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-drd2-is-related-to-smoking-differences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#1
Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Michael J Bly, Vicki L Ellingrod, Gregory W Dalack, Edward F Domino
It is not known why mentally ill persons smoke excessively. Inasmuch as endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems are involved in smoking reinforcement, it is important to study mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G (rs1799971), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A (rs1800497) genotypes, and sex differences among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia (n=177) and bipolar disorder (n=113) were recruited and genotyped. They were classified into three groups: current smoker, former smoker, and never smoker by tobacco smoking status self-report...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547577/pramipexole-overdose-associated-with-visual-hallucinations-agitation-and-myoclonus
#2
Adeline Cardon-Dunbar, Tom Robertson, Michael S Roberts, Geoffrey K Isbister
INTRODUCTION: Pramipexole is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist used to treat idiopathic Parkinson's disease and primary restless legs syndrome. There is limited information on pramipexole overdose. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old male ingested 3 mg pramipexole, 2250 mg venlafaxine, 360 mg mirtazapine, with suicidal intent. He presented alert, had normal vital observations and normal pupillary reflexes. He was mildly agitated, reported visual hallucinations and was given 5 mg diazepam...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547130/extracellular-dopamine-acetylcholine-and-activation-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-after-selective-breeding-for-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#3
Haiyang Xu, Sasmita Das, Marc Sturgill, Colin Hodgkinson, Qiaoping Yuan, David Goldman, Kenneth Grasing
RATIONALE: The low self-administration (LS)/Kgras (LS) and high self-administration (HS)/Kgras (HS) rat lines were generated by selective breeding for low- and high-intravenous cocaine self-administration, respectively, from a common outbred Wistar stock (Crl:WI). This trait has remained stable after 13 generations of breeding. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to compare cocaine preference, neurotransmitter release, and dopamine receptor activation in LS and HS rats...
May 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546312/prefrontal-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-regulate-dissociable-aspects-of-decision-making-via-distinct-ventral-striatal-and-amygdalar-circuits
#4
Nicole L Jenni, Joshua D Larkin, Stan B Floresco
Mesocortical dopamine (DA) regulates a variety of cognitive functions via actions on D1 and/or D2 receptors. For example, risk/reward decision making is differentially modulated by these two receptors within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with D2 receptors enabling flexible decision making and D1 receptors promoting persistence in choice biases. Yet, it is unclear how DA mediates opposing patterns of behavior by acting on different receptors within the same terminal region. We explored the possibility that DA may act on separate networks of PFC neurons that are modulated by D1 or D2 receptors and in turn interface with divergent downstream structures, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544038/supplementation-with-herbal-extracts-to-promote-behavioral-and-neuroprotective-effects-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Ianara Mendonça da Costa, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Dinalva Brito de Queiroz, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Amália Cinthia Meneses do Rêgo, Irami Araújo Filho, Paulo Parente, Marco Antônio Botelho, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen
Parkinson's disease (PD) consists of a neurodegenerative pathology that has received a considerable amount of attention because of its clinical manifestations. The most common treatment consists of administering the drugs levodopa and biperiden, which reduce the effectiveness of the disease and the progress of its symptoms. However, phytotherapy treatment of PD has shown great potential in retarding the loss of dopaminergic neurons and minimizing the behavioral abnormalities. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use of supplemental herbal plants with cellular protective effect and behavioral activity in in vivo and in vitro experimental models...
May 22, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542034/dopamine-d2-receptor-affinity-of-antipsychotics-in-relation-to-subjective-well-being-in-patients-with-a-psychotic-disorder
#6
Iris E de Wit, Floor A van Dijk, Carin J Meijer, Mirjam J van Tricht, Lieuwe de Haan
Dopamine D2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic medication reduces psychotic symptoms, but may reduce subjective well-being. The current study aims to further explore the relation between dopamine D2-receptor affinity and subjective well-being within a large sample of patients with psychotic disorders. Patients participated in a longitudinal naturalistic cohort study: the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Three groups of antipsychotic medication were created on the basis of their affinity for the D2-receptor: (i) loose or partial agonistic binding, (ii) moderate binding, and (iii) tight binding...
May 24, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533164/a-novel-iron-ii-preferring-dopamine-agonist-chelator-d-607-significantly-suppresses-%C3%AE-syn-and-mptp-induced-toxicities-in-vivo
#7
Banibrata Das, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Gnanada S Joshi, Liping Xu, Dan Luo, Julie K Andersen, Sokol V Todi, Aloke K Dutta
Here, we report the characterization of a novel hybrid D2/D3 agonist and iron (II) specific chelator, D-607, as a multi-target-directed ligand against Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previously published report, we showed that D-607 is a potent agonist of dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptors, exhibits efficacy in a reserpinized PD animal model and preferentially chelates to iron (II). As further evidence of its potential as a neuroprotective agent in PD, the present study reveals D-607 to be protective in neuronal PC12 cells against 6-OHDA toxicity...
May 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531297/mechanisms-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-potentiation-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-function-in-quinpirole-induced-locomotor-sensitization-in-rats
#8
Angélica P Escobar, Marcela P González, Rodrigo C Meza, Verónica Noches, Pablo Henny, Katia Gysling, Rodrigo A España, José A Fuentealba, María E Andrés
Background: Increased locomotor activity in response to the same stimulus is an index of behavioral sensitization observed in preclinical models of drug addiction and compulsive behaviors. Repeated administration of Quinpirole (QNP), a D2/D3 dopamine agonist, induces locomotor sensitization. This effect is potentiated and accelerated by co-administration of U69593, a kappa opioid receptor agonist (KOR). The mechanism underlying KOR potentiation of QNP-induced locomotor sensitization remains to be elucidated...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531264/cariprazine-exhibits-anxiolytic-and-dopamine-d3-receptor-dependent-antidepressant-effects-in-the-chronic-stress-model
#9
Vanya Duric, Mounira Banasr, Tina Franklin, Ashley Lepack, Nika Adham, Béla Kiss, István Gyertyán, Ronald S Duman
Background: Cariprazine, a D3-preferring dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist, is a new antipsychotic drug recently approved in the US for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania. We recently demonstrated that cariprazine also has significant anti-anhedonic-like effects in rats subjected to chronic stress; however, the exact mechanism of action for cariprazine's antidepressant-like properties is not known. Thus, in this study we examined whether the effects of cariprazine are mediated by dopamine D3 receptors...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#10
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#11
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#12
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525823/development-and-validation-of-a-reversed-phase-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-radiochemical-purity-in-123-i-ibzm
#13
Shiou-Shiow Farn, Yuen-Han Yeh, Chang-Chin Li, Ching-Shiuann Yang, Jenn-Tzong Chen, Chung-Shan Yu, Wuu-Jyh Lin
[(123)I]IBZM is used widely for in vivo imaging of D2 receptors in human brain and shows relatively fast kinetics and a greater susceptibility to synaptic dopamine release than other single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radioligands. A reliable and reversed-phase HPLC method using UV/VIS and radiometric detectors has been developed for qualitative analysis of BZM and IBZM and radiochemical purity in [(123)I]IBZM preparations. The method uses gradient elution on a Zorbax XDB C-18 column with a mobile phase that consists of 10mM 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (DMGA), pH 7...
April 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525574/a-schizophrenia-related-deletion-leads-to-kcnq2-dependent-abnormal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-interneuron-activity
#14
Se Joon Choi, Jun Mukai, Mirna Kvajo, Bin Xu, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Bin Gou, Joseph A Gogos, Hui Zhang
Altered prefrontal cortex function is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) pathophysiology and could arise from imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local circuits. It remains unclear whether and how such imbalances relate to genetic etiologies. We used a mouse model of the SCZ-predisposing 22q11.2 deletion (Df(16)A+/- mice) to evaluate how this genetic lesion affects the excitability of layer V prefrontal pyramidal neurons and its modulation by dopamine (DA). Df(16)A+/- mice have normal balance between E/I at baseline but are unable to maintain it upon dopaminergic challenge...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523234/the-effect-of-comt-val158met-and-drd2-c957t-polymorphisms-on-executive-function-and-the-impact-of-early-life-stress
#15
Kristel Klaus, Kevin Butler, Simon J Durrant, Manir Ali, Chris F Inglehearn, Timothy L Hodgson, Humberto Gutierrez, Kyla Pennington
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has indicated that variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) may influence cognitive function and that this may confer vulnerability to the development of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. However, increasing evidence suggests environmental factors such as early life stress may interact with genetic variants in affecting these cognitive outcomes. This study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress in healthy adults...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#16
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521704/dopamine-d2-receptors-dimers-how-can-we-pharmacologically-target-them
#17
Marco Carlia, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Stefano Aringhieri, Mario Rossib, Luca Giovannini, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
Dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are important pharmacological targets in Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Intriguingly, many studies have shown that they form homo- and heterodimers, and they can be targeted in specific tissues with new drugs. In this direction, many efforts have been made to develop new molecules that are able to interact with these receptor dimeric complexes. Among various strategies for targeting dopamine receptors dimers, two distinct classes of compounds, such as bivalent and bitopic ligands, have gained particular attention and their use in pharmacology looks promising...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520722/altered-detrusor-contractility-in-mptp-treated-common-marmosets-with-bladder-hyperreflexia
#18
Sara Pritchard, Michael J Jackson, Atsuko Hikima, Lisa Lione, Christopher D Benham, K Ray Chaudhuri, Sarah Rose, Peter Jenner, Mahmoud M Iravani
Bladder hyperreflexia is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease. We now report on the contractility of the isolated primate detrusor strips devoid of nerve input and show that following MPTP, the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contraction was increased. These responses were unaffected by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists A77636 and ropinirole respectively. Contractions by exogenous carbachol, histamine or ATP were similar and no differences in the magnitude of noradrenaline-induced relaxation were seen in detrusor strip obtained from normal and MPTP-treated common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516479/g%C3%AE-s-signalling-of-the-cb1-receptor-and-the-influence-of-receptor-number
#19
David B Finlay, Erin E Cawston, Natasha L Grimsey, Morag R Hunter, Anisha Korde, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Michelle Glass
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CB1 cannabinoid receptor signalling is canonically mediated through inhibitory Gαi proteins, but signalling through other G proteins occurs under some circumstances; Gαs being the most characterised secondary pathway. Determinants of this signalling switch identified to date include Gαi blockade, CB1 /D2 dopamine receptor co-stimulation, CB1 agonist class, and cell background. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of receptor number and ligand dependence on CB1 signalling...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516430/ramelteon-improves-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-like-behaviors-exhibited-by-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-null-mice
#20
Yasushi Yabuki, Ibuki Takahata, Kazuya Matsuo, Yuji Owada, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) knockout (Fabp3 (-/-)) mice exhibit abnormal dopamine-related behaviors such as enhanced dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy behaviors. Here, we report that Fabp3 null mice exhibit cognitive deficits, hyperlocomotion and impaired fear extinction, and thus show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors. Notably, chronic administration of ramelteon (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.), a melatonin receptor agonist, improved all PTSD-like behaviors tested in Fabp3 (-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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